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awesome essay ideas by Carol Barash on May 27, 2014 in Admissions. What should students write about in their college application essays? I get this question from student after student: What should I write about to get into college? What topics are admissions officers looking for? Admissions officers are looking for three things in your admission essay: a unique perspective, strong writing, and an authentic voice. While there is protecting no magic topic that will automatically ensure admission at biology dissertations, the college of your dreams, there are experiences everyone has that you can use to essay find your strongest possible application essays. But first, consider the word “topic.” It originally meant “subject suitable for debate.” So you don’t actually want to find a topic! Debatable topics rarely make great essays. Forget winning, forget convincing, and forget presenting yourself as somehow right or better than other people.
Admissions officers are people, and people love stories. Your stories are not debatable. You own them. The way to connect with other people is to tell your own story, honestly and copy of 95, authentically, as only you can tell it. Here are 5 places to find great college essay topics your own life experience: Everyone eats! And when you read a story about food, most people warm up and start thinking about their own favorite foods and family gatherings. Essay. That’s why we start the Story To College Essay in a Day course with Memorable Meal stories. The story of my junior year in at hull house thesis, high school could be told through three meals: The first night of animals, Hanukkah, my mother was making latkes when my father sat down and announced, “I have cancer.” We dipped our Pepperidge Farm cookies in chamomile tea the night my mother whispered, “It doesn’t look like Daddy’s getting better. He wants to come home.” And the napolitano, night before my father died, he propped himself up to eat a bowl of minestrone soup. “Get all the education you can, Carol,” he said as he drifted back to sleep, “Always be learning.” Look for important conversations you’ve had, sitting around something to munch on.
The first time I ever advised a student on their college application essay, I worked with a quiet student, a guy who disappeared into the back of his classes. He wrote his essay about building a treehouse with his best friend. Jason’s story revealed the many facets of his character: his creativity, his expert planning, his love of animals essay, nature and building, and resume, the comical things that guys say to protecting one another when they are just hanging out. That was the first time I saw how application essays can bring a student to dissertations life and help them outwit the college admissions numbers game. Protecting Animals. Like Jason, look for activities where you’ve taken a creative approach or dealt with a challenge as you plan your Common Application essay. Speaking of challenges: one of the copy of 95, most moving essays I’ve ever read began, “It was the first day of ninth grade. I walked into the cafeteria. Animals Essay. All of the black students were sitting on my left, talking to themselves.
All of the white students were sitting on writing prompts, my right, talking to animals themselves. Where was I, with my cappuccino colored skin, where was I to sit for essays huxley lunch on the first day of ninth grade?” Every one of us has had those moments. Suddenly, you are in a completely new situation, and need to do something, but you have no idea what. Protecting Animals Essay. Application essays about essays challenges reveal how you respond to difficulty to people who are very interested in animals, how you will handle the twenty at hull statement, next four years on animals essay, your own. The second Common App question asks, “Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and dissertations, what lessons did you learn?” It’s not a trick question. Essay. In fact, it’s the most complex and nuanced of the Common App prompts. Twenty Statement. It gives you the chance to reflect and show your ability to protecting animals essay learn from your experiences. It takes time to find the type of mistakes you want to talk about, but I assure you: it works. What difference do you want to make in the world?
Where specifically are you going with your life? These questions should inform your entire college application process. Research on education shows that the essays, strongest predictor of a student’s success is how detailed and specific their picture is protecting animals essay of the creative writing prompts school students, future. This is the most important work we do, as individuals and communities. Animals Essay. Explain your commitments, and you will be the kind of student colleges find immensely attractive. You may have noticed that these ideas got harder to tell honestly as you worked down the resume napolitano, list. When you write about difficult topics—mistakes, learning, making a difference—it is very tempting to start talking in cliches, or to end in a place where you are perfect. Colleges are not looking for protecting perfect people.
They are looking for students who will make a difference in their classrooms, dorms, and communities. Where are the resume, stories that reveal what you bring to the world? Your best essays grow out of those moments. Download four essays that got students into Cornell, the University of protecting animals, Chicago, and Smith to see how Story To College teaches students to find their unique stories and develop their authentic voices. At Story To College we teach how to find their most honest and authentic stories and huxley, shape them into powerful essays that admissions officers will remember. We provide college application essay courses and protecting, admissions courses to help all our students achieve their best results. We are excited to host our first application essay courses in Atlanta this summer, starting May 29th. Find the course that’s right for you at writing school, storytocollege.com/courses, or call us to protecting animals talk to an expert at 646-503-4861.
Carol Barash, PhD, founder and CEO of Story To College and author of copy thesis, Write Out Loud, has taught over 10,000 students around the world–from first-generation college students to the children of bankers and CEOs–how to tell their stories and write essays that win admission and scholarships at selective colleges. Protecting. Applerouth is prompts for high students a trusted test prep and tutoring resource. Protecting. We combine the science of resume, learning with a thoughtful, student-focused approach to help our clients succeed. Call or email us today at 866-789-PREP (7737) or email@example.com. I love these ideas-every person could find a seed of an idea within these 4 prompts. They are deceptively simple, but certainly would lead to the most interesting types of essays.
Thanks for sharing! My first college essay was written by Senperfect com, and my college professor. was more than satisfied! Hey, I think you are going to write your paper by your own but do you have best essay topics to select among them. If your answer is no, then you are required to check the various online forums so that you can get an idea of what topic you should select. Also, you can ask from online writers to get best topics.
It would be better if you can get computer science help from online writers as they can provide you the best writing samples and best possible solution to your query. Protecting Animals Essay. Second thing is that they can support you later with your queries if you have. By Aldous. You can get great marks with their help. Protecting Animals. Jed Applerouth is a teacher and an educational innovator. A Nationally Certified Counselor with a PhD in Educational Psychology, Jed has researched student cognition, memory, motivation, and learning strategies to enhance the pedagogical strategies of napolitano, Applerouth Tutoring Services.
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Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. Essay? #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to thesis, find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats.
You may want to consider using functional format to animals essay, help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for copy of 95 thesis, a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. Essay? What title I need to put in napolitano, the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample).
Good luck on essay the job hunt! I only essays, have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and protecting essay, no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt!
This was helpful. is it same for essays, Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Protecting Animals Essay? Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful!
Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in copy, giving you some ideas on essay how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter.
One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. Dissertations? You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for animals, the employer to spot as they go through all the creative writing for high school, applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Protecting? Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Years Thesis Statement? Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Protecting Animals Essay? Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help.
Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on napolitano Craigslist, for example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google.
You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. Protecting Essay? I’ve had issues where you call and of 95 thesis, there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.”
I’m going to forward this to a client of animals mine I was just talking to him about napolitano, this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to animals essay, do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from at hull, your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the animals essay, above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included.
Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in copy of 95, the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and protecting animals essay, have included your suggestion in napolitano, the list. Protecting Animals? In the meantime, follow the guide above and twenty years at hull thesis, download one of cover letter templates.
Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is protecting animals a letter of consider and other introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful.
GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. Protecting? GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the copy of 95 thesis, requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at protecting essay this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck.
Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in napolitano, person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to animals, find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. Writing For High? I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the essay, way for a re issue. Biology Dissertations? All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Protecting Animals? Hang in creative for high, there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of essay luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in.
I’m still not sure what you all are referring to the lobster and other, with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and protecting animals, send my applications without one from consider the lobster and other, today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started.
Best of luck! How to address gaps in essay, employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by resume depression and unable to protecting animals essay, work from 2005-2008. Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. Of 95 Thesis? i have been a stay at home mom. Protecting Animals? Ready to go back to work again.
How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. Napolitano? I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Protecting Essay? Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for essays by aldous huxley, the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt!
How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for essay, an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for essays by aldous, a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out protecting essay to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right?
Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role.
I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to biology, ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Protecting Animals? Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to copy, the job. I just turned 62 and want to essay, retire from dissertations, my current job, but not ready to retire. Protecting Essay? Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before?
When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in dissertations, before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon essay this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to.
If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the napolitano, way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out protecting animals of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and creative writing prompts for high school students, staying home for protecting, them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to twenty at hull statement, explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of protecting animals essay months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications.
You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to copy of 95 thesis, do so. You can use that phrase for protecting essay, maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to dissertations, speak. Protecting Animals? Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on which template to use for consider the lobster and other, my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter.
Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to animals, get an idea of what the employers is and other looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and animals essay, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
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Algebra Using the TI-83 Plus / TI-84 Plus Online Course. Note: There is no credit or certificate of completion available for the completion of this course. Who should take this course: Pre-Algebra, Algebra 1 and Algebra 2 teachers, and Pre-Service, College Algebra, and Developmental Algebra educators. TI educational technology used: TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, TI-84 Plus or TI-84 Plus Silver Edition, TI-GRAPH LINK™ cable, TI-GRAPH LINK 83 or TI Connect™ software. Note: The TI technologies are not included in the cost of the course. Protecting Animals Essay! Objective: This course introduces ways of twenty years house thesis statement, incorporating graphing technology into protecting animals your algebra lessons to the lobster enrich instruction and extend your students' comprehension. Essential algebra topics such as solving equations, transformations, systems of inequalities, proportional reasoning, and factoring are correlated to the NCTM Standards.
Focus: The primary focus of this course is to use the TI-83 and TI-84 Plus families of graphing calculators to enhance the teaching and learning of essay, algebra. This course contains 27 self-paced learning modules written by experienced teachers. Each module has 2-4 lessons as well as tips and hints on integrating the graphing calculator into your lessons plans. Essays! 1024 x 768 monitor resolution. These movies are 680 x 580. A screen resolution of 1024x768 gives the best viewing size, but 800x600 works well, too.
Internet access (128kbs or better). Access using a broadband internet connection is protecting essay, best. These courses will work via a dial-up connection but will be slow. Internet Explorer™ recommended Macromedia Flash™ 7 Player (or later) (click here to download and install) Note: For courses involving a TI-84 Plus graphing calculator, TI SmartView™ is used to show the calculator keyboard and screen displays. More information on the TI-SmartView presentation software package, click here.
These movies work much like a VCR. Use the menu bar at the bottom of the screen to rewind, play, fast forward, pause and stop or use the status bar to move between sections. The “Show Me” button takes the user step-by-step through the lesson. If you feel you are familiar with the material you may want to skip forward and use the “Let Me Try” feature to consider and other test your knowledge. Questions or get technical support: Get acquainted with how to take this course including tips on navigation. This module will examine the following: • three different zones of the TI-84 plus and what each zone does. • how to reset defaults and examining what happens to different features when this is done. • how to enter arithmetic expressions with addition and implied multiplication (parenthesis) • how to evaluate exponential expressions with repeated multiplication, exponential function key and the pretty print (or preset) exponents.
This module will examine the following: • solving algebraic expressions and examining patterning by entering values in alphanumeric values and using the last answer function. Essay! • converting fractions to lowest terms. • entering and graphing functions using the y= editor. • resizing windows manually to create friendly viewing windows and using the trace feature to solve for missing values in a function. • setting up tables and scrolling through tables to find missing data values. This module will examine the following: • creating a recursive sequence on the home screen. • storing multiple answers in essays by aldous, the calculator and using the answer feature to create a table/list containing a recursive sequence on the home screen. • using the seq command to protecting generate lists of data in the list editor and creating scatter plots. Prompts School! • graphing equations to represent data in a scatter plot and using the trace/ table features to solve values. This module will examine the following: • learning an algorithm to multiply by 11. • entering data values in lists and enter formulas in the list editor. • using the set up editor to display lists and rearranging lists in essay, the list editor. • using the catalogue to and other essays locate commands and using the sum command to add elements in a list. • using the y = editor and tables to input independent values to obtain dependent values for a function.
This module will examine the following: • using graph window presets such as zstandard, zdecimal, zinterger, to create friendly viewing windows. Protecting Essay! • manually changing the window settings to create friendly viewing graph windows and napolitano, manually setting the center of a window. • graphing lines squares, circles using tools from the draw menu and clearing drawings. • drawing on the graph screen using the draw tools from the home screen and storing/recalling drawings. Protecting Animals! • downloading and using TI Connect to capture drawings on the home screen. This module will examine the following: • use the napolitano set up editor and protecting animals essay, the alpha lock feature to name and create lists. • using graph window presets such as zoomstat and zsquare to create friendly viewing windows and dissertations, manually changing window settings. • performing operations on lists to reflect, translate and essay, dilate graphs. • using the resume napolitano augment and dim commands to change the size of lists. This module will examine the following: • comparing and ordering rational numbers using relational operators and using the sort command for lists. • add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. • convert decimals to fractions. • using the last answer feature. • store numbers in alphanumeric variables and solving for animals essay, expressions, using relational operators to compare algebraic expressions. • entering and comparing algebraic expressions and of 95, using graphs/ tables to compare expressions. This module will examine the following: • using the y = editor to graph functions and to solve ratios using the trace, value and intersection features. • using the answer feature to convert decimal values for time to minutes, seconds. • looking for patterns by animals essay performing operations on lists, storing values, graphing linear functions and scatter plots. • using the Calc menu and the value command to solve for of 95, missing values.
This module will examine the following: • using the guess-and-test method to solve equations. • entering expressions and protecting, using concatenation on home screen to solve expressions. • entering functions using the y = editor and using the table feature to find missing values. • Solving Equations Algebraically store values and compare answers with expressions with rational numbers. Copy Thesis! • using y= editor to animals graphing and using the Calc menu to find intersection points. • expressing answers in fractional form. This module will examine the following: • solving inequalities in one variable using concatenation and relational operators. • solving inequalities using tables and graphs by entering equations into y = editor and using tables/ graphs to solve for missing values. • using relational operators to house statement graph linear inequalities by using the y = editor to enter equations and inequalities. • using graphs to examine inequalities and protecting, determine intersection points. This module will examine the creative writing students following: • determine discounts by entering expressions and inequalities on home screen using relational operators. • determining sales tax and animals essay, tips through solving inequalities with tables, graphing and home screen. • solving inflation and depreciation problems using graphs and the Calc menu. This module will examine the following: • using the list editor and attaching formulas to a list to create dependent values form independent values. • entering functions and using tables to accept independent values into table and solve for consider, dependent values. Essay! • perform operations on functions, find intersection points and use tables to of 95 find missing values. This module will examine the following: • comparing the slopes of lines using the protecting animals essay y= editor and graphs. • graphing lines in resume, slope-intercept form and finding intersection points.
• create scatter plots and graph functions to draw lines to fit data points. This module will examine the following: • how to write a program to find slope and y- intercept. • using the random integer feature to create an equation for a line in protecting, slope intercept form - -load a program using TI Connect. Years House Thesis Statement! This module will examine the animals following: • examining Hooke’s Law. • using the seq feature to generate data and storing values into variables. • graphing functions and using tables to input independent variables in table. • finding points of intersection using the Calc menu. This module will examine the following: • loading of data using TI Connect. • using the y = editor to graph functions. • store values using alphanumeric variables. This module will examine the following: • drawing and labelling points. • drawing horizontal and vertical lines and drawing the inverse of a function, • drawing a circle using the home screen. • entering functions into the y = editor and using the table feature to enter independent values. • entering data values into lists. • using change in lists to find the the lobster essays common difference, slope. This module will examine the following: • using home screen to guess and check solutions and to find the intersection point of two functions. • graphing functions and performing mathematical operations on functions in the y= editor. • entering matrices and finding a solution using the rref (row reduced echelon form) feature.
This module will examine the following: • entering functions into the y = editor and finding points of intersection. • using Boolean and relational operators to graph the protecting animals essay solution of an twenty years at hull house statement inequality. • graphing an inequality and protecting animals, using the home screen to test values. This module will examine the following: • checking linear factors using relational operators and the home screen. By Aldous Huxley! • storing values into alphanumeric variables, • entering and comparing functions with relational operators and graphs. • using the Calc menu and the zero feature to solve trinomials for x=0 to compare factors. This module will examine the following: • graphing multiple functions from one function, • using zoom decimal window to determine information from graphs. • using list editor to enter and protecting essay, generate data values. • graphing data using scatter plots. • using the Calc menu to find the maximum point and vertex. • enter functions into copy thesis the y = editor and using the protecting home screen to verify solutions. Writing Prompts For High Students! This module will examine the following: • entering functions to find the maximum point or vertex and checking answers on the home screen. • entering functions and finding the point of intersection and using tables to verify answers. Protecting Animals! • entering expressions on the home screen. • using alphanumeric variables to store numbers and entering expressions on by aldous, the home screen. • enter the functions and animals essay, use the zero feature to determine solutions. • running a program called quadfrom. Copy Of 95! This module will examine the following: • entering expressions on the home screen and using exponent key, • converting decimal numbers to simplest form fractions. • using the last answer feature to generate a table of values on animals, the home screen, • using repeated multiplication, exponential function key and the pretty print or preset exponents. • entering functions and use the table to solve expressions. • entering functions and find intersection point. This module will examine the following: • using recursion on the home screen. • entering functions using the y = editor and comparing tables or graphs, • finding the intersection point. This module will examine the following: • enter functions and finding the point of intersection. • using relational operators with tables and drawing graphs.
• using zoom feature (zoom in) to creative writing for high school see points of intersection. • using one function to draw multiple functions and storing values in alphanumeric variables. This module will examine the protecting animals essay following: • inserting, deleting, overwriting values in a list. Twenty Years Thesis Statement! • creating a scatter plot. • drawing vertical and horizontal lines to examine the vertical line test. This module will examine the following: • entering data into lists to animals create scatter plots and tracing values. • entering functions to compare lines of best fit, use linreg feature to determine slope and y-intercept, • using the house thesis statement Catalogue menu to turn diagonistics on/off to see correlation coefficients. This module will examine the following: • comparing lists to find first level differences in animals, a list. • perform stat calculations (mean) on a list, • storing values in alphanumeric variables. • entering functions in y= editor and using linreg feature to determine slope and y-intercept. No charge for the course.
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cobham thesis Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. A Thesis in the Department of English. Presented in protecting animals essay, partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of years at hull house statement Master of Arts at Concordia University Montreal, Canada. Keith Waddington 1998. School of protecting essay Graduate Studies. This is to certify that the creative writing for high school thesis prepared. By: Keith Waddington. Entitled: Pictures and Poetry.
Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence and essay, submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of. Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. This thesis examines the history and development of the Picturesque, its definition, theoreticians, and practitioners; and its influence on romanticism. Creative For High Students! The focus is the correction of pejorative and protecting animals, negative assessments common in resume napolitano, modern literary studies which provide a misleading interpretation of both the Picturesque and its influence.
The goal is a broader understanding which suggests the protecting essay necessity of a new evaluation of twenty at hull house statement Wordsworth’s “groundbreaking” contribution to literary development. Animals Essay! Accordingly, an extensive introductory section examines pre-Picturesque and Picturesque painting, outlining the essays beginnings of a new and protecting animals, particularly English aesthetic. Also, an exploration of pre-Picturesque poetry and formative Picturesque poetry reveals the literary ramifications of this aesthetic. Finally, Wordsworth and Keats are canvassed within the resume Picturesque context: Wordsworth to demonstrate the origins and protecting, erroneousness of the modern critical bias and the way his poetry was often formulated according to Picturesque principles; Keats to creative school students demonstrate the protecting animals longevity and continuing importance and influence of the Picturesque. Conclusions are conclusive. Table of Contents. Section One: The Canvas. Section Two: Background.
Section Three: The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. Section Four: The Foreground: Keats. Section One: The Canvas  [The] theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics. (Watkin, vii) The romantics . . . inherited the picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it . . . had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of creative writing seeing which were new ways of feeling. Protecting Essay! (Brownlow, 16) Major contribution or tyranny? When modern scholars of literature observe the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry, ideas become gods and facts their disciples. The extensive adoption, intrinsic importance and “capability” of the Picturesque—willingly acknowledged by art historians like Watkin—are expurgated, summarily sacrificed on the altar of entrenched literary dogma, and of 95, the service of academia becomes a self-serving exercise in blind faith. This section will provide a prolegomenon to scepticism, describing the protecting aesthetic context for the Picturesque movement, demonstrating the links between early continental landscape painting, neo-classicism, the Picturesque, later English landscape artists and romanticism.
Besides offering essential background, outlining the artistic continuum which these links illustrate—revealing the inevitability of romanticisms and thus sanctioning a less venerational view of Wordsworth—the principle intent here is to provide a more useful definition of the Picturesque. In terms familiar to tabloid conspiracy theories: to tell you what they don’t want you to know. In the beginning was the biology word, and the word was Picturesque. Although perhaps peculiar to the pictorially educated modern, an aesthetic appreciation of landscape scenery was inconceivable prior to the Picturesque period. It is, in essay, simple terms, a skill that requires learning. According to Christopher Hussey in The Picturesque , numerous impediments initially existed, including general Christian doctrine; the early Christian transmutation of pagan nature spirits and gods into evil spirits, essentially rendering the natural realm dangerous and essays by aldous, even sinful; and the humanistic bias of our classical inheritance. Although valid to varying degrees, the chiefest obstacle was more likely the general difficulties of life and travel which often rendered nature antagonist.
Learning landscape then was an up-hill struggle. The Picturesque movement, prerequisite and intrinsic to this learning process, developed during neo-classicism’s reign supreme, and the formality and rigidity of protecting animals that rule, by copy thesis its very nature, proved conducive rather than obstructive. The Picturesque, as we shall see, finally provided egress from neo-classical regulations, where reason could finally take rest, where imagination could romp over hill and dale, where individual feeling accompanied originality. Our journey into the Picturesque begins with the Grand Tour. Subsequent to England’s isolation during much of the seventeenth century and made possible by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the Grand Tour was initially a diversion limited to the monied aristocracy. The journey southward to Italy involved either traversing the Alps or following the Rhone. In the accounts of grand tours made between 1640 and 1730 a pictorial view of landscape is protecting animals exceptional. In each case it can be traced fairly exactly to the actual sojourn in Rome, where the essays by aldous huxley works of Claude and Salvator were to protecting animals essay be seen. (Hussey, 84) Indeed, picturesque awareness—commonly the quiddity of modern tourism—was, like landscape painting itself, entirely foreign. Chaucer, for example, made three or four trips over the Alps yet never mentioned them once in his poetry. John Evelyn’s travels between 1644 and 1648 precisely outline a similar aesthetic vacuity, suggesting it was “as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of the earth in the Alps” (qtd.
Hussey, 85); remembering the “horrid mountains” as “troublesome” (qtd. Hussey, 86). Similarly, Richard Lassels’ Italian Voyage (1670) mentions Mount Cenis only in practical terms of route, “the most desirable for speed and convenience” (Manwaring, 9). Landscape painting at this time generally existed either as a background to human drama, or as a quasi-scientific topography. Neither was considered—especially for the English, where only the farmer or ditch-digger truly worked in landscape—significant work for the significant painter. When aristocratic travellers finally arrived in Italy, they came upon an important exception to napolitano this rule.
Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Poussin broke with the traditional subject hierarchy and raised the landscape to lofty heights of respectability. The juxtaposition of the scenery aristocratic tourists had seen and essay, the landscape paintings they confronted provided an early indication of biology this parochial aesthetic and essay, even philosophical void. The aristocracy progressively responded, bringing home souvenir paintings and prints—an early equivalent of modern picture post-cards—beginning collections and posing as cognoscenti . Grand Tour guide books soon appeared, including practical advice as well as art information. Essentially, the status of landscape paintings in Italy compelled travellers to rethink traditional distaste for regions like the Alps, to over-look the associated dangers and discomforts of travel and exploration. The preparatory precepts of the Picturesque aesthetic were thus first introduced into creative writing prompts students, England, and it was particularly the paintings of protecting animals essay Claude and Salvator Rosa which stimulated the greatest interest. The Less Grand Tour. In addition to this, the Grand Tour played another important role. In what might be seen as an instance of cultural trickle-down theory, the less affluent middle-class, encouraged by fashionable discussions of essays huxley Picturesque niceties, was soon occupied with more modest excursions into the English countryside. In search of landscape, landscape gardens and the galleries of mansions, tourists were aided by new guidebooks and much improved roads to get them there. A dramatic democratic appreciation of landscape was at last being realised, with travellers, invariably, carrying sketch-book and Claude Glass. The Claude Glass, a convex mirror of protecting about four inches diameter with tinted filters and bound up like a pocket-book, effectively compressed and framed landscapes.
Analogous to the camera in these film-free days, the user was obviously obliged to turn his back on creative prompts, the scene to observe the framed and filtered view. Hugh Sykes Davies, in his recent analysis of the protecting essay Picturesque and Wordsworth, offers the following comment: “It is resume very typical of their attitude to Nature that such a position should be desirable” (223). Indeed, as we shall see, the comment is merely typical of Davies’ view of the Picturesque. Timothy Brownlow, in John Clare and Picturesque Landscape , offers a similar comment, all the more mockery for protecting essay its parentheticality: “As an biology dissertations, artist, he [Clare] casts aside, as it were, the essay Claude Glass (whose user had to by aldous huxley turn his back on protecting, the landscape)” (13). Malcolm Andrews, whose In Search for the Picturesque generally circumvents any romantic exploration, consequently offers a more useful note: The imagination as an “intellectual lens” approximates it to years at hull statement the Claude Glass, which can modify and enhance a particular landscape. All the special properties of the Glass are present in Coleridge’s well-known account of the origins of his poetic collaboration with Wordsworth and protecting, their agreement about the two cardinal points of poetry: “the power of exciting the years at hull thesis statement sympathy of the reader by a faithful adherence to essay the truth of nature, and the power of giving the interest of novelty by the modifying colours of the imagination.” (71)
Support for the Claude Glass as imaginative metaphor comes from Claude himself, who was as willing as able to composite the actual with the imaginary: Pastoral Landscape with Ponte Molle (1645), for example (see figure 1), represents a view of the pope’s summer residence. . Napolitano! . Protecting Essay! . Writing School! The foreground is animals imaginary, but the palace is fairly accurately portrayed. The castle-like building bathed in sunlight is a forerunner of the copy thesis highlighted castles in the middle ground so beloved of Gilpin. (Bicknell, 4) The Picturesque tourists offer moving evidence that the Picturesque became as widespread as it was popular. Indeed, the eighteenth century is matched only by the twentieth for the per capita number of animals country house visits. At Hawkstone in Shropshire, for example, “there were so many visitors to the dramatically landscaped park that in c. 1790 an hotel was built to accommodate them” (Watkin, vii). David Watkin, who examines the Picturesque from the consider the lobster essays prospect of art historian, similarly provides an protecting animals essay, analysis inscribed by consider the lobster and other essays positivism, unequivocally stating that “theory and practice of the protecting animals Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics” (vii); and that “the Picturesque became the leading building-type in post-Reformation England and has long been recognised as the nation’s principle contribution to the arts” (vii). “In the intervening two hundred years since its discussion . . . the Picturesque has been altered and copy thesis, extended in essay, many ways. Along the consider essays way it has acquired a pejorative tint” (Robinson, xii). Categorical and “pejorative” statements: “The cultural games of the picturesque” (Woodring, viii); “The vogue of the protecting picturesque” (Nevious, 33); “Comic and faddish as much of the theory appears in retrospect” (Brownlow, 43); W.M. Merchant’s common “cult” (9) epithet; as well as the supercilious Davies, who extends this negation to the lobster the present, saying “The modern tourists . . . pass through the country at a rate never dreamed of by Gray and West, seeing nothing, and apparently feeling even less” (226), all fail to recognise that this appetite to animals essay sample and develop a taste for and other landscape was redolent of protecting a general change in aesthetic sense.
In fact, the modern tourist, in the route he selects and with each viewfinder frame often reveals the resume influence of the Picturesque. By the start of the nineteenth century, recognition of picturesqueness had become—and remains—second nature. Landscape Artists Abroad. Salvator Rosa (1615-73) As mentioned, Salvator Rosa, Neapolitan painter, etcher, satirical poet and actor, was crucial to essay the development of the Picturesque and also provides an early link with romantic poetry. In addition to resume napolitano his landscapes, which portrayed the feral and fierce of nature (see figure 3), Salvator displayed a penchant for appalling subjects—witches and animals essay, monsters, meditations upon resume, death and so on—inspiring such romantic painters as Barry, Fuseli and Mortimer, and finding poetic expression in the romantic inclination towards the gothic and graveyard melancholy. Lady Mortgan’s The Life and protecting animals essay, Times of Salvator Rosa , published in dissertations, 1824, depicted the artist as a legendary figure hobnobbing with bandits and joining a popular uprising in Naples, establishing him as the quintessential romantic artist: an outlaw encamped with darkness and despair, whose bravura with the brush was symptomatic of a burning artistic brilliance inimical to convention. Eighteenth century literary explorations of the protecting Picturesque are literally laden with references to Salvator: “What’er Lorrain light touched with softening hue / Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew” ( Castel of Indolence I, XXXVIII). Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) Claude Lorrain, although French, spent his adult life in Rome.
Claude was undoubtedly the greatest master of essays ideal-landscape painting, which seeks to present nature as surnature and concording with the habitual “improvement” of the Picturesque vision. In addition, Claude’s landscapes often contain classical ruins—an initial point of entry for English neo-classicists who required some token scrap of Rome or Athens—a key element modified in the Picturesque movement to accommodate native ruins—both genuine and artificial. Besides his fundamental importance to the Picturesque movement, Claude, like Salvator, exhibited a less direct though nonetheless certain connection with romantic poetry, with his much acclaimed poetic rendering of light. As E. B. Essay! Greenshields, Landscape Painting and by aldous, Modern Dutch Artists , states, “if one artist were to be chosen as founder of modern landscape painting, that title would be rightly given to Claude” (15). Within the neo-classical/romantic context, John Ruskin offers the following: The love of neatness and precision, as opposed to all disorder, maintains itself down to Raphael's childhood without the slightest interference of any other feeling; and it is essay not until Claude's time, and owing in great part to creative writing prompts students his influence, that the new feeling distinctly establishes itself. English scenery, initially, existed as a back-drop to continental landscape paintings in much the same way as landscape initially provided only the setting for human pictorial narratives.
In a comparison between Dovedale and Keswick, Dr. John Brown wrote: Were I to essay analyse the two places in their constituent principles, I shoud tell you, that the full perfection of Keswick, consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror and immensity united; the second of which is alone found in Dovedale. . . . But to of 95 give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator Rosa and Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake, and the wooded island. The second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steep, the hanging woods, and foaming water-falls; while the grand pencil of Poussin should crown the whole with the majesty of the impending mountains. (qtd. Davies, 218) The original works of animals essay this scanty collection of Italian painters only partly explain the extensive aesthetic transformation in remote England.
Walpole mentions in his Anecdotes several foreign landscape painters living and working in England during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.  These included Henry Dankers, employed by Charles II as a topographical artist and Francesco Zuccarelli, who visited England twice, lived in twenty years at hull house, London for five years and became a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Thomas Manby, an Englishman who studied in protecting essay, Italy, brought back the copy of 95 customary collection of paintings to add to his own works. In addition, the protecting animals essay enormous popularity of these artists, especially Claude, led to countless copies and resume napolitano, even copies of copies. Less duplicitous was the invention of prints and protecting essay, the development of essays huxley engraving to high art, making the landscapes of the masters as common as the furrowed tellurian landscapes of the peasants (see figures 1 and essay, 2 ). The Lobster! Where the canvas could be known, often imprecisely, by only a few hundred privileged, the print could be known intimately by protecting the massed thousands. Indeed, print collecting—”No person of Taste could be without a collection of prints” (Manwaring, 84)—became itself a popular pastime. Also, “the amateur landscape painter had begun to flourish before the seventeenth century closed, and long continued to dissertations flourish increasingly” (Manwaring, 8). The stylistically idealised quality of protecting essay Claude and Salvator’s paintings provided the inspiration for the Picturesque movement and was then modified as the English Picturesque developed, essentially becoming an idealisation of a nature that was rapidly vanishing and celebrating a rural way of by aldous life that was being lost. A Picturesque Definition. Perhaps the earliest explicit statement on the Picturesque comes from William Kent in his 1709 Memorandum on the preservation of Woodstock Manor:
That part of the protecting essay Park which is biology dissertations seen from the North Front of the new building has little variety of objects nor does the protecting country beyond it afford any of value. It therefore stands in need of all the helps that can be given. . . . Essays! Buildings and protecting animals, Plantations. These rightly dispos’d will indeed supply all the wants of Nature in biology dissertations, that place. And the most agreeable disposition is to mix them: in which this old Manour gives so happy an occasion for; that were the enclosures filled with Trees (principally fine Yews and Hollys) promiscuously set to grow up in a wild thicket, so that all the buildings left might appear in two risings amongst ’em, it would make one of the most agreeable objects that the best of Landskip painters can invent. Animals! (qtd. Watson, 17)
From this early beginning—remarkably loaded with what would eventually become the nitty-gritty of copy of 95 thesis picturesque idiom: variety, wants of nature, mix, wild, thicket; and concepts: a harmony of architecture and protecting essay, natural surroundings and comparison with landscape paintings—the unfamiliar story of Picturesque development reads rather like the recorded exploits of an ancient relation discovered in a dusty chest, while categorical definitions have all the by aldous huxley interest of his bleached bones. Animals Essay! Unfortunately, ubiquitousness and over-familiarity has essentially starved the term of the lobster any useful sense and to flesh out that skeletal frame becomes a matter of Hobson’s choice. So what does “picturesque” really mean? As late as 1794, Uvedale Price wrote: “There are few words whose meaning has been less accurately determined than that of the word picturesque” ( On the Picturesque , 77).  Whether or not we accept J. R. Watson's hypothesis, in Picturesque Landscape and English romantic Poetry , that this period—despite being the protecting most prolific in picturesque studies, picturesque tours and picturesque allusions—actually marks the decline of the movement (a somewhat strange notion considering Turner’s Picturesque series is still decades away), it seems obvious that the time was indeed ripe for of 95 thesis some clear definition. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the subject means that no nut-shell, no matter how perfectly nutty, can contain a definition fair and useful. The stress here then is selectivity, surveying concepts intrinsic to Picturesque theory that reveals strong romantic links and usually glossed-over in modern literary criticism. William Gilpin (1724-1804) Perhaps the most succinct definition of Picturesque comes from Reverend William Gilpin's Essay on Prints (1768): “ . . . Animals Essay! a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is napolitano agreeable in a picture”(xii).
This simple statement is modified by the notion of “picturesque grace,” meaning “an agreeable form which may be given to a clownish figure”(xii): that stylistic rendition found in “Berghem's clowns, and in Callot's beggars”(29). Thus, in this simplest of beginnings, the Picturesque relates both to the elements in a scene as well as the artist's treatment of his subject. Essay on Prints provides a broad examination of art and compositional analysis; and Watson's suggestion that for most of the period this definition “was sufficient” seems sufficient only for protecting animals essay those unwilling to read the book. Gilpin himself, recognising the fribblish finish, offers some restoration in Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and resume, On Sketching Landscape (1792) . Protecting Animals Essay! The accepted definition of beauty—most often marked by smoothness and unity—was established by Edmund Burke in A Philosophical Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Recognising that scenes beautiful according to this definition were usually unsuitable subjects for the pencil, Gilpin considered the Picturesque composed of roughness, irregularity and variety. In addition, Gilpin disagrees with Burke’s conclusions on the beautiful and sublime, where the effect of the former is pleasure, the napolitano latter astonishment and that the two, discovered in a single object, cause mutual destruction. Animals Essay! In reference to consider the lobster essays Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Among all the essay visions of this enchanted country, we had seen nothing so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque, as this” ( Three Essays , 52). The juxtaposition of beautiful and sublime is thesis both deliberate, and—as any present-day hiker in this region will attest—accurate. Indeed, the mix of beauty and protecting, sublimity, producing the Picturesque, seems to be the gist of copy of 95 thesis Dr. John Brown’s “beauty, horror and essay, immensity united.” As John Ruskin suggests, “this sublimity may be either in mere external ruggedness, and other visible character, or it may lie deeper, in an expression of sorrow and old age, attributes which are both sublime” By defining the principle characteristics of the Picturesque, besides underlining the main weakness of copy thesis Burke’s theory, Three Essays also achieved dubious honour of virtually codifying picturesque theory. The Picturesque was finally composed of such illustrative elements as ruins— à la Claude—cottages, villages, twisting tracks; with roughness, intricacy, sudden variation, abruptness, foreground, middleground and background forming the more abstract and general Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin's Picturesque musings, however, exceeded the catalogue of elements and rules of composition, and in this often overlooked material Gilpin’s especial merit becomes clear.
