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art stellar resume February 27, 2015. Thesis Ukm Online! A resume is write essays comparison a short, typically one page , document designed to capture why you are a competitive applicant. Often, a resume is the thesis ukm online, recruiter’s first impression of you. It’s a great opportunity to essay learning, present a clear, concise image of why you are the candidate to interview. A resume isn’t your LinkedIn profile; it’s not an essay, and it’s not a catalog of everything you’ve ever done since birth. Instead, think about a resume as a one page vessel carefully crafted to thesis, display your skills and achievements most relevant to your job of choice. Most importantly you’ve got limited space!

Now is a stellar opportunity to showcase your ability to essay learning experience, edit, write intentionally, and be detail oriented. Below we’ve outlined guidelines to make sure your resume stands out and ukm online reflects your best attributes: Make it Relevant, but Rich Formatting Fundamentals Control Fluff Spell Check, Spell Check, Spell Check Make it Printable Link Up! Customize It. Your resume’s primary goal is to give an employer a brief but vivid snapshot of anecdotal essay you as an applicant. How do you do that? Make sure anyone can easily find all of the most important details in ukm online, one page. Be sure to include all pertinent experience, but be selective. Start with your strengths such as skill set, projects, education, and work experience. Highlight your achievements, and not just job titles, throughout (ie. “successfully designed, launched, and coded mobile application for XYZ.com using photoshop, XHTML, CSS”) . When writing, use action verbs, avoid cliche buzzwords, and show personality. Since you can customize your resume for eksempel godt essay each job application, make sure the information is clear, concise and thesis relevant each time. Since you only have an 8.5 x 11 inch sheet to work with, use space and text wisely.

Include your contact information (name, email and phone) at the top of write comparison your resume. Ukm Online! Fonts for your name should be no more than 12 pt or 14 pt. Fonts for the body should be 10 pt or 11 pt. Essay! If you need extra space to include details about your qualifications, don’t be afraid to adjust the margins. A half inch top margin is appropriate. Avoid looking cluttered, but be resourceful with how you use your blank space.

You only have one page to thesis, include your talents and experiences, so only eksempel godt essay share what is pertinent to your goal and the job responsibilities. If you have skills that don’t relate to thesis, the job, consider if it is necessary. Remember a resume is your story, so don’t let irrelevant information distract from your intended message. 4. Spell Check, Spell Check, Spell Check. You are entering a field where details MATTER. How perfect and detailed your resume is, is essential. Check spelling, punctuation, and make sure your writing is easy to read.

Phew this one’s simple: the preferred file type for resumes is .pdf. This preserves all layout and formatting for viewing and printing. Liberty Other! Don’t worry, you don’t need expensive software to create a .pdf file, there are plenty of PDF converters available online. Make your resume more informative by thesis, providing links to your LinkedIn profile, your portfolio, a Github account, and reflective learning experience any other relevant online media. Thesis! These are often placed at the top with your contact information, or within your skills and presentation experience area. Thesis! You resume is a living document, just like you! Keep it up-to date so that it matches your professional growth and job interests.

Be sure that it reflects the job to which you are applying (that means taking the time to edit your resume each and every time). Once you start writing, keep in sara, mind the following resume checklist for additional tips on content and format! Contact Information Summary/ Objective: ( Optiona l) Summaries are helpful to include when you are “rebranding” yourself, making a career change, perceiving a lack of thesis ukm online related professional experience, or if you are open to a wide range of job prospects. Objectives are best used when you have a specific type of position in mind. If you feel the body of your resume and experience already tell a clear story on their own, you may not need this section. Use your discretion. Technical skills * Be specific and include programming languages. Generally, place this section near the top of your resume. Godt! Work experience Educational experience * Projects/ Coursework * Links to thesis, online work/profiles ( Highly encouraged ) Interests ( Optional, but encouraged ) References ( Not necessary ) This section is best left off resume unless specifically requested.

If you do, be sure to notify your references before giving out their contact information. *reference your Nanodegree here. Clear Organized Uses one full page wisely Appropriate margins font sizes Saved in phd dissertation presentation, .pdf format Error free spelling punctuation. Resumes the thesis, Nanodegree Student The Common Concerns: Questions about resumes range, but the most common Nanodegree student questions revolve around career change, perceived lack of essay liberty experience, and how to showcase your Nanodegree education. Below are a few quick tips to address these questions: Career change: Focus on your summary (put near the thesis, top of your resume), current skills completed projects. Follow this information with your education and work history. Comparison! If your previous work experience seems unrelated, consider if there are translatable skills that you can mention (ie.: customer service skills show that you have soft skills and can work with others).

By highlighting these concrete strengths in all sections of your resume, you can connect the dots and ukm online display how you are a well rounded candidate. Anecdotal Records! Showcase your skills: Reference projects you’ve completed in ukm online, the “Projects” section. Even though you can’t attach a functioning hyperlink on a paper resume, include links to your Github account and portfolio so that a curious recruiter can continue their research easily. Highlight your Nanodegree: If you are completing a Nanodegree, include this under the sara thesis, “Education” section. Note what you did beyond the thesis ukm online, assigned work (top forum contributor, tested a new API for phd dissertation presentation ppt a project to thesis, personalize it, etc). S how your Udacity experience: Add the online courses (Udacity and other) you’ve completed in anecdotal records, a “Relevant Coursework” section.This provides concrete examples of thesis your skills and phd dissertation shows you are driven, all while taking up minimal space on your resume. If this information proved helpful (or you simply want more!), check out a more in-depth presentation in our webinar, which you can watch here . Thesis Ukm Online! The webinar will introduce you to sara sadri, resumes, how-to tips, and reviews of actual student resumes and LinkedIn profiles!

Elyse is an adult educator with a background in higher education, academic advising, and online learning. With a passion for helping others, Elyse is a lifelong learner who believes curiosity is the key to happiness. 2011-2017 Udacity, Inc. Sign up for thesis Udacity blog updates to get the latest in guidance and inspiration as you discover programming, web development, data science, and more.

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Graffiti Art: An Essay Concerning The Recognition of thesis ukm online, Some Forms of liberty, Graffiti As Art. Phil 651 Aesthetics. Graffiti art is an art form. The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to why it is an art form far outweigh the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. The objective of this paper is to explain how graffiti art overcomes these concerns and thereby can be considered as an art form.

Suppose that Leonardo, Monet, Picasso, or any of the thesis ukm online recognized artisans of Western European culture were alive in the present day. Then, suppose that one of these famous artists decided to paint a masterpiece on the side of your house or on your front door or on a wall in your neighborhood. Would Picasso or Monet's markings be graffiti or art or vandalism or graffiti art? The answer may vary across people, but I would claim that those markings are art in the form of graffiti. Their markings would qualify as vandalism only if they appeared on private or public property without permission. The same answer holds for the present day, genre of graffiti known as graffiti art. Graffiti art originated in the late 1960's, and write comparison, it has been developing ever since.

However, it is not readily accepted as being art like those works that are found in a gallery or a museum. It is not strictly denied the thesis ukm online status of genuine art because of a lack of form or other base aesthetic elements. Most of the sara opposition to graffiti art is due to its location and bold, unexpected, and unconventional presentation, but its presentation and often illegal location does not necessarily disqualify it as art. In this paper, I elucidate how some forms of graffiti can be accepted as art. Thesis Ukm Online! This type of graffiti is known as graffiti art, subway art, or spraycan art. The arguments of vandalism and unconventional presentation as negating the ability of some graffiti to be art is usurped by an explanation of those properties apparent in some forms of graffiti that do qualify it, aesthetically, as art. To show this, I provide a historical context of graffiti, and then I provide persuasive evidence that graffiti art is art. The origins of graffiti go back to the beginnings of essay other, human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was preserved on thesis ukm online, walls in Pompeii.

Graffiti is the write plural form of the Italian word grafficar. In plural, grafficar signifies drawings, markings, patterns, scribbles, or messages that are painted, written, or carved on a wall or surface. Grafficar also signifies to scratch in reference to different wall writings ranging from cave paintings, bathroom scribbles, or any message that is ukm online scratched on walls. Godt Essay! In reference to ukm online, present day graffiti, the definition is qualified by adding that graffiti is also any unsolicited marking on a private or public property that is usually considered to be vandalism. There are various forms of graffiti. Write Comparison! One of the simplest forms is that of individual markings such as slogans, slurs, or political statements. Examples of this type of graffiti commonly are found in ukm online bathrooms or on exterior surfaces, and this graffiti is usually handwritten. Another simple form is that of the tag which is a fancy, scribble-like writing of one's name or nick-name. That is, tag signifies one's name or nick-name.

Both the anecdotal records essay tag or individual mark have little or no aesthetic appeal. While they might suggest a flair or style of thesis, writing, these forms fail to qualify as example of superb graffiti art because of a lack of aesthetic qualities and inability to produce a maximal aesthetic feeling in the viewer. In fact, the tag or individual mark is anecdotal records not produced for artistic purposes. It is basically a means to indicate the writer's presence, i.e., the thesis ukm online age old statement of I was here. Gang markings of territory also fit the liberty definition of thesis, graffiti, and they mainly consists of tags and messages that provide news of happenings in the neighborhood. Murals for community enhancement and beautification are also a form of graffiti even though they are not usually thought of this way because most murals are commissioned. These are more colorful and complex. Essay! They take considerable amount of ukm online, skill to complete, and murals can be done in a graffiti art style or a traditional pictorial scene. Thesis! The last form of graffiti is graffiti art which is the creative use of spraypaint to produce an thesis, artwork that is graffiti or done in a graffiti-like style, and this the is the liberty other concern of thesis ukm online, this discussion. Modern graffiti art originated in New York City, and phd dissertation presentation ppt, it was known first as New York Style graffiti. This art form began in the late 1960's when teens used permanent markers to tag or write their names, followed by the number of the street on which they lived, in subway cars.

This trend originated with the appearance of Taki 183 which was the tag of a Greek American boy named Demitrius. Tagging soon became a way to get one's name known throughout the city. However, it should be noted that tagging appeared in Philadelphia before New York. The monikers, Cornbread and Top Cat were well known in ukm online Philadelphia, and when Top Cat's style appeared in New York, it was dubbed as Broadway Style for its long skinny lettering. The advent of the spraypaint allowed for eksempel godt, the tag to ukm online, develop in size and color. For it was not enough just to have one's name scrawled over any available and visible surface because everyone was doing this.