For all the asseverations on artistic theory, it was the visual art itself which most concerned Gilpin and explains the focus of his philosophy. Words,, Gilpin insists, cannot mark the characteristic distinctions of each scene, the touches of nature—her living tints—her endless varieties, both in protecting animals essay, form and colour.—In a word, all the biology dissertations elegant peculiarities are beyond their reach. The pencil, it is true, offers a more perfect mode of description. ( Observations , 10) Indeed, the peculiar strength of language rests elsewhere, and the adoption of Picturesque sensibilities by the poet must—by the protecting animals essay very nature of his medium—result in an altered expression and not, to foreshadow central critical dogma, a transcending expression. Twenty Statement! Besides this conclusion—which literary scholars might find presumptuous—Gilpin keenly discerned the importance of the imaginative faculty: “. Animals! . . we may be pleased with the description, and the picture.
But the soul can feel neither, unless the force of our own imagination aid the poet's, or the copy painter's art; exalt the idea, and protecting essay, picture things unseen” ( Observations , 10). Reading poetry, viewing painting, it is the imagination which provides fullest meaning; and it is imagination also which accompanies Gilpin through the Lake District: The evening . . . grew more tempestuous . . . amid the huxley obscurity, which now overshadowed the landscape, the imagination was left at large; and painted many images, which perhaps did not really exist. . . . Every great and pleasing form, which we had seen during the day, now played, in strong imagery before the protecting animals fancy; as when the grand chorus ceases, ideal music vibrates on biology dissertations, the ear. ( Observations , 19) Gilpin here describes the participation of active imagination both in reading poetry, viewing paintings, and exploring landscape. Followers of the Picturesque then, at protecting animals essay least according to Gilpin, are involved with elemental matter both external and internal. Figure 4, for example, offers an resume napolitano, unusual composition where the two figures “may be supposed to see the continuation of a landscape down the valley . . . and this gives a sort of clue to the imagination” (qtd.
Bicknell, 38). Indeed, the bridge leads the eye outside the frame and it is the unseen which initiates the imagination as much as the seen. In addition, Gilpin suggests picturesque tourists with an artistic drift should side-step exact copy and superinduce through the imagination and awareness of picturesque aesthetics: in a sense, the tableau should improve upon nature’s raw material. Hiking the lower lake of Buttermere, for example, Gilpin says: “Nothing is wanting but a little more wood, to make this lake, and the vale in animals, which it lies, a very enchanting scene”( Observations , 3). Although instances such as this provide fodder for scholars hungry to highlight the essays by aldous absurdity of the animals essay Picturesque vision, where actual landscape is compared with ideal landscape painting, the twenty years at hull methodology actually involves processing nature through artistic sensibility. Indeed, such comments reveal the Claudian concept of ideal landscape to be never further than the next hill. Heading towards Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Except the protecting essay mountains, nothing in all this scenery is great ; but every part is filled with the sweet engaging passages of nature” ( Observations , 8). Here, “passages” suggests poetry—indeed, several lines of by aldous huxley verse follow—and Gilpin, despite his acute sense of the visual, infers that landscape, painting and poetry are all, deucedly and inextricably, mixed. Published in 1792, it pre-dates Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads by animals six years and the poet’s own Guide to huxley the Lakes by eighteen. Gilpin, as a clergyman, was naturally concerned the amorality of the Picturesque.
Davies, in an exhibition of ignorance and forgetfulness, quotes Gilpin’s comment on the lakeland shepherd: “But the life of the shepherd, in this country, is not an Arcadian life. His occupation subjects him to animals many difficulties . . .” (qtd. Davies, 228), subsequently suggesting he afforded no interest in the people who live in landscape! In fact, Gilpin, as we shall see, was personally concerned with the well-being of country people and openly acknowledged that the Picturesque stood outside ethical concerns: In a moral light, cultivation, in all its parts, is pleasing; the copy of 95 hedge and furrow, the protecting animals essay waving corn field, and rows of ripened Sheaves. But all these, the Picturesque eye, in quest of scenes of grandeur, and beauty, looks as with disgust . . . thus the lazy cow herd, resting on his pole; or the peasant lolling on copy, a rock, may be allowed in the grandest scenes; while the laborous mechanic, with his implements of labour, would be repulsed.” ( Observations, Cumberland , 45) This then is the Picturesque, not Gilpin himself. Animals! Gilpin, a school-master, required years of persuasion from friends before agreeing to publish his manuscripts. Subsequent royalties funded a school, “to remedy the resume napolitano conditions of ignorance and squalor” (Manwaring, 184) founded within the protecting animals essay boundaries of his rural parish. In contrasting urban and dissertations, rural life, picturesque representations inadvertently suggested a conflict between the reality of children's lives and projected adult attitudes. Many such pictures—including Thomas Gainsborough's cottage series—share a romanticised notion of the countryside as an innocent, idyllic environment.
While presenting children in protecting animals essay, tattered clothing, the effect is picturesque rather than moral. The very same, of course, can be said of resume much romantic poetry. Gilpin, often the essay object of narrow-view animadversion, not only huxley recognises the problem but selflessly provides some correction. Despite Gilpin's rule and essay, dogma—measure for measure no more insidious than a modern “How-To” book—his Picturesque views display a diversity to which the satirists were forced to turn a blind eye; an acknowledgement that is as much in accord with romantic contemplation as Picturesque investigation. From 1768 onwards, Gilpin undertook full many provincial journeys in copy thesis, search of the Picturesque, producing a series of illustrated guide books which often suggested specific “stations”—places providing ideal perspective of picturesque vistas.
These guides, including Wye and South Wales (1782) and protecting animals, the Lake District (1789), were paramount in the popularisation of the Picturesque as a means of viewing nature and are, of themselves, indicative of the popularity of picturesque tourism. As Watkin suggests, “Gilpin’s numerous topographical books were essentially a preparation for intelligent critical visiting, for the Picturesque presupposes a society which was interested in nature and in art and, above all, in travelling (vii). In conclusion, Gilpin's introduction to Essays provides the following clarification which modern critics might gainfully peruse: . . . we picturesque people are a little misunderstood with regard to our general intention . I have several times been surprised at finding us represented, as supposing all beauty to consist in picturesque beauty —and the resume face of protecting nature to be examined only by the rules of painting. Whereas, in fact, we always speak a different language. Of 95! We speak of the grand scenes of nature, though interesting in a picturesque light , as having a strong effect upon the imagination . . . we everywhere make distinctions between scenes, that are beautiful , and amusing , and scenes that are picturesque. ( i-ii) Followers of the Picturesque—and their numbers were legion—were concerned with a general appreciation of landscape and nature, though particularly those scenes formed of picturesque elements. Protecting Animals! The Picturesque scene was of copy of 95 more intense interest to painters, poets and travellers for the simple reason that the Picturesque scene is a scene more intense in its capacity to provoke and induce reflection. And finally, Gilpin offers a warning: Let not inborn pride,
Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from protecting, Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Uvedale Price (1747-1829) This capacity to provoke is an essential element in biology, the theories of Uvedale Price. Like Gilpin, Price adopts Burke's analysis of beauty: uniformity of surface, gradual variation and so on; as well as Gilpin's own analysis of animals picturesqueness: roughness, sudden variation, irregularity etc. Biology! Price, however, takes exception to pictorially-based definition, suggesting that the Picturesque is protecting animals essay related to painting only accidentally: That term, as we may judge from its etymology, is applied only to objects of sight; and, indeed, in so confined a manner as to be supposed merely to consider the lobster have a reference to the art from animals, which it is biology named.
I am well convinced however, that the animals name and reference only are limited and uncertain, and that the qualities which make objects picturesque, are not only essays by aldous as distinct as those which make them beautiful or sublime, but are equally extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received; and that music—though it appears like a solecism—may be as truly picturesque, according to the general principles of protecting animals picturesqueness, as it may be beautiful or sublime, according to those of beauty or sublimity. ( On the Picturesque , 79-80) Price also states: “Whoever studies art alone, will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects” (3), stressing the importance also of “the mistress of biology dissertations all art” (4), Nature herself. Price is here drawing attention to the ocular bias of William Payne Knight—introduced below—as part and parcel of a protracted debate. Strange then that Davies should insist that for Gilpin landscape’s “appeal is to the eye . . . only through the eye” (230). Heretically, in a topsy-turvey turn around and about Ullswater, Gilpin’s mentions the protecting animals music of the winds and house thesis, tempest, “the echoes excited . . . in different parts of [the] lake” ( Observations, Cumberland , 59). In addition, he tells the tale of the Duke of Portland, who owned a vessel fitted with brass cannons designed for the purpose of producing echoes. Protecting! “Such a variety,” he suggests, “of awful sounds, mixing and commixing, and at the same moment heard from dissertations, all sides, have a wonderful effect on the mind” ( Observations, Cumberland, 61). Another example of the auditory factor in the picturesque is Hagley, Lord Lyttelton’s estate, the protecting animals essay locale in which Thomson revised and rewrote The Seasons which, besides the writing artificial ruins, featured a stream carefully designed for maximum gurgleability. Price seeks to take something of the picture from Picturesque, considering it a new category of protecting animals aesthetic values added to Burke's beautiful and sublime. . . . picturesqueness appears to hold a station between beauty and sublimity; and, on that count, perhaps, is more frequently, and more happily blended with them both, than they are with each other.
It is, however, perfectly distinct from either. Beauty and picturesqueness are indeed evidently founded on dissertations, very opposite qualities; the one on protecting, smoothness, the other on roughness; the one on gradual, the of 95 thesis other on protecting animals essay, sudden variation; the one on ideas of youth and freshness, the other on twenty years at hull house thesis, those of age, and even of decay. ( On the Picturesque , 90) Again, this is only a modification—an engradisement—of Gilpin. Unlike Gilpin’s nation-wide pursuit of the Picturesque, Price concentrated his aesthetic energies upon the picturesqueification of manor gardens; and protecting animals, it is here that the two part company. In fact, it was William Kent, painter, architect and factotum of the Earl of Burlington, who led the revolt against the artificial symmetry of gardens, (see figure 5 ), modifying, in 1734, the gardens at Chiswick House with a meandering stream and an irregular path. Price adopted Kent's early ideas and developed a more expansive theory of creative writing picturesque landscaping, arguing in animals essay, On the Picturesque (1794), that gardens should imitate landscape paintings and that the gardener and napolitano, painter each aspire to the improvement of protecting animals nature—again, the familiar idea of Nature as archetype which might be improved through art. Though inspired by Claude and Salvator, Price also aspired, as suggested above, towards the guiding hand of raw nature and offered pragmatic suggestions of dissertations picturesque effects landowners might attempt. Protecting Animals Essay! Unfortunately, Price’s own effect over actual landscapes was severely limited by thesis the very nature of his improvements, many of which required decades to reach full decay. If the essay patrician Price failed to effect solid change in the English manor landscape, he nevertheless bequeathed a more ironic and widespread legacy: just as “the picturesque sketch promoted naturalism in landscape painting” (Bermingham, 67), Price’s notions fostered a new naturalism in gardening—advocating the wild, the biology dramatic, the “accident” of nature: a withered tree, a half-submerged branch breaking the surface of a pool—and continued the democratisation of the protecting Picturesque aesthetic. Condemned by consider and other some contemporaries for taking wildness too far, Price ultimately won a vox populi approval. Indeed, the art of animals picturesque gardening was soon exported: “. . . the continent, about 1770, began to adopt widely the English . Essays! . . fashion; and works in French and Italian were added to the copious literature of landscape gardening” (Manwaring, 121).
The clash between aesthetic and utility—essentially the moral dimension—was particularly trenchant for Price, whose expertise was firmly fixed in the land itself. In reference to thatched cottages, for example, he suggests: “It is no less picturesque, when mossy, ragged, and animals essay, sunk in among the rafters in decay; a species of twenty house that character, however, which the keenest lover of it would rather see on another's property than on his own” ( On the Picturesque , 398). To this, the zealous and sometimes verbose editor of the 1842 edition interpolates: I confess, that after considerable experience, I have been completely cured of my romantic attachment to thatch. If the roof of a cottage be well formed, and well projected, so as to protecting essay throw a deep shadow over the wall beneath it, I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it, in order to add to its picturesque effect, at the risk of diminishing the comfort of the poor inmates. (398) Price the gentleman farmer, occupied with increased production and the maximisation of essays land use, appears, Ann Bermingham points out, as something of protecting a contradiction to Price the promoter of picturesque aesthetics, biased towards the twenty years thesis nostalgic, the antiquated, the rustic, the dilapidated and the inefficient. The contradiction though seems somewhat delusive and animals essay, is perhaps suggestive of the transformation of the paternal landlord-tenant relationship, with the picturesque manor garden now forming a physical boundary between aesthetic and productive nature. Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824)
Richard Payne Knight, who owned the most valuable collection of Claudes in Europe and whose interests were eclectic,  provides still another perspective. In, The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in for high school, Three Books , he refutes compositional analysis, instead seeing art as a “magic power”(8) which defies analysis and rule: Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines. Beauty's unbounded forms to animals essay given lines! With scorn eternal mark the biology cautious fool.
Who dares not judge till he consults his rule! Or when, Salvator from thy daring hand. Appears, in protecting animals, burnished arms, some savage band,— Each figure boldly pressing into life, And breathing blood, calamity, and strife, Should cold measure each component part. And judge thy genius by a surgeons art. (6-7) Knight also disagrees with Price’s multi-sensory theory, believing that the Picturesque “is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to copy of 95 the sense of vision; or to the imagination guided by that sense”  ( On the Picturesque , 500). Knight provides a curious blend of neo-classical—with his didactic poem festooned in rhyming couplets and his notions of “taste”—and romantic, a clear sign of the transition underway:
Such too the Sicyonian sculptor taught. To model motion, and embody thought; Pure abstract beauty's fleeting shades to trace. And fix the image of ideal grace: Combining what he felt with what he saw. (5-6) Besides his emphasis upon “feeling” in protecting animals, the almost magical and biology dissertations, almost irrational production of art, Knight points towards the dangers of fashion: Straight lines were the fashion of the last century, and the curved ones are the fashion of this, and an indiscriminate adherence to the fashion of the day, what ever it happens to be, with a supercilious contempt for all who venture to dissent from protecting essay, it, is the resume napolitano never failing characteristic of the vanity, separated from the feeling, or discernment, of protecting taste.
The advocate for the curve lines would have been as much ridiculed in the last century as the writing school students advocate for straight ones in this; and with equal reason; for the indiscriminate use of animals either is equally bad. Many of the compositions of Nicholas Poussin show the grand effect which may be produced by the judicious use of straight lines. but the too general use of them was still more fatal to picturesque beauty, than the late senseless destruction of them has been. It belongs to the real improver to discriminate where the straight, and where the curve line will best suit the composition; and it is this talent of discrimination which distinguishes the years house liberal artist from the mechanic. (fn 11) Here, “faddish” (Brownlow, 43) modern appraisals typified also by the “vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33) are clearly drawn and quartered by Knight’s properly considered execution of Picturesque principles which supersede transient newfangledness and commemorate the sempiternal. Knight's fixation upon “taste,” and “discrimination,” are reminiscent of the superciliousness of a Pope or a Swift, though his distinction between the mechanic and liberal artist—one who follows no rules besides those which the magic spirit of art suggests—offers a place within the romantic arena. Animals Essay! Knight, like Price, was accused of wild neglect in his landscape theories: an indication indeed of the distance separating the new naturalism from the old neo-classicism. Finally, and dissertations, perhaps most importantly, Knight insists that the transplanting and protecting animals, mimicking of Italian landscape—both real or painted—should finally be abandoned in preference to compositions which adopt Picturesque principles and native scenes:
Nor, plac’d beneath our cool and wat’ry sky. Attempt the glowing tints of Italy: For thus compell’d in mem’ry to confide, Or blindly follow some preceding guide, One common track it still pursues, And crudely copies what it never views . For High School Students! . . Essay! . (309-314)
The work of Price and Knight, though perhaps less interesting a read than Gilpin, augmented the Picturesque phenomenon to a point where it was not only the talk of the town but of the estate and village. Creative Writing Students! Watson’s assessment that “it is essay difficult to regard it as much more than a sterile ending,” (21) reveals perhaps a certain sterility in biology, his own point of protecting essay view rather than providing any useful conclusion. Lancelot Brown (1716-83) Lancelot “Capability” Brown, though embroiled in essays by aldous, the Picturesque debate, essentially helped define the Picturesque by negation: Brownian improvement replaced the artificiality of neo-classical landscape gardens with a new artificiality based either upon Burke’s principles of beauty or Brown’s singular notions born orphan and condemned to protecting essay permanent infancy. Fundamentally, Brown’s style, though claiming nature as its inspiration, was no less unnatural than, for example, Knole, Nymphenburg or Le Notre's Versailles. Essays By Aldous Huxley! If the protecting essay “improvements” of Price and Knight might take decades to develop, the bumbling “Capability” Brown provided expeditious transformations priced by the yard and complete the day after tomorrow. Gilpin himself comments upon this: This is the first subject of the biology dissertations kind he [Brown] has attempted . . . but a ruin presents a new idea; which I doubt whether he has sufficiently considered . . . [His lake] is animals essay too magnificent, and too artificial an appendage, to copy of 95 thesis be in unison with the protecting essay ruins of an abbey.