The spraycan separated the taggers from the artists in eksempel godt that color, form, and thesis ukm online, style could be emphasized creatively with this new tool to produce s tag as a part of an overall artistic production. The tag which is monochromatic and a writing style that just about sadri, anyone can do, gave way to the throw-up, which is a two color tag usually in outline or bubble-like lettering. Again this style is not too difficult, but soon more complicated styles evolved. The stamp is ukm online a little harder and involves the use straight letters to produce a 3-D effect. The piece, which is short for masterpiece, appeared next, and it is a large multicolor work. A production is a piece that is usually on the scale of a mural, and it involves original or familiar cartoon characters in write essays addition to the writer or graffiti artist's name. It should be noted that every graffiti form listed involves the artist's name, whether as the central feature or as an ornament within the piece because writers want to be known. Hence, finding new and creative ways to display one's tag in thesis ukm online a highly visible place, as opposed to just scribbling it everywhere, was the fundamental force spurring the development of modern graffiti art. In the write comparison middle to thesis ukm online, late 1970's, writers started painting subway trains; thus the name, subway art. Train painting was instrumental to the development of graffiti art because the trains became the stage for the style wars which was a time when everyone who wanted to be recognized as the liberty best artist or the King or Queen of a subway line got- up, i.e., painted trains as often as possible. If one's name was on a train in a colorful and unique style, it was guaranteed to be seen by many people; most importantly by the other writers, because the subway trains in New York City travel in circuits throughout different boroughs.

To be a King or Queen one could not just get-up or simply paint his or her name in a thousand different places. Ukm Online! On the contrary, style and artistic talent were and continue to be extremely important. The goal was and learning experience, is to create burners which are pieces that stand out because of creativity, color, vibrancy, crisp outlines, i.e. no drips, and overall artistic appeal. It is the thesis ukm online recognizable artistic talent of the graffiti artist that established his or her reign on the subway line and not just the appearance of s name in a thousand different places. The styles that emerged with the previously mentioned forms during this time were round popcorn or bubble letters, wildstyle which is an intricate, interlocking type of calligraphy that is difficult and almost impossible to anecdotal records, read, computer and gothic lettering, 3-D lettering, fading which blends colors, and the use of cartoon characters. The ability to produce complicated pieces is what separates the tagger from the graffiti artist; graffitist for short. Thesis Ukm Online! Taggers scribble and graffitists do art.

The high visibility of the anecdotal essay train and the potential audience encouraged more artists to participate in this new form of art. Despite New York City's vigorous anti-graffiti efforts the style flourished and soon influenced artists in cities all over the world. The biggest promotional vehicle for graffiti art worldwide has been the Hip-Hop phenomenon which is the culture associated with rap music. Subway art now is termed as spraycan art because subway trains are no longer the canvas of choice. Besides, every graffitist could not possibly do all of his or her work on subway cars because of laws, police, and the dangerous environment of the subway yards and lay-up stations.

Ironically, the ukm online latest innovation in spraycan art has been that of freight art in which graffitists paint railroad, freight cars with the expectation that their artwork will travel across the United States and throughout the continent. There are two major questions associated with the essay liberty other explanation of graffiti. One, who is responsible for it, and two, why do graffitists produce spraycan art. To the surprise of most people, graffiti art is not the sole possession of poor, urban, lower-class American kids. Not only do half of the thesis ukm online graffitists come from Caucasian middle-class families, but there are graffitists all over presentation ppt, the world. When asked, What sorts of kids write graffiti?, police officer Kevin Hickey of the New York Transit Police Department's graffiti squad replied, The type of kids that live in New York City. They range from the ultra-rich to the ultra-poor.

There is thesis no general classification of the kids Graffitist range in age from 12-30 years old, and there are male and female artists. In the past, graffiti artists usually worked alone, but the size and complexity of pieces as well as safety concerns motivated artists to comparison, work together in crews, which are groups of graffitists that vary in membership from 3 to thesis, 10 or more persons. A member of anecdotal, a crew can be down with, i.e., affiliated, with more than one crew. Thesis! To join a crew, one must have produced stylish pieces and show potential for developing his or her own, unique style. A crew is headed by a king or queen who is usually that person recognized as having the best artistic ability among the members of the crew. The reasons and phd dissertation presentation, values for why one might engage in graffiti art are as varied as the artists who produce it. A chief reason is the prospect of fame and recognition of one's artistic talent. Graffiti is also a form of self expression. The art as writing is a creative method of communicating with other writers and the general public.

What it communicates is the artist's identity, expression, and ideas. Judgments are based solely on one's artistic ability. Thesis! This type of communication is of value because it links people regardless of cultural, lingual, or racial differences in way that nothing else can. In addition, producing graffiti art with a crew builds team work in that the crew works together for the accomplishment of a common goal. The feeling of this achievement in league with others is of value to the artist. Sara Sadri Thesis! In his book, Graffito, Walsh notes that some graffitists view their art as a ritual transgression against a repressive political and economic order. For some artists see themselves as revolutionaries reacting against the established art market or gallery system in thesis ukm online that art is not only that which appears in records the gallery as determined by the curator. Some artists also view their creations on public and private spaces as a statement against Western ideas of capitalism and thesis, private property. Of course, the other majority of graffitists enjoy what they do and find it to be fun, rewarding, and exciting. Although these reasons are valid, they do not conclusively settle the ukm online matter as to why graffiti art is art or why it is a valid art form despite its illegal origins. Graffiti as seen and presentation, experienced on the New York City subway trains and that which developed into the modern-day form of spraycan art is art.

The production of graffiti art includes established techniques and styles, and ukm online, the art form also is characterized by a standard medium; spraypaint. For example, novices are taught how to use spraypaint according to various styles and how to adjust nozzles as well as how to fit and use other types of aerosol caps onto spraycans for different artistic effects. The forms of graffiti art have developed through the years from the mere gestures of essays comparison, tagging to established conventional practices of the graffiti art world such as creating the tag according to a method, like wildstyle, that makes it an ukm online, integral, flowing element of the overall piece. In addition, graffiti art is not a spontaneous activity like tagging in the form of fancy scribble. The completion of a piece or a production involves a great deal of imagination, planning, and effort. The graffitist first does a sketch. Then he or she plans out characters and selects colors. Next, the artist selects his or her canvas or surface and does a preliminary outline, followed by a filling in of colors and ornamentation, and then the final outline is completed. Graffiti can also be analyzed according to the elements of lines, color, and structures that are present in the work in order to produce a narrative about it. Another significant reason why graffiti art can be viewed as art is by considering the producer's intention.

Graffitists intend their work to be apprehended as art that can communicate feelings and ideas to the audience. This is in line with Tolstoy's mandate that art must allow people to express ideas and share in each other's feelings via the artwork. Plus, graffiti art has a function of essay experience, not only communicating to others, but it also beautifies the community by appearing on areas that normally would be eyesores, such as a wall in a vacant lot or an abandoned building. Ukm Online! Furthermore, all of the aesthetic properties and criteria from the base element of eksempel essay, color to the complex issue of artist intention which are ascribed to other works in ukm online order to characterize them as art can all be found in examples of spraycan art. The only difference between those works in a gallery or museum and graffiti art in eksempel godt terms of ukm online, how and why the latter is not readily accepted as art is due to its location and presentation. Indeed the issues of essay, location and presentation are the most significant obstacles to a wholehearted acceptance of spraycan art as art. Thesis! Graffiti art cannot be disregarded simply because it is not presented in the conventional location and manner, i.e., framed and placed in a museum or gallery. The location of it on a wall or subway without permission only makes it unsolicited art. As such, it can be called vandalism, but again, this does not disqualify it as art.

Rather the categorization of graffiti art as unsolicited art that is vandalism only justifies a removal of it from the surface. On the other hand, the vandalism aspect of eksempel, graffiti art can be considered as a uniqueness and thesis ukm online, not a detracting feature of the art form because as vandalism, graffiti art is very temporary. A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and anecdotal records, take twenty to thirty cans of paint and at least eight hours to produce might be gone in a matter of minutes. Another challenge to graffiti art is that it is forced upon the public because people have no say in thesis ukm online its production despite the fact that public funds are used to remove it. Graffitists counter with the argument that buildings, billboards, campaign ads, and flyers are also forced on the public in a similar manner. Spraycan art suffers other criticisms because of the generic characterization of all graffiti as being gang related and simply a matter of reflective, tagging. However, only 20% of graffiti is gang related [ed. note: according to Walsh, who mentions this number in thesis _Graffito_. Eksempel! Because he used anecdotes from LA and San Francisco to thesis ukm online, obtain his figures, and it is not known what definition of gang he refers to, this number is questionable.], and it should be noted that not all instances of graffiti art are good examples of the art form; just like not all framed artistic creations are good examples of eksempel essay, painting or even worthy of being called art. Graffiti is thesis also criticized for write essays comparison, being too hard to understand, but certainly this cannot keep graffiti art from being art anymore than the thesis obscurity of abstract art or Picasso's cubism prevents either one of those hard to understand art forms from being considered as art.

Goldman's aesthetic theory is of use to clarify the problem of location and presentation in relation to graffiti art. Goldman claims that art takes us to other worlds in a manner that is quite fulfilling sensually and aesthetically. This removal from the write real world is thesis ukm online enhanced by the mood of the sara thesis gallery or the dark setting of the opera house. Thesis Ukm Online! Most of the time when we encounter art and phd dissertation ppt, are transported by thesis, it to other worlds, we are in a location in which we expect this to happen. However, this is not the case with graffiti art. For it appears suddenly and in unexpected places. Experience! Thus, when we apprehend it, we are transported to thesis, these other worlds at a time and in a place that we are not accustomed to doing so. We are not used to art approaching us outside of conventional settings such as a museum. Instead of the audience going to view the art form, spraycan art reaches out to the viewer; sometimes in a startling manner. One can only essay experience imagine how shocking and surprising it might have been to see a colorful train moving swiftly through the dingy stations and drab boroughs of New York City.

Spraycan art is an thesis ukm online, art form that is completely open to records, the public because it is not hemmed in by the confines or laws of the gallery system or the museum. Perhaps, this is its only crime. The institutional theory, in brief, mandates that art is ukm online that which is displayed by the art world to be accepted as art as determined by the members of the write art world. Since graffiti art is not permanently established in any galleries or museums, often it is argued that it is not art, but even this criticism falls short because there are instances where the art world has recognized graffiti art as art. In the 1970's, galleries in New York and Europe brought graffiti to the attention of the thesis ukm online art world. Lee Quinones, a prominent writer in New York and one of the few graffitists to bomb, i.e., paint, a whole train from top to bottom and end to end, was invited to exhibit his work on canvas in Claudio Bruni's Galleria Madusa in Rome. Likewise, Yaki Kornblit of Denmark, an comparison, art dealer, helped to launch the careers of several graffitists during the years of 1984 and 1985 at thesis Museum Boyanano von Beuningen in Rotterdam. Jean Paul Basquiat collaborated with Andy Warhol for joint paintings in 1985.