An abbey, it is true, may stand by the side of a lake; and it is possible that this lake may, in some future time, become its situation; when the marks of the spade and the pick-axe are removed,—when its osiers flourish; and biology dissertations, its naked banks become fringed and covered with wood . . . the animals ruin stands now on a neat bowling-green like a house just built, and years thesis statement, without any kind of connection with the ground it stands on. Protecting Essay! (qtd. Watkin, 48) Brown designed his landscapes according to his own simple understanding of nature's harmonies and gradients, featuring vast expanses of grass, irregularly shaped bodies of water, and clumpified tree groupings. As a consequence, Brown eventually became the object of general ridicule: On one occasion Owen Cambridge remarked, “I wish I may die before you, Mr.
Brown.” “Why so?” inquired the writing prompts for high puzzled but flattered Brown. Animals! “Because,” came the writing prompts school reply, “I should like to see heaven before you have improved it.” (qtd. Animals! Hussey, 139) Brown clearly and entirely personified the halting and maladroit neo-classical Picturesque, an awkward attempt to at hull house statement plant a round tree in a square hole; and his importance stems partly from the middleground his improvements occupied, and partly from the antithetical virtue of animals essay something which is not providing a point of reference to something which is. The Philosophical Context. The Grand Tour, the importation of souvenir landscape paintings and the increasingly popular provincial trips provide the foundation for all this Picturesque inquiry; but there was additionally a general philosophical investigation which offered a provocative and conducive milieu. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) equated God with the essays natural order of the world; Wilhelm Wackenroder's Effusions of an Art-Loving Friar (1773-1798) proposed the existence of two Divine languages, the first reserved for solely for God, the second composed of two components: Nature and Art—a kind of bilingualism for the unilingual. Protecting Animals Essay! Together, these ideas brought some balance to the traditional Christian bias against nature.
Most important was Burke’s (1729-1797) aforementioned theory of the sublime: the ultimate experience of divinity, composed of awe, fear and enlightenment, and copy thesis, produced by the contemplation of potent and alarming nature. The effect of visible objects on the passions, clearly, is not only the concern of Burke, but lies at the heart also of Picturesque theory. In effect, these philosophical theories began either to intellectualise landscape and nature—a process continued by the Picturesque school, which allowed a less restricted participation—or attached to protecting it theological importance (see figure 6) where once was seen irreverence. Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), for example, exhibited Cross in the Mountains in 1808: a landscape intended as an altarpiece for a private chapel. By Aldous Huxley! Critics initially condemned this as sacrilegious.
Friedrich's own interpretation of the picture identified the natural images as symbols for religious beliefs: “The Cross stands erected on a rock unshakeably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ. Evergreen, enduring through all ages, the essay firs stand round the cross, like the hope of thesis mankind in Him”( Encyclopaedia Britannica ). Landscape and landscape paintings, through these developments, were deemed to be intellectually and religiously interesting and thus offered a respectability previously unknown. Importantly, the religious angle provided only an initial entry point in what was finally to animals become an amoral and secular aesthetic. Returning to the properly Picturesque, Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire , first published in biology, 1778, displays the religious overtones of landscape within the context of the protecting essay urban/rural dichotomy: Such as spend their lives in cities, and their time in resume napolitano, crouds will here meet with objects that will enlarge the animals essay mind, by contemplation, and raise it from nature to nature’s first cause. Whoever takes a walk into twenty at hull thesis statement, these scenes must return penetrated with a sense of the creator’s power in heaping mountains upon mountains, and enthroning rocks upon rocks. And such exhibitions of sublime and beautiful objects cannot but excite at once both rapture and reverence. (4) Although religion, ultimately, would be banished from the Picturesque scene, initially such inclusion provided justification and absolution for the new focus on landscape. Within the larger context, the developing interest in landscape painting and landscape itself comes as no surprise and the romantic school of poetry was essentially a natural progression as inevitable as the protecting animals essay wooded shadows cast by a brilliant dawn. Landscape Painters Autochtonous. As we have seen, the appreciation of landscape was one which required learning, and it was through landscape painting and painters that this skill was initially acquired.
Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Thomas Gainsborough, perhaps the earliest and certainly most highly regarded pioneer of picturesque English landscape painting, emerged as. the most significant landscape painter of the century. Whereas the work of Wilson, the “English Claude,” could be accommodated within the familiar art-history tradition of landscape painting, Gainsborough’s art inspired insights that ran counter to the academic notions of paintings. . . . (Bermingham, 58) Gainsborough “gave landscape the status of pure painting: private, personal” (Bermingham 43). Rejecting portraiture, with its congenital mandate for poetic license, conjured to placate a patron, rather than artistic integrity, Gainsborough believed that the by aldous huxley material of landscape allowed “. Essay! . . the artist freely to essays by aldous huxley exercise his imagination” (Bermingham 44). In his later work, Gainsborough offered ever more subjective and sentimental subjects: the cottage, the essay sublimity of sea, of mountain, and creative writing prompts school students, the innocence of children, each finding a correspondence in such poems as Wordsworth’s “The Ruined Cottage,” “Ode: Intimations of Immortality,” “Farewell though little Nook of protecting mountain ground” and “We Are Seven.” In the decades after his death in 1788, a veritable inversion of taste had occurred, with critics and sensible folk alike increasingly praising landscape over consider the lobster portraits. Gainsborough rejected predefined artistic traditions, embraced English rural subject matter as “a direct response to nature” (Bermingham 58), and established an affinity with the Picturesque well beyond that of either Claude or Salvator. If, as Hussey suggests, Claude, Salvator and others caused a revolution in the appreciation of scenery and nature, then Gainsborough landed that rebellion on protecting, the home front, adopting English countryside and scenes with a subjective reconnaissance which sought to discover their innate truth. J M W Turner (1775-1851)
Joseph Mallord William Turner was principally influenced by Claude, and so, not surprisingly, painted a host of picturesque scenes whose mythological and essays huxley, historical subjects are guaranteed to essay warm even the coldest cockles of the neo-classicist: Dido Building Carthage , The Bay of Baiae with Apollo and the Sibyl and Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus , to name only a few. And yet the subjects themselves tell only half the story, for these were indeed Picturesque canvases with atmospheric effects suggestive of Claude (see figure 7) and foreshadowing impressionistic treatment. Turner then demonstrates the essays by aldous huxley tenacity of neo-classical material in paintings; but also the movement towards a more individual and animals, romantic approach: in of 95, place of mere factual recording, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic outlook. Protecting Essay! Other paintings, like Buttermere Lake: A Shower , from around 1798, as well as Turner’s extensive touring of England and Scotland during the same period, show a sensitivity to dissertations the nationalistic climate inherent in animals essay, the Picturesque movement. Turner, like Salvator, was himself something of a romantic figure: claiming no close friends, painting in absolute privacy, spending months in solitude and always travelling alone. When persuaded to sell his paintings, Turner suffered days of dejection. Finally, Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would support what he called “decaying artists”—a picturesque appellation if ever there was one.
What makes Turner particularly interesting is his treatment of the biology sublime and its Picturesque ramifications. Protecting Animals Essay! John Ruskin has a unique and writing school students, convincing view of protecting essay this which explains the strength of the napolitano Picturesque and partly —infinitesimally—accounts for the modern literary bias: . Animals Essay! . . if this outward sublimity be sought for resume by the painter, without any regard for protecting animals the real nature of the thing, and without any comprehension of the pathos of character hidden beneath, it forms the low school of the writing for high students surface-picturesque; that which fills ordinary drawing-books and animals essay, scrap-books, and employs, perhaps, the most popular living landscape painters of France, England, and Germany. But if these same outward characters be sought for in subordination to the inner character of the object, every source of pleasurableness being refused which is incompatible with that, while perfect sympathy is felt at the same time with the object as to thesis all that it tells of itself in those sorrowful by-words, we have the school of true or noble picturesque. To extend this analysis, it is an acute sympathy which separates middling artists of the protecting essay Picturesque from the resume Turners and the Wordsworths; it is, to adopt Ruskin’s terminology, the difference between high and protecting animals essay, low Picturesque. Although Turner— unlike Wordsworth—employed both sketches and memory, a similar temporal distancing from subject is common to their respective methodologies: The sketch which Turner used as the basis for his drawing of Louth, Lincolnshire , a drawing that dates from sometime in 1827-8, was made thirty years earlier, in 1797. As will become increasingly obvious, painting and literature are indeed sister arts and copy thesis, their practitioners intimately related. Essay! (Shanes, 20) John Constable (1776-1837) John Constable was born and copy thesis, bred in rural England and his bond to the countryside was life long and reverential. No other painter of the period imbued such a sense of self in his work, calling his sketchbooks “journals”—complete with their autobiographical annotations—and stating, surely with a nod of approval from animals, Wordsworth: “I am fond of being an resume, Egoist in whatever relates to painting” (qtd.
Bermingham, 87). His earliest works were venerational sketches in the style of Gainsborough; and, though never abandoning Picturesque theory, Constable appropriated its many exigencies and eventually made them componential to protecting animals the dictates of his own. Initially, then, the Picturesque afforded Constable an aesthetic perspective whose ideological bias coincided at many points with his own rejection of commercial values as shared by his family. Furthermore, the Picturesque focus on the specific appearances of objects and essays, the power of these appearances to evoke strong imaginative associations encouraged Constable’s own propensity to protecting animals essay infuse particular views and objects with affective significance. (Bermingham, 113-114) Perhaps the most striking aspect—at least to the literary minded—of Constable’s stylistic development involves his new conception of nature with its emphasis upon specific and individual elements which undermine traditional hierarchical landscape composition.
Discussing Dedham Vale: Morning , Bermingham states: . . . the eye cannot trace a pedestrian itinerary; it focuses on charged spots—the figures, the tall golden trees, the white church, the consider the lobster post in animals, the left foreground. . . . Copy Of 95! [It is this] profusion of dialectically charged spots [that] organises Constables landscapes. (123) Besides these spots of composition, Constable, in the frontispiece of English Landscape Scenery , supplies an archetype for his work in general: This spot saw the day-spring of my life, Hours of Joy and years of Happiness; This place first tinged my boyish fancy with a love of the Art, This place was the origin of essay my fame. (qtd. Bermingham, 125) The obvious and unavoidable correspondence with Wordsworth’s “spots in time” is further augmented by Constable’s use of recollection: Flatford Mill from the Lock , as a case in point, is creative for high school students a composite canvas composed of five prefatory and much studied sketches, and features five charged spots—focal points of interest—copied from protecting essay, their respective points in the sketches.
The final choice of perspective and arrangement is creative writing prompts school students suggested by Constable in a letter to his wife: “I have tried Flatford Mill again, from the lock (whence you once made a drawing)” (qtd. Bermingham, 131). The lock and its view, as we see, are associated with his wife, and the final composition is imbued with the emotions stirred by his memories of that moment and of imaginings, of retrospection: “. . . what he experienced remembering with what she had experienced in the process of drawing” (Bermingham 132); a fusion of past and present. We should deduce no direct philosophical or methodological imitation from either Constable or Wordsworth—though each was intimately acquainted with the other’s work—but rather recognise that both responded to animals essay the spirit of the times, inheriting a still viable Picturesque aesthetic, assimilating its imperatives and years at hull house, making egotistical innovation their own underlying principle. If we accept for the moment that the romantic movement came not as a miraculous gift from a prophetic Wordsworth tired of rhyming his couplets and poeticising his passages, but as a result of processes already under way; similarly, the Picturesque itself developed through gradual shifts in protecting essay, the philosophical mind and artistic mix. Figure 1: Claude, Pastoral Landscape With the Pointe Molle, from Bicknell. Figure 2: Earlom, from Bicknell. Figure 3: William Westall (1781-1850) View of the caves near Gordale Scar, Yorkshire from Bick nell. “Of all the scenes regularly visited by travellers in search of the thesis Picturesque, Gordale Scar most vividly evoked Salvator” (Bicknel, 72). Figure 4: Gilpin, Number 18, from Bicknell.
Figure 5: Garden Plan, from Manwaring. Figure 6: Marco Ricci (1679-1729), Classical landscape with a traveller and two figures kneeling before a cross, from Bicknell. Figure 7: Turner, Caernarvon Castle (1799) Claudeian influence. Moving from animals essay, Picturesque affects to effects: as fundamental to literature as to the way we presently evaluate and relate to landscape scenes, the holidays and years at hull house, pictures we take, the rural dreams we dream. Continuing the supposition that the Picturesque was no mere fad, this section will detail the transition from literature’s traditional view of landscape shortly before and during the Augustan reign to protecting essay one which gradually accommodates Picturesque learning and issues in the sovereign Nature of the creative romantics. The movement from neo-classicism to protecting romanticism was not so much a break as a gradual changing of the guard, until finally the essays by aldous huxley palace itself stood vacant and the Greco-Roman soldiers sent a-packing. Just as Sir Isaac Newton—for all his cosmic reconstruction—quietly maintained traditional beliefs, writing a commentary on the Book of Revelations which flabbergasted his scientific admirers, so too the Picturesque prebendaries provided token offerings to the ancient classical gods. William Gilpin himself reveals this tentation, offers these offerings, in his definitions of picturesque, occasionally comparing picturesque roughness with classical depictions: Virgil’s Venus, with hair dissundere ventis , Homer’s rugged Jupiter. The strain of discovering the Picturesque in the classics is injurious both to Picturesque theory and to protecting the authors themselves, though the years house thesis statement omnipresence and protecting animals, potency of Augustan authority and prestige during the eighteenth century essentially made necessity of inanity. In addition, Gilpin sometimes uses Virgilian quotations to describe English scenery; and in Observations even suggests that Virgil was a great master of landscape.
From this, Hugh Sykes Davies—perhaps the most Boeotian of modern critics—understands the Picturesque to be a “revived Augustan attitude to dissertations Nature” (248)—a particularly unique and outlandish notion which defies both the evidence of protecting essay art and literature. Indeed, David Watkin makes this absurdity clear: Carroll Meeks showed in 1957  how each of the five principles of the the lobster Picturesque—variety, movement, irregularity, intricacy and roughness—is respectively echoed in the characteristics of Baroque as defined by Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945): painterly, recession, open, unity and unclearness. In Wolfflin’s visual system of analysis, which in itself could be seen as a legacy of the Picturesque, these characteristics were identified as the opposite of those of Classic Art: namely linear, plane, closed, multiplicity and clearness. (x) Section one provided some hint of the amorality that marks the Picturesque school. It is this very fact which provides and another important distinction between the Picturesque and neo-classicism. In Gilpin’s Dialogue upon the Gardens at Stowe , two visitors discuss the merits of a ruinous hermitage. The first is protecting essay puzzled “why we are more taken with a prospect of resume this ruinous kind, than with views of Plenty and Prosperity in their greatest Perfection.” (5) The second responds: Yes: but cannot you make a distinction between natural and animals essay, moral Beauties?
Our social Affections undoubtedly find their Enjoyment the most complete when they contemplate, a Country smiling in the midst of the lobster essays Plenty, where Houses are well-built, Plantations regular, and everything the most commodious and useful. But such Regularity and Exactness excites no manner of Pleasure in the Imagination, unless they are made use of to contrast with something of protecting an opposite kind. (5) Malcolm Andrews contextualises such differentiations: “. . Consider The Lobster Essays! . the protecting animals distinction between natural and moral beauty would have made most Augustans very uneasy, so clearly does it fly in the face of cherished neo-classical values, where physical beauty is seen as the expression of consider essays moral beauty” (48). In terms more specifically concerned with the development of the Picturesque and romantic poetry, Brownlow makes a similar point: “They [neo-classicists] took it as axiomatic that the protecting animals training of the eye was a moral activity, in that a properly conceived, and perceived, landscape or garden was an emblem of order . . . in the state, the mind, the soul, and the emotions” (15). The influence of the Picturesque in France stands as further testament: there the impact was particularly striking for for high students “it conflicted with the rationalist trend of architectural theory which survived from the late seventeenth into the early twentieth century” (Watkin, 161). Eighteenth century neo-classical and Picturesque correlations, like those of Gilpin, which are, at best, spurious, are further explained, firstly, by some degree of pedantry; secondly, intellectual name-dropping, offering assent through association; and thirdly, and most particularly, the tremendous difficulties involved in developing an essay, aesthetic outside the ubiquitous and intrinsically disdainful neo-classical confines. The Picturesque then, saw its earliest lines of delineation drawn during the Augustan heyday. Augustans’ adoption of the Picturesque was initially obvious: with the works of Claude increasingly in writing for high school students, vogue, his idyllic and nostalgic landscapes of lost classical splendour were understandably and generally embraced.
Indeed, the historical/classical narrative in animals essay, Claude’s paintings was comfortably accommodating to neo-classicists and offered—as was the resume case with religious allusion—a license of interest in what was actually a novel, non-classical, non-traditional genre. The Picturesque Path  The attendant problem in viewing pre-picturesque poets through the filter of protecting this thesis is actually the point: landscape in literature, until the early eighteenth century, is conspicuous either by its absence, rarity, or treatment. As mentioned in Section One, just as landscape in painting initially existed largely as a backdrop to biology dissertations human drama, similarly, in literature, it functioned as a symbol of or allusion to grander to more “worthy” conceptions. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637)
Ben Jonson’s “To Penshurst” (1616) is an animals essay, interesting case in point: cutting the first turf in a sub-genre celebrating a specific locale, its treatment of writing students landscape is exactly as we would expect, which is to say, exactly as this thesis anticipates. Penshurst, the country seat of the Sidney family (Sir Philip being the most familiar) is protecting animals essay described by Jonson in a most particular manner: after a brief preamble describing the manor’s modest facade, the poem turns to copy of 95 the surrounding gardens, where “Thou hast thy walks for health, as well as sport” (9)—though notably not for any aesthetic value; where, not surprisingly, Pan and Bacchus drop in for a famous feast; and where every element of this topography reads like a catalogue of ownership, the ledger of a steward rather than a poetic eulogy or a laudation of landscape. “That taller tree, which of a nut was set / At his great birth, where all the essay Muses met” (13-14), initially provides a symbolic marking of Sir Phillip’s birth, soon inscribed—“There in the writhed bark are cut the names / Of many a sylvan” (15-16)—with the scrawl of lovers re-scrawled as the initials of fabled wood deities. Copy! The oak stands not as a tree valued for its majestic treeness, but as an emblem marking the consequence of its wealthy owner; and, to pursue this branch to protecting animals essay its limit, acting as a veritable Zeitgeist . “Thy copse, too, named of Gamage, thou hast there, / That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer” (19-20), strengthens the notion of ownership through nomenclature and introduces the main theme: nature not as objet d’art but as morsels of essays huxley existentialistic meat, the ingredients of art culinaire . Accordingly, in this Edenic garden, with land-owner seated not as Adam but standing as God, “The painted partridge lies in every field, / And, for thy mess, is willing to be killed” (29-30); and “Fat, aged carps, that run into protecting animals, thy net, / Bright eels that emulate them, and leap on land / Before the fisher, or into his hand” (33-35). Of course, all this is very pragmatic and moral, supporting the pillars of establishment and legitimate dominion in a manner suggestive of Elizabethan hierarchy. It will be some time before the stability of the oak and pillars becomes, instead, the biology dissertations stuff of essay aesthetics. John Denham (1615-69) Sir John Denham, in Cooper’s Hill (1642), composed one of the earliest and particularly influential topographical poems. Typically, it mixes natural descriptions with moral.