And recently, in 1996, Barry McGee, also known by his tag, Twist, was commissioned to do a graffiti art mural for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. As graffiti was introduced to the art world, two trends happened. One, the phd dissertation presentation ppt art world of collectors, dealers, curators, artists, and the like helped graffitists evolve in style, presumably by thesis ukm online, sharing their artistic knowledge with the ppt newcomers. Two, the exposure helped to expand graffiti to all parts of the thesis world. Furthermore, cities such as LA and sara, Chicago have recognized the talent of graffitists by providing a means for them to do legal graffiti art which has helped to foster the thesis art form and godt essay, lessened the amount of graffiti art that appears in the city as vandalism. Likewise, organizations of graffiti artists such as the Phun Factory or the United Graffiti Artists in thesis New York solicit places to do legal graffiti such as abandoned buildings, businesses, or community walls in parks. What this shows is that some graffiti, particularly in the form of spraycan art, is recognized as art by the art world.

This recognition of records essay, graffiti art by the art world is important for two reasons. One because of the social, political, and economic influence of the ukm online art world, its recognition of graffiti art as art helps to reflective essay experience, increase the awareness and overall understanding of the art form. Two, this recognition prevents the sweeping generalization that all graffiti is vandalism and therefore something that always should be eradicated. For in actuality, spraycan art does not necessarily have to be illegal or on a wall to ukm online, be considered as graffiti art, although, philosophically, this might be the purest essence of the art form. What matters is that the art is produced according to a graffiti art style. So examples of art works that are produced on canvas with spraypaint and in eksempel a graffiti style can be considered as spraycan art. And the exhortation that graffiti should be on a visible private or public space in order to thesis ukm online, be in its optimal context is not so much to glorify any illegalities but rather, to reflective learning experience, highlight the idea that graffiti is thesis ukm online meant to be completely accessible to the public for immediate appreciation. Also, the increasing acceptance of graffiti art is not due so much to its adoption of traditional techniques. On the anecdotal essay contrary, books, magazines, movies, and the artists themselves have helped people to understand how and where graffiti harmonizes with and goes a step beyond traditional methods. For example, wildstyle changes with each artist's interpretation of the alphabet, but it also relies on the use of primary colors, fading, foreground and background, and the like to thesis ukm online, create these letters. Anecdotal Records Essay! Thus, it is important and valuable to thesis ukm online, characterize some forms of graffiti as art because this challenges people, who are conditioned to accept art works as art only if they are created in a traditional manner and essay liberty other, appear in institutional setting, to appreciate art works that originate and develop outside of these constraints.

In doing so, people come to thesis, realize graffiti is not an art form that is done just for phd dissertation presentation ppt, the sake of rebellious destruction. Quite the opposite, it is an innovative and truly original art form that is ukm online meant to bring an aesthetic pleasure to the audience like any other recognized art form. In summary, some forms of graffiti become art according to four criteria. First, graffiti art is separated from everyday graffiti markings by the artist's intention to produce a work of art. Second, graffiti art has an established history of development in style and technique. Third, graffiti art even has been recognized by the art world. A fourth criterion is that the essay liberty public response to graffiti art indicates that it is art. Whether or not all of the public agrees that graffiti art is good, bad, or extremely valuable is a different discussion about evaluation and not whether or not graffiti art is art. The evaluative concerns actually play more into thesis, where, when, and how graffiti art should be displayed.

The above criteria are defensible in so much as they have been used to legitimize other artistic forms. However, what appears to reflective essay learning, be the most significant answer to describing how and why graffiti art is art is the notion of understanding where the thesis ukm online artist and the audience synchronize in godt agreement about a particular work being an example of art. It is a matter of comprehending what makes a creation art for the artist and what makes this same creation art for the audience. When and according to ukm online, what criteria that these two viewpoints coincide is what thoroughly determines graffiti art as art. Reflective Experience! And like other art forms, graffiti art is definitively art when both the thesis artist and the audience agree on the works ability to provide maximal aesthetic satisfaction.

While it is almost impossible to formulate a theory of essay liberty, necessary conditions or rules specifying when graffiti art is art, I think it is sufficient to draw on already established aesthetic theories and criteria to point out that some forms of graffiti do qualify as art. Therefore, graffiti in the form of spraycan art is art. It has form, color, and other base properties as well as an arrangement of these elements into structures that qualify it aesthetically as being art. Just doing something with spraypaint might make it graffiti, but it does not necessarily qualify it as art or graffiti art. In addition, when the spraycan art is analyzed according to the artist's intention and thesis ukm online, value to sadri thesis, audience, there is even more evidence to suggest that it is genuine art. The only obstacle that has hindered the general acceptance of thesis, graffiti art is its location and presentation. Comparison! However, the instances of acceptance of graffiti art by the art world shows that conventional methods of presentation are not all that matters in thesis ukm online determining if something is art.

And graffiti art is not to be disqualified as art simply because it might appear unsolicited. In short, graffiti in the form of spray can art is liberty art like any other work that might be found in a gallery or a museum. Castleman, Craig. Getting Up. Ukm Online! Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.

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Small Business Financing Startup Costs. Money makes your business go, and thesis ukm online usually banks make loans only to businesses with operating histories. Reflective Essay Learning Experience! In this session we will give you some alternatives, strategies, and things to thesis think about in your search for reflective essay learning experience, financial help. Thesis! You will learn how to locate, negotiate for, and maintain sources of money to sara sadri help you start and expand your business. Money makes your business go. But don't try going to a bank to get it when you've just started in business. Banks normally make loans only to ukm online businesses with operating histories. This section will give you some alternatives, some strategies and some things to think about write essays comparison, as you go about finding the ukm online, money to eksempel essay make your business work. A banker's primary concern is your timely repayment of loans. The fuel to thesis ukm online make loan payments come from your cash flow. So your management of cash flow is of utmost interest to your banker and you must convince the banker that you are an expert in making cash flow projections that safely include your loan payments.

Here is essays more information on cash flow which is taken from session one of our Business Expansion course. As pointed out in the first session on picking a business, don't be discouraged by not having much money to start with. Many businesses can be started with no money at all. You can start small and humbly and thesis grow one order at a time. Here is a sample, partial list of essay learning, businesses you can start with very little cash: Businesses You Can Start for Little or No Money. Our first reminder is that personal savings should be considered the primary source of funds for starting a business.

If you haven't started already, start now to begin accumulating cash through personal savings. Also, don't overlook the Small Business Administration (SBA) loan guarantee programs available for start-up businesses. With a SBA guarantee program in thesis ukm online hand, your bank will be happy to talk with you! Finally, start your search for financing with a good credit rating. Most all sources of financing or credit have come to rely on a four-letter word to score your credit worthiness: FICO. FICO is a numeric method, using just three digits, to predict the likelihood of paying your credit as agreed. Presentation! FICO scores range from 365 (not good) to a high of 850 (great). Ukm Online! The score evaluates your credit payment history, number of phd dissertation presentation ppt, open accounts, overall credit balances and public records such as judgments and liens. Generally, a FICO score above 680 will produce a positive response while a score below this will cause a lender to be cautious.

Before seeking financing or credit, it is a good idea to know where your FICO score stands. Thesis! A number of credit cards now provide your FICO score on your monthly statement. You can also visit myFICO.com to purchase your credit score and to review your credit reports. Or, how much can you reasonably expect to get? Refer back to your business plan. If it still doesn't answer the write comparison, question, let's go step-by-step. In Session 11, Accounting and Cash Flow, you will learn how to thesis predict future cash needs by essay, using a cash flow control form. The cash flow control form will spell out all of your sources of income and expenses. For example, some expense items might include: Buying supplies and inventory while waiting to get paid Paying payroll and rent Buying equipment and fixtures Getting a computer Buying the business.

Prioritize those areas where your options are limited to paying in cash, and review your alternatives where there may be another way. For example, it is not necessary to pay all cash for thesis ukm online, a delivery truck when you can rent or lease one. Essay! Next, review what might serve as collateral for your loans. Some credit is granted on an unsecured basis, such as credit cards, but most small business loans are secured by the assets of your business, your personal assets, or both. Unsecured means that there is no collateral granted for the loan. Examples of unsecured are.

Credit cards Unsecured lines of credit (like you get in the mail) Friends or relatives. Secured loans mean that there are assets pledged to secure the payment in the event you are not able to pay. Ukm Online! Examples of this are. Computer lease Home mortgage Car loan or lease Small Business Administration loan. Common types of collateral are equity in your home, accounts receivable, inventory of the eksempel, business and equipment. Lenders go through an evaluation of the collateral to determine how much they can lend. Thesis Ukm Online! Some key variables as to records essay what kind of loan terms you can get are.

Number of thesis, years in business - This is your track record and is very important. Banks usually require three years while others are less stringent. Size of sadri, your company and ukm online the amount needed - Financing institutions vary in the way they service the public. For example, you would probably not get a car loan and a large corporate loan at the same place. Do your research. Ask around.

Get to the right spot. You are most likely familiar with a straight loan (debt) where the lender gets an reflective essay interest rate and fees. Equity is ukm online where the money raised gives the phd dissertation presentation ppt, investor an ownership interest. Thesis! This is common in sara thesis the sale of stock to a limited number of thesis ukm online, investors or participation by venture capitalists. The sale of stock is highly regulated by phd dissertation, state and federal agencies and you will need the help of thesis, a corporate lawyer. Normally the initial sale of stock to anecdotal records essay the public (initial public offering or IPO) is thesis deferred until an essay other earnings history is thesis established. Sometimes such a discussion arises with friends and family who want to be your partner. Consider this carefully because they will then participate in the increased value of the business and sara thesis have voting rights. It is well beyond the scope of this discussion to cover all the aspects of debt and thesis equity.

Just be careful! Your lawyer and accountant would be appropriate sources for more information on this subject. Entrepreneurs have a wide variety of options when it comes to funding. Below is a list of possible options for a small business to research and consider regarding lender types. Terms will vary considerably from lender to lender; important issues to consider: As an entrepreneur, you will be legally obligated to have individual responsibility for the credit obligation of your business.

Regardless of legal organization (covered in Session 5), lenders will have documentation to eksempel godt circumvent the organizational structure. This is usually called a personal guarantee. Don't panic! It is very common. Lending options for small businesses: Personal Savings Friends and Family Banks/Credit Unions Home Mortgages (Traditional or Second) Peer-to-Peer (Prosper, Lending Club) SBA Loans Micro-Finance Options (Accion, Opportunity Fund, Grameen Foundation) Alternative Lenders (Kabbage, Dealstruck, Fundation, Funding Circle, OnDeck) Crowd Funding (Indiegogo, Kickstarter, RocketHub, Peerbackers) Equity Funding Venture Capital Angel Investment Commercial Mortgage Specialized Lenders (Industry expertise, auto, business brokers, high-tech, specialized equipment, etc.) Lending Companies (OneMain) Finance Companies. This starts by knowing what your lender wants.

A common way is to simply ask. A better way is to ask a friend or business advisor such as your CPA. Thesis! Our session 5, Business Organization, includes a comprehensive list of professionals that can help you. For a business loan, the most common things are. Business financial statements Business tax returns Business plan with budget or projection Personal financial statements Personal tax returns. Be ready to sara answer questions about thesis ukm online, your business, and be ready to highlight your financial performance both in phd dissertation presentation the past and in the future.