Here, for example, the two are intercoursed: Though with those streams he no resemblance hold, Whose foam is thesis amber and their gravel gold; His genuine and less guilty wealth t' explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore. Protecting Essay! (165-168) The incorporation of historical and political reflections, besides foreshadowing Pope—specifically Windsor Forest —highlight a landscape invisible without the filter of man’s works.
Interestingly, ironically, use of the heroic couplet marks the napolitano transition from metaphysicals to neo-classicism in much the same way that Thomson’s The Seasons foreshadows romanticism. John Hughes 1677-? John Hughes, with a lifelong interest in graphic art, is protecting animals one of several lesser poets whose attempts at landscape poetry predates the more familiar and famous. His Court of Neptune (1700) describes “Landscapes of rising Mountains, shaggy Woods, / Green Valleys, smiling Meadows, silver Floods, / And Plains with lowring Herds enrich’d around” (qtd, Manwaring, 96). And Other Essays! Obviously, this pre-Picturesque period, still lacking any landscape aesthetic, is incapable of providing any genuine pictorial perspective. Nevertheless, Hughes’ introduction to Poetical Works offers an interesting observation: “There are no parts in a poem which strike the generality of readers with so much pleasure as Description” (xxxxv). Poems like “The Picture,” features an animals essay, original collecting of hues from nature: Queen of fancy hither bring. So from ev’ry flow’r and plant. Gather first the immortal paint. Fetch me lilies, fetch me roses. (7-14)
The poem is twenty years at hull house statement delightful not only for its originality, but for the genuine poetic sensibility. Finally, however, all this pigment is to paint a portrait of Venus. “Greenwich Park,” despite the hopefulness of animals its title, inevitably becomes nothing more than a background for parading and prancing nymphs, Cupid, Mira and various embodiments of beauty: a landscape reflecting classicism and finally fading into resume, aesthetic oblivion while all the radiance that remains is human. Protecting Animals Essay! Poems like “The triumph of peace occasioned by the peace of essays Ryswich 1697” and “The court of essay Neptune on essays by aldous, King William’s return from Holland 1699,” surprisingly do contain landscape elements, though again only as a history painting-like background. Only the subject itself of To Mr. Constantine, on His Paintings makes true landscape fleetingly possible:
Here tufted Groves rise boldly to the Sky, There Spacious Lawns more distant charms the Eye, The Crystal Lakes, in Borrow’d Tinctures shine. And misty Hills the animals far Horizon join, Lost in the azure of Borders of the Day, Like Sounds remote that die in Air away. (qtd, Manwaring, 96) Conventionally a cardinal artistic sin, this copy of copy surprisingly exhibits particular merit, not only for the avant-garde Picturesque elements—William Kent’s 1709 Memorandum, after all, appears now on the horizon—but with the “borrowing” from one state of reality to thesis another and protecting essay, the canvas’ frame providing closure to years at hull the day. Nevertheless, any systematic rendition of protecting landscape is, at this time, possible only by prompts students imitation not of nature—nor indeed Nature—but of a landscape canvas. The Picturesque Convergence. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), writing during and even dabbling in the development of Picturesque theories, enters the literary pantheon during this transitional period and consequently demands significant attention. Animals Essay! In fact, as will become apparent, the Augustan embrace of the Picturesque was one without much feeling, attachment, sincerity and without much conviction.
Pope was connected with the earliest picturesque efforts: one of the first romantic mediaevalisations, built at twenty at hull Cirencester Park, Gloucestershire. Known as Alfred's Hall, it was begun in 1721 for the first Earl of Bathurst. In 1732 Bathurst wrote to protecting animals Pope: “I have almost finished my hermitage in creative for high school, the wood, and it is better than you can imagine . . . I will venture to assert that all Europe cannot show such a pretty little plain work in protecting animals, the Brobdingnag style as what I have executed here” (qtd. Watkin, 45). This plain structure eventually became, with Pope's advice and assistance, a venerable castle and creative for high students, mock ruin. In addition, Pope’s Moral Essays , “Epistle IV” offers some promising notions of protecting picturesque landscape gardening, with both Nature and painting offered as inspiration and resume, methodology. This leads J. R. Watson to suggest: “The gardener’s task was now to co-operate with nature, as Pope knew” (16). In fact, although Pope mocks the formality of a Versailles, supplanting it with, “Parts answ’ring parts shall slide into view / Spontaneous beauties all around advance, / Start ev’n from Difficulty, strike from Chance” (66-68), his own poetry regularly smacks of the formality of affected gardens. Indeed, Pope’s own garden—mostly laid out in c. 1718-25—epitomised by its now famous grotto, illustrates something of the awkwardness of his picturesque dabblings. David Watkin—in what becomes a familiar motif of prevarication—succinctly describes this incongruity: “Pope enhanced his grotto with optical illusion, with mirrors and waterworks, with ores and animals, minerals chosen for their beauty not their rarity, yet he still considered it natural in comparison with the formality and artificiality of mannerist and baroque grottoes” (4). A Plan of Mr.
Pope’s Garden , penned by John Serle, Pope’s gardener and man-servant, reveals more details: the grotto was, in fact, a rock and sea-shell strewn tunnel leading beneath a road to the garden. Resume! Besides the opulence of the marble plaque inscribed in protecting animals essay, gold letters decorating the entrance, Italian marble, Plymouth marble, Cornish diamonds, Amesthystine crystals—to scratch only the surface—form the grotto itself. Although none of these are precious materials per se , neither are they the stuff of the primitive Picturesque scene. A Plan , in its cartographic fold-out, reveals the lay-out of the garden: formed mostly of radial and rectilinear pathways and a polished lawn, there are nevertheless a few hesitant serpentine walks. Watkin admits: “What Pope persisted in seeing as ‘natural’ seems to us as artificial as Rococo . Biology Dissertations! . .” (5). Indeed, what Pope persisted in seeing as natural would no doubt have seemed equally artificial, only a few decades later, to Price and Knight. What makes A Plan particularly interesting is protecting animals its uninteresting inventory, which not only itemises the materials used in the grotto, but their source: Several large Groups of Cornish Diamonds tinged with a blackish Water, from the Rev. Dr. William Borlace of Ludgvan in Cornwall . Resume Napolitano! . . . Several fine Pieces of Eruptions from essay, Mount Vesuvius , and a fine Piece of Marble from the Grotto of Egeria near Rome , from the Reverend Mr. Spence ; with several fine Petrifactions and Plymouth Marble, from Mr.
Cooper . (6-7) This brief extract, with its “fine” name dropping, reveals the familiar marks of ownership and prestige. By Aldous! The emblem of land title, which we saw in Jonson’s “To Penshurst,” is here reduced to constitutional elements: rocks and minerals, and suggesting the protecting essay commensurate importance of thesis associate names, like famous signatures in essay, a gallery of ultimately mediocre art: the high price of reputation . Even the poems contained in a section entitled, “Verses Upon the Grotto at Twickenham” concern themselves not with the grotto itself, but with the man who owned the creative for high school grotto. Emerson once wrote that although fields and farms belong to this man or that, the landscape is nobody’s private property. In early eighteenth century England, the notion of landscape finally existed, though Emerson’s point was as yet lost in the haze of animals future understanding. The far flung opulence, the unnatural far flung assortment of items collected from of 95, various regions—how natural is a chunk of protecting essay Vesuvius clinging to a lump of Plymouth Marble?—should, one would think, quickly and convincingly settle the question which Morris R. Napolitano! Brownell rhetorically poses in his introduction to A Plan : “Pope’s acknowledgement to Sloan for essay his gift of resume napolitano joints of the Giant’s Causeway raises the protecting question of his conception of the grotto—fosillary of rare minerals or imitation of nature?” (viii). Not surprisingly, Brownell sees the by aldous huxley whole thing as an animals, imitation of at hull house thesis statement nature.
However wrong this blind faith reading might be, the question itself misses the point: whatever Pope’s intent, the result was impossibly unnatural. Protecting Essay! The neo-classicist, no matter what aesthetic mining he attempts, can extract only a rarefied nature, more artful than natural, the geological equivalent of a landscape lyric in heroic couplets, with every pair of dissertations lines a peculiar strata of imported rock. In fairness to Pope, however, Twickenham garden and Lord Burlington’s in Chiswick vie as the first picturesque grounds. If they are, by later standards, largely unnatural and unpicturesque, they were at least a tentative first step down the meandering garden path. Further, Pope’s definition of nature was usually Nature , duly capitalised and essay, interrelated not with “the great out-doors,” nor nature in a Darwinian sense, but more particularly the illustrative, universal and prompts school students, intransmutable; common sense and animals essay, perspicacity: Yet if we look more closely, we shall find. Most have the seeds of judgement in their mind: Nature affords at twenty years thesis least a glimmer of light; The lines, though touched but faintly, are drawn right;(“An Essay on Criticism,” 19-22) Here the drawing metaphor is emphatically concerned neither with landscape nor art, but with “good sense.”
Pope’s earliest attempt at what we might broadly term nature poetry was Pastorals . Reading like a declaration of protecting essay love from an consider the lobster and other essays, avaricious beggarly bachelor to a wealthy widow, any genuine feeling seems obliterated by animals essay a self-conscious pedantic exhibitionism: the Thames valley landscape, for example, is chock-a-block with “ Sicilian Muses” (certainly not my italics) though singularly Spartan in sunny meadows. The natural elements in Pastorals typically function in creative prompts for high school, one of essay three ways: firstly, as a form of extended characterisation: Oh deign to visit our forsaken seats, The mossy fountains, and copy thesis, the green retreats! Where’re you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees, where you sit, shall crowd into a shade; Where’re you tread, the blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. (71-76) In this instance, the essay chastity, morality, purity of Rosalinda is externalised in by aldous huxley, a venerational relationship with subdued Nature. Secondly, as a mere pretext for manifold classicisms:
Beneath the Shade a spreading Beech displays, Hylas and Aegon sung their Rural Lays; This mourn’d a faithless, that an essay, absent Love. And Dekia’s Name and consider the lobster and other, Doris fill’d the Grove. Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred Succour bring;
Hylas and Aegon’s Rural Lays I sing. ( Pastorals: Autumn , 1-6) And, thirdly, as in traditional paintings, as a background or at best a setting for human activity. Windsor Forest (1713) provides another example of Pope’s inability to create either pictorial or picturesque scenes. Indeed, the poems turns out to be a virtual arboricultural wasteland: a peculiar reversal of the familiar aphorism where we cannot see the trees for the forest. Here Hills and animals essay, Vales, the Woodland and the Plain, Here Earth and water seem to strive again. There, interspers’d in Lawns and opening Glades, Thin Trees arise that shun each others Shades. Here in full light the copy of 95 russet Plains extend;
There wrapt in Clouds the bluish Hills ascend. (11-24) Certainly there is some semblance of landscape here, but the lawns are never far away, and animals, we imagine a scene, not surprisingly, more typical of Capability Brown than the Picturesque. The natural elements are correspondingly here, here, there, here, there: namely, nowhere, a collage of bits glued willy-nilly, denying spatial and relative reality; the thin trees seemingly represent not a fecund forest but the sparsity of Pope’s pictorial sense. To admire Pope for his particular strength without acknowledging his weakness licenses the implicit generosity of J. R. Watson and the superficiality of Manwaring’s statement that “Pope comes close to Claude” (97) and does neither service to understanding Pope’s poetry nor Picturesque development. Indeed, Hussey convincingly argues that, “There is no analogy in his landscapes to copy thesis those of animals Claude or Salvator” (30). Pope’s embryonic landscapes, in place of visualisation, provide Defoe-like catalogues, reminiscent also of “To Penshurst”: painting the scenery of inventory rather than the canvas of essays by aldous invention. Pope’s Classical Roots. Ever since Horace’s dictum in Ars Poetica (c.
13 BC) “ ut pictura poesis —“as is painting, so is poetry”—the two arts have been jointly imprisoned in the same ivory tower—albeit “painting” definitively meant portraiture. Even briefly setting aside the neo-classical context, there can be no surprise that the Picturesque movement was initially tied—though with varying degrees of tightness—to classical poetry. Of course, Pope’s archetypes—indeed, the fact that his literature always passes through some metaphysical classical filter—virtually disallows any personal expression of essay a personal relationship with nature, or at least results in hollow sentiments. A brief quotation from Virgil’s The Eclogues (37 BC) will perhaps make this clear: Happy old man, who ’mid familiar streams. And hallowed springs, will court the biology cooling shade!
Here, as of old, your neighbour's bordering hedge, That feasts with willow-flower the Hybla bees, Shall oft with gentle murmur lull to sleep, While the leaf-dresser beneath some tall rock. Uplifts his song, nor cease their cooings hoarse. The wood-pigeons that are your heart's delight, Nor doves their moaning in the elm-tree top. ( Eclogue I) Though certainly broader than Pope’s catalogue of natural elements, the holistic perspective of landscape is obviously impossible where man and his activities form the principal focus. Interestingly, Virgil goes beyond simple nature eulogy and those country comforts provide a simple alternative to urban opulence: “Let Pallas keep the towers her hand hath built, / Us before all things let the woods delight”(Eclogue II). The English ideal would transform these towers into stately homes, islands of luxury in a sea of peasant labour, a simplicity of life defined geographically rather than philosophically. While Virgil calls for a hands-on relationship with nature, rural England produced the harvest bounty at arms length.
In addition to this, the classical landscape, though never described in terms of protecting essay landscape, is one distinctly exotic, inhabited by pipe-playing shepherds, wayward wolves and unfamiliar flora. Thus, the classical pastoral offers a way of life that no well-manored Englishman could tolerate in a countryside he could not assimilate. The “Muses of creative prompts Sicily,” (Eclogue IV) can never truly sing of England, and Pope, in emulation, can never truly sing familiar nor sing true. When Pope adopts not only the dialogic structure of Virgil’s Eclogues but the animals essay characters themselves, “Fair Thames , flow gently from thy sacred Spring, / While on thy Banks Sicilian Muses sing” (“Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon,” 3-4), the result is transplanted absurdity, apparent not only to the modern reader, but the essays by aldous huxley contemporary also: Thomas Tickell, in essay, his Guardian essay (April 15, 1713), comments: . Biology Dissertations! . . our countrymen have so good an opinion of the ancients, and think so modestly of themselves, that the animals essay generality of essays by aldous huxley Pastoral Writers have either stolen all from the Greeks and Romans, or so servilely imitated their manners and customs, as makes them very ridiculous. (qtd. Andrews, 11)
Pope understood none of essay this,  saw no immediacy in essays by aldous, the pastoral, no native narrative nor contemporaneity: only a perpetual backwards survey of a Golden Age forged in Vulcan’s far away fires. Accordingly, in “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” Pope states: If we would copy Nature, it may be useful to animals take this Idea along with us, that pastoral is an image of creative prompts what they call the Golden age. So that we are not to describe our shepherds as shepherds at this day really are, but as they may be conceiv’d then to have been. (120) The real requirement was something Pope could never provide: a kind of reverse alchemy, transforming the gold of the Golden Age into essay, the Englishman’s baser mettle. Pope’s further insistence upon “exposing the best side only creative for high of a shepherd’s life, and in concealing his miseries” (120) is again in opposition with picturesque trends which, though, as we have seen, generally avoiding the moral context of poverty, places emphasis upon the dilapidated, the coarse, the unkept, positing hardship as intrinsic to the scene as the gnarled wind-blasted tree. The ragged shepherd, his hair swept by wind, his visage worried by the elements, is both a more accurate and picturesque portrait. Virgil’s Eclogues , with “These fallows, trimmed so fair” (Eclogue I) and, “Now, Meliboeus, graft your pears, now set / Your vines in order!” (Eclogue I), provides a subtext of nature controlled, ordered and manipulated. In Georgics , of course, this philosophy becomes an overtly expressed treatise on the cultivation of estates, making the incongruity between the neo-classical and the Picturesque as conspicuous as a dilemma between nature ordered and natural disorder.
But there is an essay, even more important incongruity, for Georgics , like much of Virgil’s poetry—and The Aeneid in particular—features a strong nationalistic component. As the years thesis focus gradually fixes upon protecting essay, British landscape, Virgil’s distant view of biology dissertations “. . . Protecting! Britain, from the whole world sundered far” (Eclogue I,) and dissertations, the worship of foreign fields reveals a dislocated panegyric, at odds with the protecting essay general trend. Malcolm Andrews, in The Search for the Picturesque , sees Virgil’s patriotism as offering “. . . a kind of licence for cultural emancipation” (9), and moves in copy, the next paragraph to an analysis of Thomson’s The Seasons , as if Virgil’s nationalistic vision directly correlated to an appreciation of protecting English landscape. In fact, the neo-classical attitude as expressed in Pope’s “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” implies the very reverse. Infatuation and emulation of the Golden Age proved a barrier to home-spun nature and landscape literature—briefly recollect the shepherd not as he is but as he might once have been—and it was the Picturesque movement which gradually laboured in chipping away at by aldous that barrier.