You will be more impressive if you have carefully thought out and become familiar with your plan. Bring your accountant if you need help. Be prepared to tell lenders why you need the money. I just need the money, does not inspire confidence or the fact that you have thought it through. Earlier in this session, you studied a number of different purposes.

Give them some detail. Propose a repayment plan. Thesis Ukm Online! Examples of different structures are. A line of credit, payable at your discretion but subject to eksempel godt renewal annually by the bank Term loan payable monthly over ___ years starting on ____ date. Most places have some flexibility. Potential lenders appreciate that you are thinking about paying them back instead of ukm online, just getting the money. Needless to say, being well dressed and neat in reflective essay experience appearance at bank meetings will reflect positively. Most lenders (including the SBA) will want to see your business plan. Keep your lenders informed on the status of your business: the good and thesis ukm online the bad.

If you are unable to make a loan payment on time, call your lender in advance, advise him or her of the problem and request the extension you need. Explain the sources of repayment. Virtually all lenders will do a personal savings and corporate credit check through a company called TRW or by other means. Be prepared to discuss any prior credit issues/problems. The best access to a lender is sadri through a referral.

Lending is a people business. Have your CPA, attorney, or friend introduce you to a lender. The first thing that will spook lenders or investors is the ukm online, fear you are puff rather than substance. Avoid giving the impression of being an over optimistic, pie-in-the-sky operator. Records Essay! As a start-up, do not plan to spend money on expensive entertaining. Your lenders will be more interested in knowing how their money is being used to grow your business.

Do not depend on a bank to loan you money to start a business. Most small businesses are funded by personal savings. Make a shrewd appraisal to minimize your risks and to limit losses to a predetermined limit. Thesis Ukm Online! Your suppliers and vendors can be sources of financing. For example, if you need an illuminated sign for your storefront, the godt essay, company you contract with to make the sign may provide financing so you can make monthly payments rather than pay cash. Examples of financing from your suppliers include Longer payment terms Advertising and marketing assistance Furnishing or financing of equipment, signs or inventory.

Advertising and promotional programs Bartering, which is to trade by exchange one commodity for another, can provide a source of financing. For example, your advertisements in the local newspaper might be paid for by the bagels you make! Getting the money is only the first step. You should strive to be a good customer so you can get cooperation if you need help later. Ukm Online! A good customer sticks to his/her agreement. Make sure you understand the requirements and essay other perform to thesis them as much as possible. In a business relationship, lenders will ask for regular financial statements, which you should produce on time. There may be covenants. A covenant is other a written agreement in which you promise to meet specified obligations such as submitting the agings of ukm online, your accounts receivable. The agings report will show the lenders if your credit customers are paying on time or not.

Be proactive. Contact them if there is a problem. Be sure to stay in touch even if nothing new is presentation going on. Get to the next highest level within the organization. Sources of financing can surface from ukm online, unexpected sources: List at least five of them: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________. Some possible answers are. Suppliers: Ask for longer terms of payment.

Your landlord: Ask the eksempel essay, landlord to provide you with tenant improvements. Your customers: Ask for either cash or prompt payment. Thesis! Your capital investments: Ask the phd dissertation, suppliers of your fixtures, equipment and thesis ukm online signs to finance your purchases. Write! They will be interested in thesis doing so in order to get your business. Live frugally and begin saving up money now to start your own business. Use your cash flow projection as your key tool to determine financing required. Complete a business plan for meetings with potential lenders or investors. Have your business plan critiqued by appropriately informed people. Revise as necessary. Ask the Small Business Administration for advice. (Have your business plan with you.) Maintain a current financial information packet including financial statements and recent tax returns.

Consider bartering services if appropriate. Use your CPA or attorney as referrals to lenders. Write Essays Comparison! Keep your lenders informed of your progress and thesis ukm online any potentially adverse events. If you need a loan for 6 months, ask for 12 months to be on the safe side. Expect a bank to help finance your new business.

Ask for a loan without a detailed repayment plan in hand. Records! Overlook vendors and landlords (for tenant improvements) as sources of financing. Avoid being the bearer of bad news to your lender. Ask for ukm online, less than enough to meet your realistic needs. Exaggerate. (Instead, be conservative in your presentations to lenders.) Write a check without adequate funds in your bank account. Risk losing your home by taking a Home Equity loan unless you are certain of your ability to repay. Sign personal guarantees unless absolutely necessary. Budget or spend money on expensive entertaining of potential lenders. Business Plan for Session 4: Financing the Business. You can continue to learning assemble your business plan. We provided Microsoft Word templates for ukm online, this section below:

The full template for anecdotal records, all sessions can be downloaded as one document: Featured Video: Sources of Funding for New Small Businesses. Featured Video: What do business investors look for?

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Informatiile sunt prelucrate automat pentru a-ti oferi instant datele specifice care te intereseaza. Godt. Ai acces la o interfata prietenoasa pentru a gasi simplu si rapid tot ceea ce te intereseaza. Mentiuni in BPI (Buletinul Procedurilor de Insolventa) Dore?ti sa actualizezi datele firmei ALL BUSINESS PLAN SRL ? Firma ALL BUSINESS PLAN SRL a avut o cifra de afaceri (CA) totala de 384 558 RON. Ukm Online. Cifra de afaceri pentru firma ALL BUSINESS PLAN SRL este descrescatoare. Essay. Cifra de afaceri totala reprezinta suma totala a veniturilor din operatiunile comerciale efectuate de firma(facturate) in ukm online, perioada 2014 - 2015 si nu include TVA-ul. Sara Sadri. Profitul firmei ALL BUSINESS PLAN SRL este in crestere pentru perioada - 2015. Thesis. Pentru a afla datele financiare, informatii despre datoriile la bugetul de stat, cum este vazuta firma de catre ANAF (activa/ inactiva), mentiunile in Arhiva Garantiilor Imobiliare, deschide un cont aici. Profitul net reprezinta venitul unei firme, dupa adaugarea veniturilor totale si dupa ce s-au scazut cheltuielile si pierderile.

Repartizarea dosarelor pe Stadiu Procesual. Repartizarea dosarelor de instanta pe judete. Firma ALL BUSINESS PLAN SRL are un numar de dosare. Other. In cadrul contului pe care il vei deschide in portalul Termene.ro vei dispune de un sistem de filtrare si management avansat. De exemplu, vei putea cauta dosarele in care figureaza ca parte o anumita firma (sau institutie), poti face o selectie pe ani, judete, instante, materie juridica. In plus, toate aceste dosare pot fi monitorizate in timp real. Vei fi notificat ori de cate ori apare o schimbare in thesis ukm online, dosarele care te intereseaza. Termene.ro detine cel mai avansat sistem de verificare si monitorizare al dosarelor si firmelor din Romania.

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Essay – Medea in Apollonius Rhodius and Euripides. How and why does the thesis characterisation of essay liberty other Medea in thesis Apollonius Rhodius draw on the characterisation of the Euripidean Medea. The Argonautica is the only surviving Hellenistic epic and extant work of Apollonius Rhodius. Unfortunately little is known about Apollonius’ life, or how he viewed his work, as few extant materials refer to him[1]. Argonautica was written in the third century B.C. and broke from the Hellenistic tradition for short literary works[2]. The epic draws upon a long literary and mythological tradition that included Euripides’ Medea . Sara? Within scholarship the plays of Euripides are widely considered to be a forerunner of Hellenistic works[3]. In Argonautica this is thesis ukm online, particularly clear through the allusions Apollonius draws with his characterisation of Medea. Medea was a popular mythological subject and essays, appeared in many other works such as those of Pindar and Apollodorus[4]. These works are important in respect of the mythological traditions of Medea as they add to the understanding of the development of the myth.

However, the focus of thesis this essay will be upon the representations of Medea within Argonautica and Medea and write essays, how and why Apollonius draws upon Euripides’ characterisation. The mythology of Medea is very complex due to varying literary traditions. Euripides’ Medea is a particularly well known version of the ukm online myth; therefore, the name Medea in the minds of many brings forth his image of a passionate, angry and strong-willed woman. In mythology Medea was not always the woman who murdered her children, as depicted by Euripides. One variation of the myth tells how Medea may have killed her children by accident[5]. Another how the people of Corinth murdered them as an act of essays revenge for the murder of their princess[6]. Apollonius, instead of using either of these versions of the myth, chose to foreshadow his Argonautica with the ukm online events of Euripides’ Medea . However, there are indications Apollonius drew upon other literary influences such as Nausicaa from Homer’s Odyssey . Sara Sadri? It will be necessary to briefly consider such influences in order to assess the extent to which they embed themselves within Apollonius’ characterisation of thesis ukm online Medea. Scholarship has taken a keen interest in the representation of Apollonius’ Medea. In particular Hunter considers Medea’s ‘ suffering for love ’ in one section of his work and the intertext between Apollonius and Euripides[7]. On the other hand, Pavlock considers Medea’s passion to be dangerous and uncontrollable.

These viewpoints, amongst others, will be given due consideration[8]. Medea is a defining mythological figure and as such it is essay, important to understand how and ukm online, why Apollonius draws upon godt, Euripides. Therefore, this essay will demonstrate that Apollonius, in order to foreshadow his epic, draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea. This is undertaken through Medea’s rhetorical skills, assistance to Jason and passion whilst also making specific reference to certain images. Thesis Ukm Online? Furthermore, notwithstanding other influences from sadri thesis epic, it will also be shown that Apollonius uses this characterisation to thesis ukm online explore the reactions of the Alexandrian audience to comparison the increased personal freedom of women and the psychology of passion. The Medea’s of Euripides and Apollonius. One of the primary considerations of how Apollonius foreshadows and draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea is through her rhetorical ability.

Apollonius’ Medea is at first quiet in Jason’s presence having been ‘seized by speechless stupor’ due to the arrow of Eros[9]. However, from this point the character develops a rhetorical skill attuned to that of Euripides’ Medea. The dispute between Jason and Medea, following her discovery of the secret negotiations with the Colchian fleet, recalls the couple’s first argument within Euripides’ Medea [10]. In each instance Medea delivers a carefully constructed speech which denounces Jason’s behaviour. Euripides’ Medea commences her speech focusing on the wrongs Jason has committed. Medea then recounts her sacrifices, recalls the oath Jason broke and ends her speech considering what she is to do, calling upon the gods.

Apollonius’ Medea starts by questioning what Jason has planned for her. She then reminds him of thesis ukm online his oath, her sacrifices and proceeding to consider what will become of her she calls upon the gods. The chastisement of Jason by Medea evokes and rewrites her agon in Medea [11]. Essay Learning Experience? It is particularly noteworthy that Medea’s speech written by Apollonius follows a similar pattern to Euripides’, one an thesis audience familiar with Medea would recognise. This argument can be considered further through the supplications of Medea in both works. Each of eksempel godt essay these is intended to ensure Medea’s self-preservation; Circe cleanses her blood guilt, Creon stays her exile and Arete and Aegeus provide protection from her enemies[12].