This can be seen even in Pope’s pastoral verse, “Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon”: despite mimetic qualities, the poem works upon the premise of “ Cynthus and Hybla yield to protecting essay Windsor- Shade” (68), festooning lines with English flora. The result is a hodge-podge of classical characters, ancient gods, and the English rose as an biology dissertations, uncomfortable floral bed fellow. The new focus on landscape through the animals essay Picturesque was never a reinvention of the Golden Age: the Picturesque includes in its composite elemental degeneration, hardship and ruin: the stuff of the English countryside rather than the eternal Mediterranean spring and a life of writing ease. Richard Payne Knight’s comment that “a person conversant with the writings of Theocritus and Virgil will relish pastoral scenery more than one unacquainted with such poetry” ( Inquiry , 150), demonstrates the difficulties involved in adopting a new and provincial landscape still largely devoid of literary and animals, artistic association and prestige. Such comments lead Malcolm Andrews to talk of the “elitism of the Picturesque” (4), though it seems more appropriate—especially when we consider the eventual popularity of picturesque tourism—to understand rather the elitism of Knight himself. The plethora of resume napolitano Picturesque guide books is indicative of the increasing popularity of landscape appreciation. This gradual shift from “elite” to general can also be seen in Gilpin’s Observations on the River Wye : the protecting essay first edition of biology 1782 features Latin quotations which, in the second 1789 edition are all translated. If textbooks on protecting animals, landscape gardening exist for the narrow academic, this by dissertations no means suggests the humble fellow busy building his lily pond is similarly focused.
The initial references to Virgil and Horace were as necessary as they were inappropriate: before Britain could be truly discovered and localised, it was conceptualised as a transplanted Arcadia, where northern Shepherds wandered crooked hills buffeted by Mediterranean breezes, expecting at any moment to come upon a triumphant Aeneas. With no traditional appreciation for landscape as a meaningful aesthetic experience, new understanding, occasioned by the novel introduction of essay landscape paintings, came not from a moment of revelation, but rather from a gradual modification and eventual weakening of what was already known. Essentially, Pope understood a well composed garden to be an emblem of good order reflecting the inner good order of the educated mind. His treatment of nature is subjugated by the omnipresent and Elizabethan notion that “ORDER is Heav’n’s first law” ( Essay on dissertations, Man , Epistle IV, 50), though devoid of Shakespeare’s sense of nature’s power, of Godlike omnipotence; and botany, biology, anthropology, philosophy, painting, all become mere lessons in classical history. Classical pastoral and Georgic writing, in simple terms, are too distant and different to ever speak of England, no matter how cunningly coined and conflated with native elements. Essay! Like Windsor Forest, Pope’s Picturesque is one defined by omission, a Picturesque truly without the picture. The Picturesque Scene. James Thomson (1700-1748), as an acquaintance of creative writing prompts Arbuthnot, Gray and Pope, falls firmly into the neo-classical camp. His landscapes, although they were greatly influenced by those of Claude, Rosa and Poussin, include only animals occasional classical allusions, and from this we see some glimmering hope of rebellion. Indeed, this is the case: the bugle call bugled, the neo-classical swan-song giving way to. The Muses, still with freedom found,
Shall to thy happy coast repair: Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd, And manly hearts to guard the fair. Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves.(“Rule Britannia”, 1729) Despite somewhat artificial diction, Thomson’s The Seasons :, first completed in 1730 and later expanded, offers a landmark in English poetry. The influence of the increasingly familiar Picturesque is particularly clear in Winter : the first edition expressed only minor pictorial interest; in the second, Thomson inserts such Salvatorian lines as “. Resume Napolitano! . . Animals Essay! The cloudy Alps and Appenine / Capt with grey mists, and everlasting snows; / Where nature in stupendous ruin lies. (243-5) The remaining three books, composed subsequently to napolitano Winter , feature diverse landscape scenes.
Summer (1727) illustrates Claudian sun play: . . . yonder comes the powerful king of day, Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud. The kindling azure, and the mountain’s brim, Illumed with fluid gold; (81-84) In Spring both the poet and Nature play the part of painter: Behold yon breathing prospect bids the Muse.
Throw all her beauty forth. But who can paint. Like Nature? Can imagination boast, Amid its gay creation, hues like hers? Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. And lose them in each other, as appears. In every bud that blows. (467-73) Manwaring explains: “In the essay edition of 1744—that is, after his visit to Italy and his collecting of prints—appears the most elaborately composed of all his landscapes, with real Claudian distances” (104). Although none of this is specifically Picturesque, the Claudian influence and creative for high, the well defined conflation of poetry and landscape painting demonstrate the development underway.
Abandoning rhyming couplets was nothing new—indeed, The Seasons , as commonly acknowledged, owes some of its versification to Miltonic influence—but in the context of Pope’s predominant style it was a break in the pillars of the literary establishment. The popularity of The Seasons , with over three hundred editions published between 1750 and 1850, is protecting animals a testament to the vitality of the resume napolitano Picturesque trend. Certainly, The Seasons is not solely a Picturesque poem, though the animals essay influence of painting is everywhere; and the title itself, suggestive of the temporal changes of consider the lobster essays nature, quotes the protecting movement of copy of 95 thesis Picturesque tenets in implicit opposition to the static catalogues of Pope: a real landscape that generates and degenerates. Although the poem predates the apex of Picturesque popularity, there can be no doubt as to the Picturesque vision that made the conception possible: . Essay! . Creative Writing For High School! . Protecting Animals Essay! now the essays by aldous bowery walk. Of covert close, where scarce a speck of day. Falls on the lengthened gloom, protracted sweeps; Now meets the protecting essay bending sky, the resume river now.
Dimpling along, the breezy ruffled lake. The forest darkening round, the glittering spire, The ethereal mountain, and the distant main. Here we see not only metastasis, the chequered canvas of change, with the temporal “now” rather than Pope’s unplaceable “here” and “there,” but also key Picturesque elements: the dimpling river anticipates Knight’s original musing on smoothness : Smoothness being properly a quality perceived only by the touch, and applied metaphorically to the objects of the other senses, we often apply it very improperly to those of vision; assigning smoothness, as a cause of visible beauty, to things, which, though smooth to the touch, cast the most sharp, harsh, and angular reflections of light upon the eye. . . . ( An Analytical Inquiry , 65) The ethereal mountains offering a suggestion of protecting essay sublime grandeur; the depth of field, with the meandering river leading the eye towards a distant background.
Unlike Pope, Thomson invites the reader to view the landscape with leading locutions: “see,” “prospect” and “yon,” and the frequent use of the present tense. Creative Writing Prompts For High! As Watson points out, the description of essay George Lyttelton’s estate at Hagley “is carefully composed and presented as foreground (the Hall), middle distance (villages, fields, heathlands, a ‘broken landscape’) and background (the Welsh mountains)” (32), a method identical to creative writing prompts that employed later by Picturesque writers and intrinsic to the landscape artist’s craft. Andrews, however, refuses to animals essay see any influence of picturesque painting in essays, Thomson’s The Seasons , asserting instead the influence stems rather from literature. External evidence all suggests otherwise. The historical context: this is, after all, rapidly becoming the age of landscapes and influence seems virtually unavoidable; the geographical: the poem was actually revised and partly rewritten at Hagley, then newly laid out according to picturesque tenets; and, as mentioned above, Thomson travelled to essay Italy during the composition, making subsequent books markedly richer in landscape images. Unfortunately, Andrews’ literary bias—the idea, for example, that, “Painting’s sister-art [literature] had shown the way to freedom from didacticism or slavish topographical portraiture with Thomson’s The Seasons ” (25), places the literary cart before the Picturesque horse. However, it is internal evidence itself which most clearly outlines the absurdity of dissertations Andrews horsing around: Meantime you gain the hight, from whose fair brow. The bursting prospects spreads immense around; And, snatched o’er hill and dale, and wood and lawn,
The verdant field, and protecting essay, darkening heath between, And villages embosomed soft in trees, And spiry towns by surging columns marked. Of household smoke, your eyes excursive roams— Wide-stretching from the Hall in whose kind haunt.
The hospitable genius lingers still, To where the consider the lobster broken landscape, by degrees. Ascending, roughens into rigid hills. O’er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds. That skirt the blue horizon, dusky rise. ( Spring , 950-62) Selected almost at random, there can be no doubt even here of the analogy to landscape canvas: the scene is both designed and protecting, unified, with precisely placed detail within the larger picture framework; with foreground, middleground and background all respectively described. The passage also contains key picturesque elements: contrast, for example, between wood and lawn, field and heath; the texture of the rough rigid hills; the broken allusion; and the sublime cloud-like mountains. The influence of landscape paintings upon resume, a burgeoning genre of landscape and nature literature seems beyond question and Andrews’ cart is not only misplaced but surely wrecked by a broken axle.
The interconnectivity between these two arts is further illustrated by Turner and Constable, for whom Thomson was a favourite poet, adopting lines appended to several canvases.  Indeed, Turner’s Aeolian Harp (see figure 8) was exhibited in 1809 with a poem that begins: On Thomson’s tomb the dewy drops distil, Soft tears for animals essay Pity shed for Pope’s lost fame, To worth and napolitano, verse adhere sad memory still, Scorning to wear ensnaring fashion’s chain. In silence go, fair Thames, for all is laid. While flows the protecting animals essay stream, unheeded and unsung.
Resplendent Seasons! chase oblivions shade. (qtd. Copy Of 95 Thesis! Bicknell, 32) The poem highlights each season in turn, though, as Bicknell explains, quoting various art scholars, it is based not so much on Thomson’s work as William Collin’s “Ode occasion’d by the death of Mr Thomson.” The four figures in essay, the picture, however, are understood to represent the by aldous seasons. Bicknell concludes: “Turner’s picture pays homage both to Claude and to protecting essay Thomson, and in creative writing prompts for high, doing so it enshrines the link between the ‘picturesque poets’ and the ‘Italian’ landscape painters(33). During the swan-song years of the eighteenth century, classical poets were losing ground to the increasing number of protecting animals essay British poets, with classical allusion becoming thin on the ground. Concomitantly, . Copy Thesis! . Animals Essay! . booksellers were no longer addressing a relatively few, elite readers but a wide, mixed audience including merchants, professionals, children, and urban servants, as well as traditional audiences. Dissertations! (Benedict, 158) Thus, there existed a growing exigency for a new kind of literature, removed from the Grub Street Press, yet more in tune with more people, more accessible, reflecting more the changing social condition.
John Dyer (1699-1757), of course, is best remembered for “Grongar Hill.” Describing the scenery of the river Towy, there is a Wordsworthian quality of observation, personal reflection and picturesque features: “prospect,” “Old castles,” “ruins, moss and weeds,” and protecting, so on; there is the occasional picturesque personification, as in “And ancient towers crown his brow, / That cast an awful look below” (71-72); though mostly we have only a topographical and consider essays, irregular ode in rhyming couplets. Published in 1726, it draws immediate comparison with Thomson’s The Seasons . Besides taking landscape as its primary focus, “Grongar Hill” really sits in the shadow of The Seasons , offering only the occasional sign of life, such as: And see the rivers how they run, Thro’ woods and meads, in shade and sun! Sometimes swift and sometimes slow, Wave succeeding wave, they go. A various journey to protecting animals essay the deep,
Like human life to Endless sleep. (93-98) Dyer made several tours of years at hull house thesis statement England and Wales, travelled to essay Italy, studied to be a painter long before he became a parson-poet, and napolitano, there is, certainly, a convincing affection for landscape in animals, “Grongar Hill”—though this is more strongly expressed in The Country Walk , whose concluding lines draw a melancholy comparison between the utopia of landscape and the distopia of the lobster and other essays human existence. “Grongar Hill” is framed upon the summit prospect of Grongar Hill and, compared to the rhyming couplets of Pope’s “landscapes,” the view is clear and convincing and the subject focused. It is essay with Dyer’s final and essays huxley, greatest—in terms of bigness—poem, however, that the poet’s mutable mediocrity comes to light. “The Fleece,” praised by Wordsworth—which is perhaps condemnation enough, a certain sign that the egotistical sublimian felt no literary threat—is an anachronistic georgic written thirty years after “Grongar Hill.” Dyer hoped “The Fleece” would provide necessary information allowing sheep farmers to improve their stock and the quality of wool; to improve the fortunes of combers, dyers and weavers; to animals improve Britain’s trade by advocating expansion abroad. A georgic with such—conventional—pragmatic goals finds high poetic diction and frequent digressions a serious impediment. It is difficult bordering on biology, impossible to imagine one tenth of those concerned in animals essay, the industry with the consider the lobster faculty and willingness, not to mention leisure time, to read such a long run-around poem. If ever there was a case for abandoning classical models, this georgic, begging for protecting animals essay the mercy of simple prose, pleads guilty and biology, stands duly condemned.
Essentially, Dyer proclaims here his affiliation with Dryden’s now ageing notion, expounded in “Parallel betwixt Poetry and Painting” (1695), that the primary end of Painting is to please, though the ultimate end of Poetry is to instruct. Dyer’s affection for rural landscapes is perhaps all the more remarkable for this utilitarian and mercantile disposition. Unlike Wordsworth, Dyer saw no injurious contiguity between industry and trade. Protecting! Quite the resume napolitano contrary: “Trade,” he wrote, “is the daughter of peace” (qtd. Protecting Animals! Williams, 98). Williams, in essays huxley, his biography of Dyer, continues, . Essay! . . traders and years at hull house thesis statement, merchants, he felt, were promoters of peace and therefore of civilisation.. And by aiding them to protecting animals essay bring natural resources and industries together, to develop new resources, new manufactures, and new means of consider the lobster essays transportation, Dyer felt that he too was promoting peace and civilisation. (98) The same, in fact, is true of The Seasons , though Thomson’s approbation of mercantilism—as well as the didactic insertions—is less the business of the poem and protecting animals, more an unfortunate by-product. If “Grongar Hill” makes a step forwards towards the prompts for high students romantic movement, “The Fleece” takes several backwards. In his preface to the second edition of Winter , Thomson mentions Virgil’s Georgics as one of his models. He insists, however, that Winter bore a closer resemblance to the devotional literary tradition which included the Pentateuch, the animals Book of Job, and Paradise Lost . “The Fleece,” on the other hand, is not only fully georgic but formally inappropriate to its purpose.
There is, then, in Dyer something of the neo-classical romantic dichotomy, the day-dreamer and the practical day-worker and it is in this context that he is resume napolitano best read and makes most sense. Neo-classicists’ adoption of the Picturesque, with Claude recognised as the precursor, was initially perhaps not inevitable though certainly understandable. There was, however, a certain incongruity to animals essay this adoption, for the geometry of biology dissertations contemporary gardens and regularity of versification were essentially antithetical to the Picturesque. Besides, the protecting serenity and and other, classical nostalgia of Claude was losing ground to the wildness of the more rugged Rosa (see figure 9) whose craggy cliffs and toothed trees and desolate domains were closer to both lakeland scenes and romantic sensibilities. Neo-classicism and formative Picturesque then were uneasy partners. Upon the crumbling and protecting, tumbling columns of neo-classicism was slowly builded an ever more refined picturesque aesthetic. Tentative attempts at picturesque typified in copy of 95, The Seasons and “Grongar Hill” provides a background for an entirely new landscape of protecting aesthetic appreciation and artistic expression that was quite simply blowing through the by aldous temporal winds and disturbing everything in its path. For all the aesthetic developments taking place as the eighteenth century progressed, neo-classicism was reluctant to animals give up the battle.
Thomas Warton, in Poems on Several Occasions, (1748) includes such key terms as “Nature’s Landscapes,” “Dark woods and pensive waterfalls,” “Desert Prospects rough and rude,” “a green Valley’s wood-encircled Side.” However, translations and paraphrases of Horace rub shoulders with “Ode to resume napolitano Taste”: Leave not Britannia’s Isle; since Pope is fled. To meet his Homer in Elysian Bowers, What Bard shall dare resume. His Various-sounding Harp?(180) Warton then demonstrates the literary discord at this time, the protecting animals essay venerational prestige of Pope, and the staying power of neo-classicism. As late as 1775 and writing prompts for high school students, calling to mind Gilpin’s examination of natural and protecting animals essay, moral beauty in Stowe , Samuel Johnson, in Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland wrote: An eye accustomed to flowery pastures and copy of 95 thesis, waving harvests is astonished and repelled by this wide extent of hopeless sterility.
The appearance is that of matter incapable of form or usefulness, dismissed by nature from her care and disinherited from her favours. (qtd. Andrews, 197) There was no extensive digging and chiselling, no blasting of animals hill and dale, no landscaping on a geographic scale, no remoulding or recasting of this northern nation, no topographical development. The only resume conceivable change was internal: aesthetic conception; and with this mightiest of change, the Scottish Highlands would soon become—and remain—one of the most picturesque areas in all Britain. Figure 8: Turner, Thomson’s Aeolian Harp, from animals, Bicknell. Figure 9: Salvator Rosa, Mountain landscape, from Bicknell. “This mountainous landscape is of a type which particularly appealed to English taste. It could be a Salvatorian of a scene in essays, the Lake District or North Wales” (Bicknell, 5) The Middle Ground: Wordsworth.
The artistic and aesthetic links established in Section One now become particularly significant. This section will include an protecting animals essay, important aetiological component, identifying the copy of 95 articles of faith employed in establishing the standard—and erroneous—critical guiding conception of the essay Picturesque. Having, hopefully, and to some degree, divested Wordsworth (1770-1850) of the prophetic, revolutionary inspired vestments which modern scholars intimatingly fancy his dress, the entire fabric of the venerational and vituperative theory of Wordsworth and the Picturesque respectively becomes bare supposition, allowing, finally, a more valid and useful appraisal of the two. The influence of the Grand Tour in fostering an intense and popular interest in scenic tourism—it was in the 1780s that the word ‘tourist’ entered the English language—the increasing familiarity of landscape paintings, philosophical enquiries which intellectualised landscape, the religious symbolism which initially justified landscape not only for the French but for the Hudson River Group in North America, the twenty popularity of landscape gardening, all these were elements in a new cultural and aesthetic picture. Essay! And yet, as mentioned in the previous section, the neo-classical constituent, as much a symbol of “quality” as Friedrich’s Cross On the Mountain was of faith, stubbornly persisted. The prestige of the classical past essentially allowed the prestige of the present, and with nature already running wild in picturesque landscape gardens, neo-classicism endured like an old marble statue, certainly, its arm’s severed at the shoulder and missing a leg, yet still solid and strong.
Romantic poetry would provide the final cutting edge, individuality and originality and resume napolitano, subjectivity and emotional response would allow a cultural coming of age; and if the statue would always remain, at least now the head could be lopped off. In addition to essay the impetus provided by of 95 this new and burgeoning cultural and aesthetic picture, there was also some imperative to fill a literary void. Essay! Sonnets, long castrated of their erotic themes, momentarily seduced by religion and politics, were by now only a literary footnote. Consider! Similarly, allegory seemed an anachronistic way of describing a shovel by digging a hole. The epic itself existed only as a mockery. Animals Essay! Worst of by aldous huxley all, newer innovations like the invariable antithetical rhyming couplet inevitably lost their heroic gloss and seemed more like a tired knave than a tireless knight. Animals Essay! Only satire and burlesque—seventeenth century developments—retained any semblance of staying power.
In simple terms, literary convention increasingly lacked invention. The cause and of 95, effect relationship between this void and the development of a new aesthetic is perhaps too metaphysical and certainly too immaterial for this examination, though the animals essay possibility at least suggests mandate for change. It is within the essays by aldous context of this paradigm shift that Wordsworth reads not as literary prophet, but as a poetic designer involved in essay, a movement already re-fashioning the cultural and twenty thesis statement, social fabric. By the protecting animals essay time Wordsworth published Lyrical Ballads (1798), the appreciation of the lobster nature had reached the philosophical—if not numerical—levels prevalent in the present day. Nature now becomes the focal point, no longer limited to a laudation of animals man and school, ownership, nor a Pope-like praise of ancient Mediterranean insinuation.
Clearly, such mimetic representations will no longer answer. Literature, within this context and with its associative ability, can treat nature with a new respect and generosity: can actually turn the silence of centuries into articulations of animals moment. There is general agreement that Wordsworth’s early poetry borrows from of 95 thesis, Picturesque aesthetics. Animals! A brief survey will therefore suffice. “An Evening Walk,” published in 1793 and written in heroic couplets, is essentially a conventional attempt at picturesque verse, replete with cascade scene, precipice, mountain farm, female beggar, rocky sheepwalks and tremulous cliffs: a topographical poem in which Wordsworth’s authorial voice remains only dissertations a whisper.
Unconfined to any particular place, the poem provides a composite image consistent with typical picturesque sketches and suggestive—ironically—of Beaumont’s ruinous castle ruin. As J. R. Watson demonstrates, “Tintern Abbey” (1798) begins with a canvas-like description with three planes of depth. The poem then moves on: The day is come when I repose. Here, under this dark sycamore, and view. These plots of animals essay cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts, Which, at this season, with their unripe fruits.
Are clad in one green hue, and lose themselves. ’Mid groves and copy of 95, copses. Once again I see. These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines. Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms,
Green to protecting essay the very door; and wreaths of smoke. Sent up, in at hull house statement, silence, from among the trees! With some uncertain notice, as might seem. Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods, Or of some Hermit’s cave, where by his fire.
The Hermit sits alone. (9-22) Here the sycamore serves as both frame and protecting animals essay, point of perspective to the scene; typical picturesque elements appear: the wildness of the wood, pastoral farms offering contrast as well as an echo of for high school students Virgil’s Georgics , an attention to foreground and background. But the protecting animals essay scene is extra dimentionalised, beyond—at least for those with a literary bias—the possibilities of brush and colour: “Once again I see” underscores both memory and a personal reaction to the scene; whilst the bromidic picturesque figure—the hermit—appears not to the eye but to the imagination. And yet, although the poem, by virtue of the medium, achieves that extra-dimension, it remains within the Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin, for example, also recorded his impression of Tintern Abbey years before Wordsworth: Every thing around breathes an air so calm, and resume napolitano, tranquil; so sequestered from the commerce of life, that it is easy to conceive, a man of warm imagination, in monkish times, might have been allured by such a scene to become an protecting essay, inhabitant of it. Twenty Years House! ( Obs. Wye , 32) Watson admits that this might perhaps have provided the “forerunner”  of Wordsworth’s hermit; but also that Gilpin here is concerned with the “kind of relationship between man and the landscape” (81) that Wordsworth was later to develop.  Not surprisingly, “Tintern Abbey” soon moves away from Tintern Abbey and becomes the protecting animals essay familiar Wordsworthian recollection filled in with the and other essays “moral and mystical” (Watson, 84) of landscape.
And yet the poem’s structure can serve as an outline of Picturesque application in romantic poetry: the picturesque provides the subject—and initially the ability to see that subject—which then allows the protecting essay expanded vista possible through literature. Memory, subjectivity and imagination—Wordsworth categorical—together act as an augmentative device which transforms flat canvas into consider the lobster, romantic tapestry. There is, in addition, some hint of the animals egotistical sublime combined with the ability of nature to mould character: . . . For I have learned. To look on twenty at hull house statement, nature, not as in the hour. Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes. The still sad music of humanity,
Not harsh nor grating, though of ample power. To chasten and protecting, subdue. (89-94) “Michael” (1800), though not specifically a picturesque poem, nevertheless is based upon a nostalgic view of rural England intrinsic to the Picturesque school and a offers a nationalised and temporalised form of the neo-classical Golden Age. The poem alludes to contemporary political and napolitano, economical conditions turning peasants into protecting, the manufacturing poor, who, nomadic and landless, drift into London like the flotsam of some vast socio-economic flood. Indeed, many districts at that time remained completely excluded from urban economics, with foreign products as foreign as the products themselves. Even at the beginning of this century the Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of sugar, potatoes, and cotton; the Cumberland dalesman, as he appears in Wordsworth's Guide , lived entirely on the produce of twenty years at hull thesis statement his farm.  The half finished sheep-pen of the poem, a heap of rocks that remain after the poem’s closure, symbolises old Michael and his half finished ambitions for his son, now gone from the protective fold and corrupted by modernity. If the poem then is not strictly picturesque, it speaks with picturesque philosophy and provides an example of a more subtle picturesque application. Clearly, Wordsworth’s early poetry borrowed liberally from both the Augustan tradition as well as Picturesque convention.
His poetical path, however, gradually meanders away from essay, neo-classicism and towards an expanded and less categorical mode of Picturesque philosophy. Dissertations! Hugh Sykes Davies’ insistence upon protecting animals, “Wordsworth’s subjection to the ‘picturesque’ fashion” (236) in these early days, culminating in the poet’s decortication of the at hull house entire model, smacks of an obscurantist philosophy turned barrier to the imagination and denies the jagged foundation the Picturesque provided for the appreciation of countryside as a highly refined aesthetic. But more of that right now. The Gospel According to Wordsworth. We have finally reached the essay first of thesis two sources which together have prescribed the protecting animals essay modern critical assessment of the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry—at least for copy of 95 thesis scholars of literature. Descriptive Sketches—the Footnote  Pope’s Dunciad conclusively proved the potential of the humble footnote to protecting animals subvert a text. In the case of Descriptive Sketches , a single footnote has subverted much of and other essays modern scholarship on the Picturesque. Here it is, in all its humble magnificence: I had once given to these sketches the title of Picturesque; but the Alps are insulted in applying to them the term. Whoever, in protecting, attempting to describe their sublime features, should confine himself to the cold rules of painting would give his reader but a very imperfect idea of those emotions which they have the irresistible power of communicating to the most impassioned imaginations. (Note to line 299)
Davies descends upon this “cold rules of painting” as if the very death of the Picturesque depended upon the lobster, it. In actual fact, this criticism suggests Gilpin as the principle target; and the reproof, despite Wordsworth’s implied intention, is narrow rather than general. In fact, there is nothing original or remarkable here: it is essentially a restatement of Richard Payne Knight, who, we recall, offered a “Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines / Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines!” ( The Landscape: a Didactic Poem , 6) Indeed, it was only Gilpin’s first publication, Essay on Prints , which placed particular stress on the “rules of painting” and for essay the simple reason that the volume was, essentially, a “How-To” manual on landscape painting rather than a treatise on the Picturesque. It seems strange too that Davies, here upholding the merits of the twenty years at hull house thesis imagination compared to those “cold rules of painting,” mentions that Knight had “ meddled extensively with the ‘Imagination’”  (my italics, 205); though assumedly anyone connected with the Picturesque and not poetry really can only “meddle”—even “extensively.” Watson also picks up on protecting animals, this footnote; but, realising that there are nevertheless acres of the Picturesque in Descriptive Sketches , prevaricates hither and by aldous, thither, jumping from one explanation to another like so many stepping stones where only the protecting wetness of the river is certain. His first tentative foothold comes from the fact that Wordsworth carried through the Alps a number of Picturesque guidebooks, causing him to suggest, “It is therefore not surprising that the copy of 95 poem should contain a number of picturesque appreciations” (73-74). The stepping stone here sinks without further comment. Animals Essay! Next, Watson suggests—with depth defying penetration—that Wordsworth had a “divided mind” (74); and the lobster and other essays, further, that it is protecting animals this “which makes Descriptive Sketches such an unsatisfactory poem” (74). Resume! This is clearly a dangerous place to stand, since, I would suggest, when it comes to the Picturesque, Wordsworth’s mind was always divided. Watson jumps again: Wordsworth is.
struggling to express qualities which the writers on the picturesque did not sufficiently recognise. In the first place there are atmospheric effects of light which transcend the tonal range of contemporary painting. (75) This is on the same footing as the earlier: “Wordsworth was envisaging effects of light which were not to be mastered on Canvas until Turner” (72). In fact such “effects of light” had long since been mastered, by Claude. In fact, he was to some extent the originator: Andrew Wilton, in his introduction to Turner’s Picturesque Views in England and Wales , identifies Claude as the inventor of the “‘Sunset Harbour theme” (Shanes, 6). This then is clearly an animals, example of a literature critic wiggling his fingers in huxley, the pool of the art historian; rather than catching a fish, he is bitten by protecting a school of aesthetics.
Watson must once again skip onward. The Lobster And Other! His final place of rest is to suggest that Wordsworth here was concerned with “liberty,” although, since the “subject” of the poem is the Swiss Alps, “he could not omit the scenery” (75). This, in fact, is true, though most elements are undeniably Picturesque, like this blending of the beautiful and sublime: How blest, delicious scene! the eye that greets. Thy open beauties, or thy lone retreats; Beholds the unwearied sweep of wood that scales. Lo, where she sits beneath yon shaggy rock, A cowering shape half hid in curling smoke!(177-78) Other examples of Picturesque idiom include: “water's shaggy side”; “Thy lake, that, streaked or dappled, blue or grey”; “Hermit”; and “antique castles.” It seems strange too that Wordsworth should frame the topic of liberty in his supposed antithesis of liberty: those cold picturesque rules.
Watson clearly recognises the dichotomous anomaly at work, and his stepping and protecting animals, side stepping is an copy of 95 thesis, attempt to bring resolution within the animals essay framework of standard literary theory on the relationship between Wordsworth’s poetry and the Picturesque. Clearly, Watson gets a good wetting and biology, explains nothing. So what is the solution? The fact that we are dealing, for protecting essay the moment, with a footnote provides the perfect analogy: Wordsworth’s Picturesque criticism should be read as nothing more than a footnote, and a footnote in the style of The Dunciad at that. When literary theory, even—and perhaps especially—from the original poet himself, is at odds with the literature itself, then the obvious conclusion is to essays by aldous huxley abandon the theory; instead, Wordsworth’s musings are taken as gospel and animals, an altar of theory is builded upon them. Dissertations! The only truly cold rule, it seems, is that Wordsworth “transcends” the picturesque because he says so himself. Turning now from general to particular, it should be clear that this “cold rules” versus “imagination” is altogether a red-herring, easily caught by literary critics and used to feed a thousand other misconceptions.
William Combe’s brilliant satire, A Tour in Search of the essay Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax (see figure 10)—clearly derived from Gilpin—reveals his neo-classical bent by biology ridiculing the very idea of the imagination versus the true copy of Nature: Upon the animals bank awhile I’ll sit, And let poor Grizzle graze a bit; But, as my time shall not be lost, I’ll make a drawing of the post; And, tho’ a flimsy taste may flout it, There’s something picturesque about it: ’Tis rude and rough, without a gloss.
And is well cover’d o’er with moss; And I’ve a right—(who dares deny it?) To place yon group of asses by it. Aye! this will do: and the lobster and other essays, now I’m thinking, That self-same pond where Grizzle’s drinking, If hither brought ’twould better seem. And faith I’ll turn it to a stream. (9)
Of course, the exaggeration is as sparkling as the pond that flows into the stepping-stone stream; but we should consider Constable’s Flatford Mill from the Lock , which is exactly this kind of composite picture and deserves—indeed, receives—only approbation. There are indeed rules of animals essay composition, in painting as well as poetry, but to creative students define the Picturesque according to these is to define poetry. according to grammar and spelling. Protecting Animals Essay! There is, in both the Picturesque and consider essays, poetry, imagination and expression. Returning to the original point. W. Animals Essay! M. Merchant, in his introduction to Wordsworth’s Guide , also cites this same footnote as proof of Wordsworth’s asperity to Picturesque theory and goes on to say how singular Wordsworth’s guide is.
More forthright still, Rhoda L. Resume! Flaxman, Victorian Word-Painting and Narrative: Toward the Blending of Genres , understands the note to be “an abrupt declaration of protecting animals essay independence from eighteenth-century picturesque aesthetic” (67). All these evaluations, however, neglect several important points: firstly, Wordsworth’s footnote continues, the unique and. . . . peculiar features of the Alps. . . . The fact is, that controlling influence, which distinguishes the Alps from all other scenery, is derived from images which disdain the pencil. Had I wished to make a picture of this scene I had thrown much less light into it. But I consulted nature and copy of 95, my feelings. The ideas excited by the stormy sunset I am here describing owed their sublimity to that deluge of light, or rather of fire, in which nature had wrapped the immense forms around me; any intrusion of shade, by destroying the unity of the impression, had necessarily diminished its grandeur. (Note to line 299) So the Alps then are not like the mountains of Cumberland, Yorkshire, Wales and Scotland; and rather than offering an essay, “abrupt declaration of independence,” Wordsworth actually points homeward for authentic picturesque scenes.
Secondly, this so called “reaction against writing for high school the Picturesque” (Davies, 240) entirely disregards chronology: Descriptive Sketches was published in 1793; Wordsworth’s own Guide , which, as we will see, makes great use of Picturesque sensibility and protecting essay, idiom, in 1810. Thirdly, as already mentioned, the napolitano fact remains that Wordsworth footingly denounces the limitations of the animals Picturesque yet, in the poetry itself, he delivers Picturesque description. Book XII of The Prelude , tintilatingly entitled “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored,” provides most to the fodder for modern critical understanding of copy of 95 thesis Wordworth’s relationship to the Picturesque. Animals Essay!  The offending lines begin: What wonder, then, if, to twenty a mind so far. Perverted, even the visible Universe. Fell under the dominion of a taste.
Less spiritual, with microscopic view. Was scanned, as I had scanned the moral world?(88-92) Unworthy, disliking here, and there. Liking; by rules of mimic art transferred. To things above all art; but more,—for this, Although a strong infection of the protecting age, Was never much my habit—giving way.
To a comparison of scene with scene, Bent overmuch on superficial things, Pampering myself with me agre novelties. Of colour and proportion; to the moods. Of time and season, to the moral power, The affections and huxley, the spirit of the place, I speak in recollection of a time. When the protecting animals essay bodily eye, in every stage of life. The most despotic of our senses, gained.
Such strength in 'me' as often held my mind. In absolute dominion. (127-130) There are in our existence spots of time, That with distinct pre-eminence retain. A renovating virtue, whence—depressed. By false opinion and contentious thought, Or aught of heavier or more deadly weight, In trivial occupations, and the round. Of ordinary intercourse—our minds. Are nourished and invisibly repaired. (208-215) This then is the the lobster stuff that contemporary critics have adopted without regard to protecting essay the dangers of accepting the artist’s views of his own work.
If the creative mind were so simple , the rive gauche would likely as not have moved to Silicon Valley. There can be no doubt that “taste” refers to years the Picturesque. There can be no doubt either that Wordsworth declares the Picturesque an impairment to protecting essay the imagination. Twenty Years At Hull! Several important points, however, should be noted: The Prelude , as was the case with Descriptive Sketches , contains ample picturesque passages, too numerous and too obvious to animals essay quote. Here, nevertheless, for the benefit of the incredulous, are a few:
In summer, making quest for twenty at hull house thesis statement works of art, Or scenes renowned for beauty, I explored. That streamlet whose blue current works its way. Between romantic Dovedale's spiry rocks; Pried into Yorkshire dales,  or hidden tracts. Of my own native region. (VI, 190-95) In the final Book (XIV), fresh from the restoration of his imagination and taste, with hardly time to catch a breath between, Wordsworth recounts his gasping ascent of Snowdon, from animals essay, whence he sees: “A fixed, abysmal, gloomy, breathing-place— / Mounted the roar of waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice!” (58-60).
Topography ensues. The plot thickens: soon after, there is a twist to all that domination of the eye business, with Nature making her presence known. . . . by essays by aldous huxley putting forth, 'Mid circumstances awful and protecting, sublime, That mutual domination which she loves. To exert upon the face of outward things,
So moulded, joined, abstracted, so endowed. With interchangeable supremacy, That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, And cannot choose but feel. (79-86) That domination now shifts from twenty years at hull, subject to object: man is no longer dominated by the ocular sense; instead the outward forms of picturesque scenery, by their very nature, captivate man. In any case, the point is that even in The Prelude the Picturesque is protecting essay pictured and admired: The single sheep, and years at hull house thesis, the one blasted tree, And the protecting bleak music from that old stone wall, The noise of wood and writing for high students, water, and protecting animals essay, the mist.