Apollonius appears to have drawn on Euripides’ characterisation of Medea as a survivor, able to thesis ukm online use her rhetorical skill in order to secure what she requires. Records? This is drawn out thesis ukm online through the language and actions of Medea’s supplications. Each instance is undertaken on her knees putting herself in the appropriate position of respect to the person hearing her request[13]. Anecdotal Records Essay? Furthermore, the language used on each occasion is comparable, ‘Show kindness to me!…Take pity on thesis me…May the immortals grant you both a life of fulfilment…children, and essay experience, the glory of an unravaged city’ Medea declares to Arete[14]. Likewise to Aegeus she states ‘have pity on ukm online an unfortunate woman…do not allow me to be cast into exile…may your longing for sara sadri thesis children be brought to fulfilment…and may you yourself die happy!’[15]. Though Medea does not ask Creon for pity the approach used in supplicating him is similar: Have no fear…I am not the kind of person to commit crimes against thesis, my rulers…And now I do not begrudge you prosperity.

Make your marriage…and may good fortune attend you[16]. The Medea of Apollonius like Euripides understands well the process and requirements of sara sadri supplication and thesis ukm online, uses it to her advantage[17]. Medea’s rhetorical skill in Argonautica and desire for self-preservation are the ‘hallmarks of Euripides’ heroine’[18]. Essay? Furthermore the specifics of the language used and description of the supplications within Argonautica parallel that of Euripides’ Medea . Ukm Online? This desire for self-preservation becomes very apparent during Medea’s supplication of Jason at the beginning of Argonautica book four[19]. Medea transforms from eksempel essay a woman in distress to a plotter of her brother’s murder, scenes reminiscent of the ruthless and determined woman who commits infanticide in Euripides’ Medea [20]. Medea’s act of thesis ukm online infanticide is motivated by anger induced by Jason’s betrayal[21]. It is this allusion Apollonius draws upon to prepare the audience for the murder of Apsyrtos[22].

The murder is attributed to sara Medea in Euripides’ Medea [23]. However, in Argonautica Jason is the murderer with Medea’s role greatly reduced to co-conspirator; Medea requires purification as she is not free from thesis guilt[24]. Apollonius’ use of ????????? (by or at liberty the hearth) for the location of Circe’s purification of Jason and Medea is similar to thesis the phraseology of Euripides[25]. During Jason’s recollection of the murder in anecdotal essay Medea he describes the location as ‘at the hearth’[26].Though Medea takes place sometime after Argonautica , through Apollonius’ use of thesis language he foreshadows situations which will occur in the future[27]. The ability to devise brilliant and eksempel essay, destructive schemes is an thesis intricate part of Medea’s character in both representations. Medea’s name means ‘The Planner’ and this skill is a consistent theme throughout Argonautica and Medea [28]. Medea’s planning secures Jason’s victory in the trials set by write Aietes (her father), enables the murder of her brother and removal of Pelias from the throne of Iolcus[29].

Without Medea’s aid Jason’s story would have ended as it was thought by the Argonauts that Aietes first trial was unachievable[30]. The potion provided by Apollonius’ Medea to Jason protects him during the thesis ukm online trial and it is she who lulls the dragon to sleep so that he may seize the reflective essay experience fleece[31]. These actions foreshadow Euripides’ Medea who declares to Jason that it was she who saved him from thesis ukm online death on two occasions, the trial of the write fire-breathing bulls and thesis ukm online, the dragon[32]. Apollonius’ decision to have Jason commit the murder places the focus on Medea’s ingenuity and cunning instead of the act itself. Anecdotal Records? There are subtle differences between the thesis ukm online works such as Euripides’ declaration that Medea killed the essay experience dragon whereas Apollonius spares its life. Though this difference exists it is clear that Apollonius was heavily influenced by the elements of Euripides’ story that focus on the aid provided by Medea. It has been suggested that, at such an early stage, Apollonius wanted to thesis ukm online ensure that Medea remained free of violence[33]. However, this difference was likely intended to develop Medea’s character as, within a short time, she begins to reveal her darker side. Write Essays Comparison? Medea declares that Jason should not break his oath or, ‘May my Furies drive you straight from your homeland, because of thesis ukm online what I have suffered through your heartlessness. What I say the gods will not leave unaccomplished’[34].

The language is reminiscent of the curses Medea calls upon Jason in Medea [35]. Comparison can also be drawn with the write essays references to Jason as the ‘vilest of knaves’, an enemy of the thesis ukm online gods and an oath breaker in Medea , descriptions similarly reflected in Argonautica [36]. Apollonius describes Medea as ‘seething with grim anger’ believing that she is at risk of abandonment and requires placating by Jason[37]. Learning? Arguably, the anger of Medea prepares the audience for the murder of her brother that follows shortly. Medea’s anger can be compared to Aietes’ when he discovers Jason’s intention to claim the Golden Fleece[38]. Medea becomes her father’s daughter and although the murder of Apsyrtos is shocking it is the climax of the sacrifices that led to it[39]. Medea’s anger in both works in thesis ukm online part results from her sacrifices in order to liberty other aid Jason.

Medea betrayed her family and homeland to runaway with a foreigner who she assists in murdering her brother[40]. The sacrifices are a key feature in Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea and there are clear indications that they are drawn from Euripides’ representation. Medea sacrificed much out of love for Jason. However, the thesis love was not romantic but instead fiery passion influenced by the gods. The passion induced by Eros is a destructive force that foreshadows the events that take place in godt essay Medea . Apollonius describes how Eros’ arrow ‘burned deep in the girl’s heart like a flame’ arousing in Medea a passion for Jason[41]. Comparison can be drawn with the description provided by Euripides of ukm online Medea being ‘smitten with love for Jason’[42]. The shooting is described by Apollonius in violent terms, Eros ‘fitted the arrow-notch to the bowstring…and shot straight at Medea…the destructive love which crouched unobserved and burnt in reflective essay Medea’s heart’[43]. This echoes the comments of Euripides’ chorus who declare that they never want the arrow of desire to ‘fly against ukm online, my heart’ or for Aphrodite to sara ‘madden my heart with love for a stranger’s bed’[44]. Medea initially under Eros’ influence is very different to Euripides’ characterisation. She is a ‘young, vulnerable girl overwhelmed by love for Jason’[45].

This indicates that Euripides is not the only influence upon Apollonius. There are allusions to Homer and during book three of Argonautica it is thesis ukm online, suggested Apollonius continuously recalls the Phaeacian episode of Odyssey whilst still reminding his audience of Medea [46]. The potential relationship of Odysseus and Nausicaa has been contrasted with the past and future of Jason and Medea[47]. There is a virgin princess who is ready for marriage but Jason like Odysseus will not stay to marry, though he will take Medea with him unlike Odysseus[48]. Furthermore the presentation ppt scene where Medea leaves to thesis ukm online meet Jason at eksempel essay Hecate’s temple is considered to imitate Odyssey book six[49].

However, Nausicaa unlike Medea would not ‘betray her own sense of shame, or her family [and] never hesitates to speak freely with Odysseus’[50]. The Nausicaa story is inverted by Apollonius and although there is some influence upon the characterisation of Medea the primary influence is Medea . Apollonius continuously returns to thesis ukm online allusions of Jason and Medea’s future. Essay Learning? Jason declares ‘may Olympian Zeus himself…witness my oath that I shall make you my lawful wedded wife’[51]. Apollonius uses this line to anticipate Medea’s appeal to the gods in Medea . The nurse recounts how Medea, ‘invokes the thesis mighty assurance of his sworn right hand, and calls the gods to witness the presentation ppt unjust return she is getting’[52]. In turn the oath in Medea becomes an thesis appeal to the oath in Argonautica [53]. Furthermore, though Athena influences Nausicaa by enhancing Odysseus’ appearance she does not experience the same destructive power of sara sadri love brought upon Medea by Eros[54]. This is best attested through Medea’s violent state of mind in Argonautica where, ‘she longed to thesis ukm online set fire to the ship, to destroy everything…and throw herself into the…flames’[55]. This foreshadows Medea’s consideration as to whether she should set fire to Jason and Glauce’s bridal chamber but also the immolation of Glauce and Creon through the wedding gift[56].

In both Argonautica and Medea love is described in terms of a powerful force which has overcome Medea. Love is described by Euripides as a ‘bane’ and Medea herself as possessing a ‘love-maddened heart’ and having shown ‘more love than sense’[57]. This language brings to mind Apollonius’ description of Medea as having ‘bitter-pain in her heart’ and suffering ‘distress’[58]. Apollonius’ use of language and imagery is very Euripidean. It does not only foreshadow the events of anecdotal records essay Medea but also creates links between the thesis ukm online characterisations. The use of clothing as part of Medea and Jason’s plot to murder Apsyrtos in Argonautica has drawn keen scholarly interest[59]. Apollonius’ description of the reflective experience deception used to lure Apsyrtos to his death is the same as that used by Euripides’ Medea to destroy Glauce[60]. This similarity is believed to be a long held recognition by Hunter but can also be considered more broadly within the wider context of Argonautica [61]. Clothing has been identified as an important theme throughout as it draws the audience to consider past or future events either within or outside the epic[62].

The description of Medea’s dress bathed in ukm online moonlight following the capture of the fleece appears as though it were a wedding dress[63]. This can be considered further as the imagery takes on a frightening aspect foreshadowing the events of Medea’s nuptial clothing gift to Glauce[64]. Comparison can also be drawn between Jason’s celebration at having captured the essay liberty fleece and the future death of Glauce. When Jason raises the fleece he is described in terms of a young girl who ‘catches in her fine dress the gleam of the full moon…her heart is delighted at thesis ukm online the sight of the lovely radiance’[65]. This simile whilst emasculating Jason for essay other having won the thesis ukm online fleece without risk to himself also brings to mind the anecdotal records image of Glauce putting on Medea’s deadly wedding gift[66]. Glauce is described as ‘arranging her hair in a bright mirror, smiling… [parading] about the room…entranced with the gifts’[67].

The parallels between the images cannot be ignored. Thesis? It is clear that Apollonius has seized upon a key incident in Euripides’ tragedy and provided ample connections that foreshadow the future death and destruction that Medea will bring to Corinth. Why Euripides’ Medea ? In the years that followed the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. the Macedonian Empire broke into separate kingdoms ruled by other his successors[68]. During this period life for Apollonius’ Hellenistic audience changed for thesis various reasons such as increased migration[69]. It became more socially acceptable for a woman to be educated and to enjoy a public role[70]. Though personal freedom increased there were still limitations on what a woman could do. However, within the kingdoms life for women would have varied considerably depending on where they lived and their political class[71]. Apollonius within Argonautica uses aspects of Medea’s characterisation as a mirror for presentation ppt the societal changes in Alexandria. Medea was first performed in Athens in the fifth century B.C.

During this period work and the influence of public opinion would have predominantly kept Athenian women at home[72]. Though some women’s work would have been within the public sphere those who remained at home would have had little freedom[73]. Thesis Ukm Online? At the beginning of the play, Medea has been fulfilling the role of an essay Athenian wife, remaining at home looking after it and the children[74]. Thesis Ukm Online? The majority of evidence of the lives of Greek women comes from Athens. However, it is important to liberty be cautious when drawing conclusions on the lives of women in wider Greek society due to the differing natures of each city state[75]. In Medea the idealistic societal structure of Athens is broken down by Medea’s emergence from the thesis home and her challenges towards her former husband in public[76]. Sadri Thesis? This can be compared with societal changes in Alexandria as women began to enjoy an increased freedom of thesis movement, particularly in comparison to Athens[77]. Medea is an ideal figure to essays comparison represent such changes in thesis ukm online society, achieved through the thesis portrayal of her enjoying the freedom to move around her country unrestricted[78]. Apollonius’ portrait is realistic as although Medea has freedom she is required to have her handmaids accompany her; though under her instruction they leave her to speak with Jason alone[79].

However, it must be noted that there is thesis ukm online, still a dependency on Aietes and ppt, subsequently Jason[80]. It might be argued that the level of dependency is variable throughout Argonautica ; for example in respect of her marriage. Medea takes control of some of her own affairs within Argonautica such as her agreement to marry Jason and thesis, contracting her own marriage[81]. Marriage for Greeks within Alexandria would have required the permission of the brides’ father or guardian[82]. Both Jason and Alkinoos are thought to phd dissertation presentation ppt act as Medea’s guardians. The former as Medea declares herself his daughter, sister and wife.

The latter as he presides over the decision whether or not to thesis return Medea to her father[83]. Neither can actually be considered to have fulfilled the role of guardian as Jason is Medea’s future husband and Alkinoos is not present at the wedding. Learning? Therefore, the agreement to marry is without her father’s consent and the marriage occurs without a guardian present. Furthermore, the Golden Fleece is considered to represent Medea’s dowry[84]. Medea secured the fleece for Jason and as such can be viewed as having paid her own dowry. Thesis? The union of phd dissertation presentation Medea and Jason is not representative of an Alexandrian marriage. Greek women, except royalty, were required to use an thesis ukm online intermediary or guardian for legal and sadri thesis, monetary transactions.

However, women using the Egyptian or Jewish legal systems could undertake such transactions themselves[85]. There is some papyrus evidence in existence that suggests women were able to undertake private contractual matters in respect of property and their marriage[86]. The first example is Olympias who contracts her own marriage with her father as legal representative[87]. Another document states that Heraclides took Demetria ‘from her father’ but the contract is indicative that the couple entered into the agreement together. The contract informs Demetria how she would resolve a breach of contract should she need to. Even though documents such as this exist it cannot be taken that women undertook contractual matters regularly. Apollonius’ portrayal of Medea indicates a changing attitude towards women and an ‘audience coming to terms with women’s power and privilege’[88]. Ukm Online? The influence of wealthy and royal women could be attributed to the development of this class of comparison Alexandrian women. It was particularly important for the privileged of Alexandrian society to thesis be highly educated[89]. Arguably the construction of the great library of Alexandria in the third century demonstrates this desire[90].

Apollonius was well-educated as demonstrated through his extensive use of mythological and geographical understanding within Argonautica [91]. Apollonius assumes his Alexandrian audience would have been aware of the mythological traditions of Medea and Jason and the story told by sadri Euripides[92]. Given the importance placed upon knowledge by Alexandrian society this assumption is plausible. Thesis? Medea is described as speechless in Jason’s presence in the first scene within Aietes palace[93]. However, Medea’s character develops during book three of Argonautica and she begins to speak freely, challenging Jason and in subsequent scenes the Argonauts.

Though there is no reference to her education by either Euripides or Apollonius the language used by Medea shows her intellect in both works. There is anecdotal records essay, evidence to suggest greater access to education for women during the Hellenistic period. The existence of prominent educated women such as Hipparchia a philosopher and Erinna a poetess provide some evidence to support this[94]. Furthermore, epigraphic evidence exists such as the gravestone of a woman from Sardis that states ‘The book shows you were wise’ suggesting she would have been educated[95]. This does not necessarily indicate that all women had access to education but instead implies that educated women were present within Hellenistic society. In some respects society became less restrictive including travel, certain contractual matters and thesis, education, but others remained such as the holding of public office[96]. Though there is evidence of one wealthy woman having held a magisterial position true equality was not possible and as such this cannot be considered to have been common[97]. Apollonius’ draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea the strong-willed woman and devises her story for the developing Alexandrian audience. Medea was refashioned for his Argonautica whilst retaining the abilities of skilled rhetorician, thinker and planner that would have been recognised by his audience. Sadri? Arguably Apollonius challenged the perspective of women in Alexandrian society through Medea.

Medea’s first appearance in Argonautica as a love-struck young girl unable to speak to Jason is ukm online, unrecognisable to the representation of Euripides[98]. Apollonius’ Medea appears more a woman overwhelmed by her first feelings of love[99]. The portrayal of Eros shooting Medea has led to the suggestion of her as a victim of violence[100]. On the other hand, the scene can be viewed ironically as the sorceress becomes subject to a spell[101]. Instead of the powerful sorceress Medea is the victim of comparison magic with her prayer to Hecate an attempt to thesis ukm online process her feelings[102]. It has been suggested that Apollonius constructed Argonautica as a prequel to Medea [103]. The evidence of Medea’s rhetorical skill, assistance to Jason and involvement in Apsyrtos’ murder would certainly support such an argument. The divergence from godt essay Euripides arguably exists to enable Medea’s character to develop.

Apollonius, in Argonautica , draws upon the complex array of emotions in Medea providing background to the feelings, setting their roots in Medea’s past. The character development of Medea throughout Argonautica books three and thesis, four indicates a progression towards her Corinthian counterpart. The psychology of love and passion explored by Apollonius is an important part of Medea’s characterisation that requires particular consideration. The development of Medea’s passion for Jason is undertaken through a dream during which she convinces herself that Jason has come to Colchis in order to marry her[104]. The dream ‘represents an essay important stage in thesis the awakening of her passion’[105]. Arguably it bridges the gap between the reflective naivety experienced during her first sighting of Jason and strength at their subsequent meeting at Hecate’s temple. Thesis? Through the course of the comparison meeting the love-struck Medea soon gives way to the more familiar characterisation of Euripides[106]. Scholarship has widely recognised that Apollonius’ Medea’s passion becomes extremely dangerous[107]. Pavlock suggests that Apollonius’ association of women with the disruption of social norms and the community is his attempt to reinforce ‘traditional views about excessive passion of the female’[108]. This is certainly an interesting consideration as the destructive nature of infatuation is widely explored in Athenian drama.

Apollonius, through associating excessive passion with Medea, also draws upon imagery from ukm online other plays. In Euripides’ Trojan Women and Hippolytus Helen and essay liberty other, Phaedra’s passions have brought about death and thesis, destruction[109]. The argument is noteworthy as Medea, like Helen, leaves with a man she barely knew and, like Phaedra, her actions result in death. Therefore, Argonautica could be interpreted as Apollonius commenting upon the negative effects of phd dissertation presentation excess passion. Medea’s threat to Jason that she will haunt him as a Fury has been considered to border on madness and thesis ukm online, foreshadow the violence of the future[110]. However, although it does foreshadow Medea’s violent future, arguably it is not madness as she is a frightened woman, grasping at reasons for Jason to not return her to her father who will punish her. There are indications that Apollonius explored the psychology of sadri women driven by passion with a Euripidean-like sympathy[111]. Euripides’ Phaedra analyses her passion for Hippolytus going through the possible options to master it; concealment, self-control and thesis ukm online, death[112]. Furthermore, Artemis’ declaration that Aphrodite is to sadri blame redeems Phaedra[113]. Thesis? Likewise, in Euripides’ Helen , it is revealed that Helen would not have left with Paris and was brought to Egypt to protect her chastity[114].

Apollonius adopts a similar analytical approach to sara sadri Medea, focusing in particular on thesis her psychology whilst also ensuring that she is eksempel godt, portrayed in a realistic way. Even though Medea is under Eros’ spell Apollonius explores the realism of her passion and developing awareness of what is affecting her[115]. The realism can be seen through Medea’s natural response to the sunrise but also her shame at falling in love with a foreign stranger and betraying her family and country[116]. Ukm Online? The sense of shame bound Greek women to follow their fathers’ instructions[117]. Shame culture was passed down through the ages and Argonautica appears as a piece of social commentary upon the culture within Alexandrian society. Within Medea’s monologue she explores her desire but also her cognitive dissonance[118]. The sense of shame that love has brought Medea leads her to consider suicide. Though Medea realises suicide will not release her as she believes she would be mocked anyway; a belief reminiscent of Euripides’ Medea[119]. Instead of portraying Medea’s passion as being disruptive Apollonius’ analysis focuses upon her emotions and decisions. When Jason and Medea first meet the audience know what is to come but at the same time it does not know[120]. The audience are aware that Medea will provide assistance to Jason and godt, leave with him but they are also presented with her decision making process.

Arguably, Apollonius used Medea to examine the psychology of ukm online passion. The division in Medea’s personality between naivety and powerful sorceress might be seen as Apollonius’ attempt to essays comparison explain the future murder of her children[121]. Alternatively Apollonius’ Medea could be looked upon as a sympathetic development of thesis her characterisation akin to Euripides. Apollonius explores the emotions of records essay love, passion and shame presenting a more realistic portrayal of ukm online Medea’s past as a prequel to Euripides’ Medea . It has become apparent that Apollonius draws upon the characterisation of the comparison Euripidean Medea in order to thesis foreshadow the events of Medea . Furthermore, Argonautica is sara sadri thesis, devised as a prequel to Euripides’ Medea through language, imagery and action. There are indications of other influences upon Medea’s characterisation from tragedy and epic but the primary focus is Medea . Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea is not limited to how it draws upon her but also why. Argonautica explores the finite increase in freedom for ukm online Alexandrian women and also the psychology of sadri passion. There are constraints on the interpretation of thesis Apollonius’ intentions due to the lack of information about him. However, despite such limitations it is sara sadri, possible to thesis ukm online draw out the following conclusions. There is a progressive development in Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea that slowly forms into her Euripidean counterpart. This is phd dissertation presentation ppt, achieved by thesis ukm online drawing upon key aspects of the essay other character created by Euripides, namely Medea’s rhetorical ability and her love of Jason. There are echoes of Euripides’ Medea’s ‘fierce nature’ in Apollonius’ description of his Medea who seethes ‘with grim anger’[122].

These aspects are interwoven with the imagery used by Apollonius that allude and foreshadow instances within Medea such as the gift of clothing presented to Apsyrtos echoing the future gift to Glauce. Apollonius explores the thesis ukm online psychology of anecdotal Medea through the representation of ukm online her being passionately and uncontrollably in phd dissertation presentation ppt love. It has been argued that Apollonius is commenting on the dangers of such passion. Ukm Online? However, it is apparent that his treatment of this subject is sensitive. Medea is shamed by her feelings and behaviour towards Jason to essay the point of wanting to commit suicide. Thesis Ukm Online? Medea’s passion though uncontrollable (due to the influence of the gods) is explored in detail by Apollonius through her thought processes.

Though also considered by Euripides the treatment is brief due to the limitations of a 1418 line play. Apollonius used the length and breadth of an learning epic to provide a more detailed analysis of thesis ukm online Medea and her actions, presenting a relatively realistic image and prequel to the Alexandrian audience. Society developed during the Hellenistic period and women enjoyed a limited increase in freedom. Euripides’ Medea, as a strong woman, provided a basis for the exploration of such freedom. Though no reference is made to Medea having had any formal education both characterisations appear educated and thesis, confident in their interactions with men. Evidence would suggest that, in this period, there was an increase in the education of women and as such Apollonius took the opportunity to represent this. Apollonius, like many modern day readers, saw something important within Medea and that is Medea herself. The fire, passion and strength immortalised by Euripides; Medea is the perfect figure for epic. Argonautica and Medea are exceptional and important works. The former as it is the only surviving Hellenistic epic and the latter as the only extant Athenian drama that deals with the Argonautic cycle. Within the myth of Medea, modern audiences find both a gripping narrative and complexity of the ukm online character development.

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Hunter, R. ‘The Poetics of Narrative in the Argonautica’, in T. Ukm Online? Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), Brill’s Companion to reflective essay learning Apollonius Rhodius (2 nd ed), Leiden: Brill, 2008, pp. 115-146. [e-book] Available at: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/ [Accessed: 4th January 2015]. Hutchinson, G. Hellenistic Poetry Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. Thesis Ukm Online? [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Kenny, E. ‘“Est deus in nobis … “: Medea meets her Maker’, in T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), Brill’s Companion to Apollonius Rhodius (2 nd ed), Leiden: Brill, 2008, pp. 363-386. [e-book] Available at: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/ [Accessed: 4th January 2015]. Klooster, J. Poetry as Window and eksempel essay, Mirror Positing the Poet in Hellenistic Poetry Leiden: Brill, 2011. Knight, V. Thesis Ukm Online? ‘Apollonius, Argonautica 4.167-70 and eksempel essay, Euripides’ Medea’ Classical Quarterly , Vol. 41, No. 1, 1991, pp.

248-250. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/639043 [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Lefkowitz, M. ‘Myth and thesis, History in the Biography of Apollonius’ in T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), A Companion to eksempel essay Apollonius Rhodius Leiden: Brill, 2001, pp. 51-72. [e-book]. Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Lefkowitz, M. Thesis? Women in reflective essay learning experience Greek Myth (2 nd ed) London: Duckworth, 2007. Levin, D. Apollonius’ Argonautica Re-examined Leiden: Brill, 1971. Luschnig, C. Granddaughter of the Sun Leiden: Brill, 2007. Meyer, D. ‘Apollonius as a Hellenistic Geographer’, in T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), A Companion to Apollonius Rhodius Leiden: Brill, 2001, pp. 217-236. Thesis? [e-book].

Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Parca, M. Phd Dissertation Ppt? ‘The Women of Ptolemaic Egypt: The View from thesis Papyrology’ in S. James and godt, S. Thesis? Dillon (eds), A Companion to Women in anecdotal records essay the Ancient World Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2012, pp.316-328. [e-book]. Available at: https://www.dawsonera.com/ [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Pavlock, B. Eros, Imitation, and the Epic Tradition Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. Pomeroy, S. Women in Hellenistic Egypt: From Alexander to ukm online Cleopatra New York: Schocken Books, 1984. [e-book] Available at: http://www.humanitiesebook.org/ [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Pomeroy, S. Goddesses, Whores, Wives and eksempel, Slaves Women in Classical Antiquity (2 nd ed) London: Pimlico, 1994. Rose, A. ‘Clothing Imagery in Apollonius’s “Argonautika”’ Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica , Vol. 21, No. 3, 1985, pp. 29-44. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20538886 [Accessed: 30th December 2014].

Shipley, G. The Greek World After Alexander 323 – 30 BC London: Routledge, 2000. Thalmann, W. Apollonius of Rhodes and the Spaces of Hellenism Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. [e-book] Available at: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Walbank, F. The Hellenistic World Glasgow: Fontana Paperbacks, 1981. [1] Lefkowitz (2001:52) states what is known of Apollonius comes from two scholia about Argonautica , an thesis entry in Suda and an entry on a damaged papyrus ( P.Oxy.1241) . [3] Gow and Page (1965:II.251) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Fraser (1972:I.599) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Klooster 2011:151. [4] Pindar Pythian 4 ; Apollodorus Library 3.13.

[5] Pausanias Description of Greece 2.3.10-1. [10] Apollonius 4.350-95; Euripides Medea 465-519. [11] Euripides Medea 465-519; Apollonius 4.350-95; Hunter, 1993:61; Hunter, 2008:142. [12] Euripides Medea 292-356, 709-19; Apollonius 4.690-748, 4.1000-28. [13] Euripides Medea 324, 710; Apollonius 4.695, 4.1029. [21] Euripides Medea 1040-64.

[23] Euripides Medea 166-7, 1334. [24] Apollonius 4.415-60, 4.557-62. [25] Apollonius 4.713; Knight, 1991:248. [29] Euripides Medea 475-90; Apollonius 4.358-68. [31] Apollonius 3.1025-62, 4.123-64. [36] Euripides Medea 465-8, 493-6. [39] Hunter, 1993:61; DeForest, 1994:129. [40] Apollonius 4.356-7; Euripides Medea 167, 483-4.

[49] Apollonius 3.870-86; Homer Odyssey 6.80-4. [56] Euripides Medea 379, 1185-95. [57] Euripides Medea 330, 434, 485. [59] Hunter, 1987:131; Knight, 1991:249-50; Hunter, 1993:61. [60] Euripides Medea 945-58; Apollonius 4.421-44. [62] Rose, 1985:29-44; Knight, 1991:249. [67] Euripides Medea 1159-66. [70] Fantham et al, 1994:140, 163-8; Pomeroy, 1994:120; Shipley, 2000:104-5. [72] Aristophanes Lysistrata 17-19, 880-1; Luschnig, 2007:7.

[73] Pomeroy, 1994:73, 79-80. [74] Fantham et al, 1994:69; Blundell, 1995:140. [76] Euripides Medea 214, 465-519. [77] Dillon (2012:231-2) references Hellenistic grave reliefs from Delos that document women who travelled widely. [81] Apollonius 4.92-8, 4.1128-69. [83] Apollonius 4.368-9, 1073-109; Byre, 1996:8-9. [84] Dyck, 1989:458; Luschnig, 2007:14. [85] Fantham et al, 1994:140. [86] P.Elephantine 1 translated by Pomeroy, 1984:86-7; Blundell, 1995:199.

[87] P.Giessen I . 2 translated by essays comparison Rowlandson (1998) cited in thesis ukm online Parca, 2012:324. [89] Walbank, 1981:176-7; Meyer, 2001:227-8; Thalmann, 2011:219. [91] Shipley, 2000:240; Apollonius 1.496-511 (Orpheus’ song of the cosmos); Apollonius 3.980-1007 (Ariadne and Theseus); Apollonius 4.253-93 (Argus and the Pillars of Aea); Clare (2002:125) observes Apollonius attempted to construct a ‘geographically plausible’ return for the Argonauts. [92] Hunter (1989) cited in Clauss, 1993:9; Gutzwiller, 2007:79. [94] Diogenes Lives of Eminent Philosophers 6.7.96-7; St Jerome Chronicle 203. [95] Lefkowitz and Fant (1995) cited in Shipley, 2000:104. [97] Decree of phd dissertation presentation Priene translated by Burstein (1985:59) states Phile was the first female stephanephoros cited in Fantham et al, 1994:156. [99] Fantham et al, 1994:169.

[101] Nyberg (1992) cited in Griffiths, 2006:89. [102] Apollonius 3.467; Clare, 2002:242. [103] Feeney, 1991:65; Gutzwiller, 2007:79. [107] Levin, 1971:15; Feeney, 1991:64-5; Lefkowitz, 2007:179. [109] Euripides Trojan Women 914-1032; Euripides Hippolytus 887-91, 1161-72. [110] Apollonius 4.385-90; Pavlock, 1990:67. [112] Euripides Hippolytus 393-430.

[113] Euripides Hippolytus 1389-1439. [115] Apollonius 4.413, 1016-7, 1040; Feeney, 1991:80-4.

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Guide to the Classics: Michel de Montaigne’s Essay. Montaigne: his free-ranging essays were almost scandalous in their day. Etienne Dumonstier/Wikimedia Commons. When Michel de Montaigne retired to his family estate in 1572, aged 38, he tells us that he wanted to write his famous Essays as a distraction for his idle mind. He neither wanted nor expected people beyond his circle of friends to be too interested. His Essays’ preface almost warns us off: Reader, you have here an honest book; … in writing it, I have proposed to myself no other than a domestic and private end. I have had no consideration at all either to your service or to my glory … Thus, reader, I myself am the matter of my book: there’s no reason that you should employ your leisure upon so frivolous and vain a subject. Therefore farewell. The ensuing, free-ranging essays, although steeped in classical poetry, history and philosophy, are unquestionably something new in the history of Western thought.

They were almost scandalous for their day. No one before Montaigne in the Western canon had thought to devote pages to thesis subjects as diverse and seemingly insignificant as “Of Smells”, “Of the Custom of Wearing Clothes”, “Of Posting” (letters, that is), “Of Thumbs” or “Of Sleep” — let alone reflections on eksempel, the unruliness of the male appendage, a subject which repeatedly concerned him. French philosopher Jacques Ranciere has recently argued that modernism began with the thesis ukm online, opening up of the essay liberty, mundane, private and ordinary to artistic treatment. Thesis? Modern art no longer restricts its subject matters to classical myths, biblical tales, the battles and essay, dealings of Princes and prelates. French philosopher, Jacques Ranciere. Annette Bozorgan/Wikimedia Commons. If Ranciere is right, it could be said that Montaigne’s 107 Essays, each between several hundred words and (in one case) several hundred pages, came close to ukm online inventing modernism in eksempel godt essay the late 16th century. Montaigne frequently apologizes for writing so much about himself.

He is only a second rate politician and thesis, one-time Mayor of Bourdeaux, after all. With an almost Socratic irony, he tells us most about his own habits of writing in the essays titled “Of Presumption”, “Of Giving the Lie”, “Of Vanity”, and write, “Of Repentance”. But the message of ukm online, this latter essay is, quite simply, that non, je ne regrette rien , as a more recent French icon sang: Were I to live my life over again, I should live it just as I have lived it; I neither complain of the sara sadri thesis, past, nor do I fear the future; and if I am not much deceived, I am the same within that I am without…I have seen the grass, the blossom, and the fruit, and now see the withering; happily, however, because naturally. Montaigne’s persistence in assembling his extraordinary dossier of stories, arguments, asides and observations on nearly everything under the sun (from how to ukm online parley with an enemy to whether women should be so demure in matters of sex, has been celebrated by admirers in nearly every generation. Within a decade of his death, his Essays had left their mark on eksempel, Bacon and Shakespeare. He was a hero to thesis the enlighteners Montesquieu and Diderot. Voltaire celebrated Montaigne – a man educated only by his own reading, his father and his childhood tutors – as “the least methodical of all philosophers, but the wisest and most amiable”.

Nietzsche claimed that the liberty other, very existence of Montaigne’s Essays added to thesis the joy of phd dissertation presentation ppt, living in this world. More recently, Sarah Bakewell’s charming engagement with Montaigne, How to Live or a Life of thesis ukm online, Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at thesis, an Answer (2010) made the best-sellers’ lists. Even today’s initiatives in teaching philosophy in schools can look back to Montaigne (and his “On the Education of Children”) as a patron saint or sage . So what are these Essays, which Montaigne protested were indistinguishable from their author? (“My book and I go hand in ukm online hand together”). It’s a good question. Anyone who tries to read the anecdotal records, Essays systematically soon finds themselves overwhelmed by the sheer wealth of thesis, examples, anecdotes, digressions and curios Montaigne assembles for our delectation, often without more than the hint of a reason why. To open the book is to records venture into thesis a world in which fortune consistently defies expectations; our senses are as uncertain as our understanding is prone to error; opposites turn out very often to be conjoined (“the most universal quality is diversity”); even vice can lead to virtue.

Many titles seem to have no direct relation to write essays comparison their contents. Nearly everything our author says in ukm online one place is qualified, if not overturned, elsewhere. Without pretending to untangle all of the reflective learning, knots of this “book with a wild and desultory plan”, let me tug here on a couple of Montaigne’s threads to invite and assist new readers to find their own way. Philosophy (and writing) as a way of life. Some scholars argued that Montaigne began writing his essays as a want-to-be Stoic, hardening himself against the horrors of the French civil and religious wars, and his grief at the loss of his best friend Etienne de La Boetie through dysentery. Did Montaigne turn to the Stoic school of philosophy to deal with the ukm online, horrors of war? Edouard Debat-Ponsan/Wikimedia Commons.

Certainly, for comparison Montaigne, as for thesis ancient thinkers led by his favorites, Plutarch and eksempel, the Roman Stoic Seneca, philosophy was not solely about constructing theoretical systems, writing books and articles. It was what one more recent admirer of Montaigne has called “a way of life”. Montaigne has little time for forms of pedantry that value learning as a means to insulate scholars from the world, rather than opening out onto it. He writes: Either our reason mocks us or it ought to thesis ukm online have no other aim but our contentment. We are great fools. Sara Sadri? ‘He has passed over his life in idleness,’ we say: ‘I have done nothing today.’ What? have you not lived? that is not only the fundamental, but the most illustrious of all your occupations. One feature of the Essays is, accordingly, Montaigne’s fascination with the daily doings of men like Socrates and Cato the Younger; two of those figures revered amongst the ancients as wise men or “sages”.

Their wisdom, he suggests, was chiefly evident in the lives they led (neither wrote a thing). In particular, it was proven by the nobility each showed in facing their deaths. Socrates consented serenely to ukm online taking hemlock, having been sentenced unjustly to death by phd dissertation presentation, the Athenians. Cato stabbed himself to death after having meditated upon thesis, Socrates’ example, in order not to cede to Julius Caesar’s coup d’etat . To achieve such “philosophic” constancy, Montaigne saw, requires a good deal more than book learning. Indeed, everything about our passions and, above all, our imagination, speaks against achieving that perfect tranquillity the classical thinkers saw as the highest philosophical goal. We discharge our hopes and fears, very often, on the wrong objects, Montaigne notes, in an observation that anticipates the thinking of Freud and modern psychology. Essay? Always, these emotions dwell on thesis ukm online, things we cannot presently change. Anecdotal? Sometimes, they inhibit our ability to see and deal in a supple way with the changing demands of life. Philosophy, in this classical view, involves a retraining of our ways of thinking, seeing and being in the world.

Montaigne’s earlier essay “To philosophise is to thesis ukm online learn how to die” is reflective essay experience, perhaps the clearest exemplar of his indebtedness to this ancient idea of thesis ukm online, philosophy. Yet there is a strong sense in which all of the Essays are a form of what one 20th century author has dubbed “self-writing”: an ethical exercise to “strengthen and comparison, enlighten” Montaigne’s own judgement, as much as that of thesis, we readers: And though nobody should read me, have I wasted time in entertaining myself so many idle hours in so pleasing and write essays comparison, useful thoughts? … I have no more made my book than my book has made me: it is thesis ukm online, a book consubstantial with the author, of a peculiar design, a parcel of my life… As for the seeming disorder of the essays comparison, product, and Montaigne’s frequent claims that he is playing the fool, this is arguably one more feature of the Essays that reflects his Socratic irony. Thesis Ukm Online? Montaigne wants to leave us with some work to do and scope to find our own paths through the labyrinth of his thoughts, or alternatively, to bobble about on ppt, their diverting surfaces. Yet Montaigne’s Essays, for all of their classicism and their idiosyncrasies, are rightly numbered as one of the founding texts of modern thought. Ukm Online? Their author keeps his own prerogatives, even as he bows deferentially before the altars of ancient heroes like Socrates, Cato, Alexander the Great or the Theban general Epaminondas. There is a good deal of the Christian, Augustinian legacy in Montaigne’s makeup. And of liberty, all the philosophers, he most frequently echoes ancient sceptics like Pyrrho or Carneades who argued that we can know almost nothing with certainty. This is especially true concerning the “ultimate questions” the Catholics and ukm online, Huguenots of presentation ppt, Montaigne’s day were bloodily contesting. Michel de Montaigne.

Wikimedia Commons. Writing in a time of thesis ukm online, cruel sectarian violence, Montaigne is unconvinced by the ageless claim that having a dogmatic faith is necessary or especially effective in assisting people to love their neighbors: Between ourselves, I have ever observed supercelestial opinions and eksempel essay, subterranean manners to be of singular accord… This scepticism applies as much to ukm online the pagan ideal of a perfected philosophical sage as it does to theological speculations. Socrates’ constancy before death, Montaigne concludes, was simply too demanding for most people, almost superhuman. Eksempel Godt? As for Cato’s proud suicide, Montaigne takes liberty to doubt whether it was as much the product of Stoic tranquility, as of a singular turn of mind that could take pleasure in thesis ukm online such extreme virtue.

Indeed when it comes to his essays “Of Moderation” or “Of Virtue”, Montaigne quietly breaks the ancient mold. Instead of celebrating the essay, feats of the thesis, world’s Catos or Alexanders, here he lists example after example of people moved by write comparison, their sense of transcendent self-righteousness to acts of murderous or suicidal excess. Even virtue can become vicious, these essays imply, unless we know how to ukm online moderate our own presumptions. If there is one form of argument Montaigne uses most often, it is the sceptical argument drawing on reflective experience, the disagreement amongst even the wisest authorities. If human beings could know if, say, the soul was immortal, with or without the body, or dissolved when we die…then the ukm online, wisest people would all have come to the same conclusions by now, the argument goes. Yet even the “most knowing” authorities disagree about godt, such things, Montaigne delights in showing us. The existence of such “an infinite confusion” of opinions and customs ceases to thesis ukm online be the problem, for Montaigne.

It points the essay other, way to a new kind of solution, and could in fact enlighten us. Documenting such manifold differences between customs and opinions is, for him, an education in humility: Manners and opinions contrary to mine do not so much displease as instruct me; nor so much make me proud as they humble me. His essay “Of Cannibals” for thesis ukm online instance, presents all of the different aspects of reflective, American Indian culture, as known to Montaigne through travellers’ reports then filtering back into Europe. Thesis? For the most part, he finds these “savages’” society ethically equal, if not far superior, to essay that of war-torn France’s — a perspective that Voltaire and Rousseau would echo nearly 200 years later. We are horrified at the prospect of eating our ancestors.

Yet Montaigne imagines that from the Indians’ perspective, Western practices of cremating our deceased, or burying their bodies to be devoured by the worms must seem every bit as callous. And while we are at it, Montaigne adds that consuming people after they are dead seems a good deal less cruel and inhumane than torturing folk we don’t even know are guilty of any crime whilst they are still alive… Voltaire celebrated Montaigne as one of the wisest and most amiable philosophers. Nicolas de Largillierre/Wikimedia Commons. “So what is left then?”, the reader might ask, as Montaigne undermines one presumption after another, and piles up exceptions like they had become the only rule. A very great deal , is the answer. With metaphysics, theology, and the feats of godlike sages all under a “suspension of ukm online, judgment”, we become witnesses as we read the Essays to learning experience a key document in thesis the modern revaluation and valorization of everyday life. There is, for instance, Montaigne’s scandalously demotic habit of interlacing words, stories and actions from his neighbors, the local peasants (and peasant women) with examples from the anecdotal essay, greats of Christian and pagan history.

As he writes: I have known in my time a hundred artisans, a hundred laborers, wiser and more happy than the rectors of the university, and whom I had much rather have resembled. By the ukm online, end of the Essays, Montaigne has begun openly to ppt suggest that, if tranquillity, constancy, bravery, and honor are the goals the wise hold up for us, they can all be seen in much greater abundance amongst the ukm online, salt of the earth than amongst the rich and famous: I propose a life ordinary and without lustre: ‘tis all one…To enter a breach, conduct an embassy, govern a people, are actions of renown; to…laugh, sell, pay, love, hate, and gently and justly converse with our own families and with ourselves…not to give our selves the lie, that is rarer, more difficult and ppt, less remarkable… And so we arrive with these last Essays at a sentiment better known today from another philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, the thesis ukm online, author of A Gay Science (1882) . Montaigne’s closing essays repeat the avowal that: “I love a gay and civil wisdom…” But in anecdotal records contrast to his later Germanic admirer, the ukm online, music here is sadri thesis, less Wagner or Beethoven than it is Mozart (as it were), and Montaigne’s spirit much less agonized than gently serene. It was Voltaire, again, who said that life is ukm online, a tragedy for those who feel, and a comedy for eksempel godt those who think. Montaigne adopts and admires the comic perspective. As he writes in “Of Experience”: It is not of much use to thesis ukm online go upon stilts, for, when upon stilts, we must still walk with our legs; and when seated upon the most elevated throne in liberty the world, we are still perched on our own bums. Matthew Sharpe is an thesis Associate Professor in Philosophy at Deakin University.

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