That on the line of each of those two roads. Advanced in such indisputable shapes; All these were kindred spectacles and sounds. To which I oft repaired, and thence would drink, As at students a fountain. (XII, 319-26) Here also is one of Wordsworth’s well-cited spots of time, which often find their source in Picturesque moments inspired by the wildness of nature, where that idiomatic “sublime” is kindled.
In this example, we are provided a veritable catalogue of picturesque materials, though again this spot of time incorporates non-visual invocations, composed, not as a sovereign landscape, but more as a sensationscape, an emotional response to news of his father’s death. In effect, Wordsworth acknowledges the aesthetics of this picturesque catalogue, though he moves towards emotive sense. Further, Wordsworth’s understanding of the subject was undoubtedly clouded, a myopia based upon a narrow definition of the Picturesque—the meaning of which, after all, was always a point of debate and rarely of conclusion. Indeed, his criticism of the Picturesque is on the same lines as Uvedale Price’s, who, we might recall, stated that picturesque qualities are “extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received.” In other words, “That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, / And cannot choose but feel.” The thing which Wordsworth most condemns—this supposed ocular obsession in the Picturesque—is strangely absent in protecting essay, A Tour in Search of the creative prompts for high Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax . For example: “. . Animals Essay! . while you chase the twenty years at hull thesis flying deer, I must fly off to Windermere. / ’Stead of protecting hallooing to a fox, I must catch echoes from the at hull house thesis statement rocks” (50). It seems apparent from these few lines the exceptional quality of the satire; strange then that Combe, for animals all his excellence, should miss what seems to resume napolitano be the protecting most objectionable aspect of Picturesque theory.
This, perhaps more than anything else, demonstrates that Wordsworth’s dissatisfaction was not empirically with the Picturesque but emphatically with his own conception. Napolitano! The error was his, and the error of those modern critics who unquestioningly accept Wordsworth at protecting his word. Watson suggests further that Wordsworth’s interest in the Picturesque waned due to its inherent “wrong attitude to essays nature” (97), by which he means a lacking of “humility.” To this, it is perhaps worth re-visiting Gilpin: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign.
Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Also, Wordsworth’s increasing spirituality offers an protecting, unstated though likely cause of further dissatisfaction, that “dominion of dissertations a taste / Less spiritual.” Gilpin states in his preface to Tours of the Lakes : “The author hopes that no one will be so severe, as to think a work of this kind inconsistent with the protecting animals profession of a clergyman” (xxxi). J. R. Watson understands this as evidence that Gilpin saw nature not as the handiwork of of 95 thesis God—as does Thomson, for example—but “as a matter of mere amusement” (40). As Section One made clear, Gilpin here is actually alluding to the amorality of the Picturesque. Nevertheless, from this supposed “mere amusement”, Watson, no doubt now weary of animals essay those treacherous stepping stones, makes an astounding leap in logic and concludes: With such an aim, sight alone becomes important, for essays by aldous there is rarely any attempt to ponder the animals significance of landscape, or the viewer’s emotional relationship towards it. (40)
Entirely skipping over the “mere amusement” hypothesis, we might yet wonder at the kind of huxley logic that allows a passage from “mere amusement” to “sight alone.” We might also recall, despite the evidence outlined in Section One demonstrating that Gilpin was not concerned uniquely with sight alone, that Gilpin indeed wrote on the Picturesque from a painterly point of view and so any stress that exists upon the visual is rather like the protecting animals essay stress upon the aural in an analysis of music. The importance of all this is to demonstrate the tendentiousness of the copy of 95 support for Wordsworth’s domination of the eye theory. There is, in Gilpin’s preface, nothing whatsoever about “mere amusement” and from that nothingness there is decidedly no logical step to “sight alone.” What we really discover here is Watson’s attempt to support subtly Wordsworth’s notion, which, as is becoming increasingly apparent, actually had no validity in Wordsworth’s own work. This then is one tiny element in the construction of the predominant Picturesque/romanticism theory. In fact, Gilpin’s note is nothing more sinister than an acknowledgement that God is largely excluded from the protecting Picturesque view. Creative Writing For High! Although Wordsworth might have thought this unfortunate, in terms of historical artistic development, removing God from the picture was essential in bestowing intrinsic validity to nature and landscape. Finally, Wordsworth’s own vision grew from an aesthetic arboretum that was the animals essay Picturesque. He descended not from consider essays, heaven, fully formed and ready to pen; but rather was shaped by the multitudinous historical, social, economic, artistic and aesthetic factors. Without the continuum in protecting animals essay, which the Picturesque was contained, Wordsworth and romanticism would have remained a pipe dream piped perhaps by a transplanted neo-classical Roman shepherd.
Watson himself reluctantly admits that “in spite of his condemnations of the picturesque and his awareness of the despotic eye, Wordsworth remains interested in landscape as it is seen” (104); and yet the and other essays penny never drops and a change of animals view never takes place. Davies similarly pays great attention to The Prelude , albeit with a more diction-based argument. Writing Students! “In rejecting the protecting ‘picturesque’,” Wordsworth is biology “running counter to [the] predominant fashion” (249), and deliberately selects bare and naked scenes. This notion re-creates Wordsworth as an animals, artist removed from historicity, a one man cultural band not only playing his own tunes but inventing his own scales, an idea suggestive even of deification. As proof, Davies provides a table of “unpicturesque”—nay, “anti-picturesque” (250)—terms harvested from The Prelude . Unfortunately, at least half of them are perfectly picturesque: “cliffs,” unless we imagine a polished cliff; “old stone wall,” unless expurgated of lichen and creative writing prompts, moss and the old stone wall reformed as a new stone wall; “whistling hawthorn,” unless de-thorned, de-whistled and well pruned; “craggy ridge” and “craggy steep,” de-cragged; “perilous ridge,” de-periled. Even those terms which seem marked by a smooth unpicturesque character are often un-picturesque red-herrings: the “naked pool,” is essay perhaps “water of which the surface is broken, and consider and other, the motion abrupt and irregular” ( On the Picturesque , 84); or perhaps reflecting the Picturesque scenery in which it resides. Protecting Animals Essay! More astounding than erroneous, Davies includes “mountains” in his anti-picturesque catalogue! Davies’ crowned prince of proofs then turns out to be a beggar boy in disguise, with all the airs and graces and robes of royalty, yet concealing a shallow mind and thesis, dirty underwear. In addition, even if Davies’ brief was bona fide , the fact remains that Burke’s smooth beauty is, in part, elemental to the Picturesque scene. The absurdity of Davies’ position in this respect is made conspicuous when, ever contrary, he examines the before and after Gilpin prints (see figures 11 and 12) and insists that, “This second print, in its way, is charming enough. Animals Essay! But the first is impressive” (229)!
It is this irony, this inconsistency, this disparity that suggests Wordsworth’s professed aversion to of 95 thesis the Picturesque should be taken not only with a grain of protecting salt, but with a veritable variety of spices—grown, of course, in a garden suitably picturesque. In the final analysis, it is the poetry itself which must provide the theory, rather than the poet himself; and indeed, this is the whole point. The Sublime and the Beautiful. Davies’ suggestion that only Wordsworth frequently used “sublime” and biology dissertations, “beautiful” conjunctively, to which he devotes several pages, besides being erroneous, reveals a scant familiarity with Gilpin, for, as we have seen, it was the combination of the beautiful and sublime— “. . . so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque” ( Three Essays , 52)—which, for Gilpin, produced the Picturesque and so was central to his own understanding. Whether or not Gilpin offers these words conjunctively once or a thousand times, the animals point is that the conjunction is omnipresent in consider the lobster, his definition of the protecting animals Picturesque. Just as Brownlow suggests that John Clare transcends the Picturesque by discovering the microcosmos, he also insists that Wordsworth “transcends” the Picturesque by experiencing the “Sublime.” (25) Of course, he is years also wrong, and for the same reasons. Since the Picturesque never evolved into protecting, a finalised coherent theory, remaining vast in scope, since its primary concern was with landscape and graphic art—Price notwithstanding—the very notion of poets’ “transcending” the Picturesque is one which seems born of an intellectualised mule; and although modern critics seem intent to ride this mule for all it might be worth, the beast is clearly an ass of their own imagination. Guide to the Lakes. Davies correctly points out that the vigorous and much-publicised Picturesque debate raged during the period when Wordsworth was most active as a writer. As Davies states: “The reader of Wordsworth cannot for copy of 95 thesis long go ignorant of the part played by the Lakes in making him everything he was” (3).
Indeed, the popularity of the Lake District is essay inextricably tied with that of Wordsworth. His own A Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England , is, to a large degree, typical of this sub-genre. Not surprisingly, Davies thinks otherwise: Gilpin, he says, believes landscape significant “not for creative writing students the sake of the people who live in it” (230) but “simply for the painter” (230)—and this despite the following quotation, from Gilpin, two pages earlier: “These smooth-coated mountains, tho of little estimation for the painter’s eye, are, however, great sources of plenty. They are the nurseries of animals essay sheep; which are bred here, and fatted in the valley” (228). Gilpin proceeds to describe the difficult life of the shepherds. According to Davies, in writing his own Guide , Wordsworth’s “approach was the opposite one” (230)—though it seems that Gilpin’s approach also was opposite. In actual fact, Wordsworth’s guide, as suggested above, is pretty much par for the Picturesque course. Wordsworth even commits the writing for high school cardinal sin: “The want most felt, however, is that of timber trees. There are few magnificent ones to be found near any of the lakes” (79).
Here Wordsworth censures a scene for lacking a particular pictorial element—so much for protecting animals essay the opposite approach. Wordsworth’s Guide also demonstrates an eloquent command of Picturesque idiom: “. Years Thesis! . . by bold foregrounds formed by the steep and winding banks of the river” (43); “None of the other lakes unfold so many fresh beauties . . . “ (39); “ . . . Protecting Animals! agreeably situated for water views” (40); “. . . constitute a foreground for ever-varying pictures of the majestic lake” (50). Besides idiom, Wordsworth participates in Picturesque politics, supporting Gilpin in writing school, his criticism of white painted houses, and sustaining Price’s landscape gardening theories. Neither is Wordworth’s inclusion of poetry in his Guide anything more than standard. Even the prosaic Handy Guide to protecting animals the English Lakes , now a rare and anonymous sixpenny edition likely destined for the more affluent working class tourist, features such verse as Wordsworth’s: “A straggle burgh of ancient charter proud / And dignified by battlements and towers / Of stern castle, mouldering on the brow / Of a green hill (17). Besides the outbreaks of poetry, the Handy Guide inevitably features numerous Picturesque line drawings, including one particular example which offers further indication of the popularity of Picturesque tourism: an uninteresting depiction of biology Furness Abbey disinherits the usual foreground grouping of rustic figures, replacing them with a party of pic-nicking holiday makers. Davies’ suggestion that Wordsworth’s Guide is “antithetical” (230) to Gilpin’s, for it insists that “the real importance of mountain scenery was not visual, but mental” (230), sounds nice, though unfortunately is essay nonsense.
Certainly, Gilpin examines landscape from a painterly point of view, though his lengthy guides are filled, as we have seen, with imagination and local human considerations, auditory appreciation and tactile expressions, emotion and admiration. In his Guide , Wordsworth provide a lengthy extract from Dr. John Brown’s verse Fragment : Now sunk the sun, now twilight sunk, and night. Rose in her zenith; not a passing breeze. Sigh’d to the grove, which in the midnight air. Stood motionless, and in the peacefull floods. Inverted hung: for now the billows slept. Along the shore, nor heav’d the essays huxley deep; but spread. A shining mirror to the moon’s pale orb,
Which, dim and waning, o’er the protecting essay shadowy cliffs, The solemn woods, and spiry mountain tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress’d with toil, was drawn’d in deep repose. Save that the unseen Shepherd in his watch, Propp’d on his crook, stood listening by the fold, And gaz’d the starry vault, and pendant moon;
Nor voice, nor sound, broke on the deep serene; But the soft murmur of swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the mountain’s distant steep, (Unheard til now, and now scarce heard) proclaim’d. All things at rest, and imagin’d the still voice. Of quiet, whispering in the ear of essays night. (84) Wordsworth honours Brown as “one of the first who led the way to a worthy admiration of this country” (84); though in a footnote adds: Dr.
Brown, the author of this fragment, was from his infancy brought up in Cumberland, and should have remembered that the practice of folding sheep by protecting animals essay night is unknown among these mountains, and that the image of a shepherd upon the watch is out of place, and belongs only to biology countries, with a warmer climate, that are subject to the ravages from beasts of prey. It is protecting essay pleasing to notice a dawn of imaginative feeling in these verses. Tickel, a man of no common genius, chose, for biology dissertations the subject of a Poem, Kensington Gardens, in preference to the Banks of the Derwent, within a mile or two of which he was born. Protecting Essay! But this was in the reign of resume Queen Anne, or George the First. Progress has been made in the interval; though the traces of it, except in protecting animals, Thomson or Dyer, are not very obvious. By Aldous Huxley! (84) The mention of Tickel immediately invokes neo-classicism and its inability to adopt real landscape, and the shepherd of the fragment becomes an Arcadian figure. At this point we need only recollect Pope’s comment on shepherds “as they may be conceiv’d then to have been,” to realise the distance already travelled: what once was a rule of poetry is now a grave error. Davies, brimming with “limitations” of the Picturesque, takes Wordsworth’s footnote and informs us: “This ‘progress’, however, he clearly regarded as limited” (220). Clarity aside, we might wonder how progress can ever be limited, unless we imagine an acorn limited for not already being an oak. To suggest, by extension, that the Picturesque is animals therefore limited seems to reject a hill for not being a river.
But there is more than a call for accurate realism in this note, for the “mile or two of which he was born” suggests a sentiment both regional—nationalistic in the larger context—and also, applying Post-colonial hindsight, a conflict between the centre and margin. Treatment of real British landscape without reference to napolitano Virgil and protecting animals, Horace and Company insists upon creative writing, a new centre. Protecting! This is clearly manifest when both Wordsworth and Coleridge choose between the Alps, the traditional site of the European sublime, and domestic mountains. In The Prelude , for example, Wordsworth dismisses the Alps, shifting the focus to Snowdon, whilst Coleridge's Scafell experience becomes a celebration of twenty at hull Mont Blanc in the “Hymn before the Sunrise in the Vale of Chamouny.” As Woodring suggests, “Sometimes implicitly but often with a militant defensiveness, exponents of the picturesque declared it a distinctively English answer to the sublime of the Alps” (48). Concomitantly, Wordsworth’s regional loyalty suggests a similar centre/margin dichotomy between urban London and the rural north. In another example of Picturesque nationalism, Wordsworth draws a comparison between the animals Alps and local scenes: The forms of the mountains, though many of them in copy of 95 thesis, some points of view the noblest that can be conceived, are apt to run into spikes and needles, and present a jagged outline which has a mean effect, transferred to canvas. (74) Wordsworth was a great explorer of the countryside, and, it seems, actually a Picturesque explorer. Animals! As Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in her journal of a Scottish tour: When we were within about half a mile of Tarbet, at napolitano a sudden turning, looking the left, we saw a very craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones; the rocks on the summit distinct in shape as if they were buildings raised up by man, or uncouth images of some strange creature. We called out with one voice, “That’s what we wanted!” alluding to the frame-like uniformity of the side-screens of the lake for the last five or six miles. (qtd.
Watson, 104) Note the animals essay “craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones,” the “frame” and resume napolitano, “side screens.” Note also “in one voice,” or, “as three persons with one soul,”  as Coleridge wrote. They had then found “what they wanted,” and protecting, clearly they wanted the Picturesque. In addition to biology dissertations this, a letter written by essay Dorothy to Coleridge in March 1804 includes mention of a beck discovered by Wordsworth: “It is a miniature of all that can be conceived of savage and grand about twenty at hull house statement a river, with a great deal of the beautiful. William says that whatever Salvator might desire could be there found” (qtd.
Watson, 104). With all this travel and protecting, exploration it seems more than natural that Wordsworth would one day write his own Picturesque guide, if only he was not so absolutely clearly and undeniably in opposition to consider essays and transcendent of the whole thing. Protecting! . . . Wordsworth’s Guide was first published anonymously in 1810 and then, ten years later, in a collection of his own verse. According to W.M. Mercant’s introduction, reviews of the verse were “critical” though the Guide met with “almost unanimous approval” (Guide, 31). Post Apostolical Poetry. The notion that Wordsworth adopted his own critical assessment—dethroning the monarchical sense of vision—has been seriously questioned from various angles.
Regardless, if we are indeed to napolitano take Wordsworth at his word, the expectation would be that only animals essay this transcendental picturesque—if any picturesque at all—would henceforth appear. Creative Prompts For High! Wordsworth, after all, has accused, judged and condemned the Picturesque and we are told by a jury of modern critics that he will no longer be shackled to animals essay that blasted bastion of narrow thinking. How strange then that with the Gospel clearly spelled out, Wordsworth continues to seek the house thesis statement Picturesque and protecting animals essay, often with an writing prompts students, entirely conventional viewpoint. For example: And not a voice was idle: with the din. Smitten, the essay precipices rang aloud; The leafless trees and every icy crag. Tinkled like iron; while far-distant hills.
Into the tumult sent an alien sound. Of melancholy, not unnoticed while the stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west. The orange sky of evening died away (“Influence of Natural Objects,” 39-46). Understanding the Picturesque in all its theoretical variety—which now, hopefully is the case—reveals this extract clearly and copy of 95, undeniably as picturesque in protecting essay, sound and not a transcending of the napolitano Picturesque. We have already seen how Wordsworth’s own Guide was written years after the momentous formulation of judgement. In terms of his poetry, there are numerous other examples which similarly contradict the generally accepted view. The sonnet “Between Namur and animals, Liège,” from Memorials of a Tour on the Continent, 1820 , for example: WHAT lovelier home could gentle Fancy choose?
Is this the thesis stream, whose cities, heights, and protecting essay, plains, War's favourite playground, are with crimson stains. Familiar, as the Morn with pearly dews? The Morn, that now, along the silver MEUSE, Spreading her peaceful ensigns, calls the swains. To tend their silent boats and ringing wains, Or strip the bough whose mellow fruit bestrews. The ripening corn beneath it.
As mine eyes. Turn from the fortified and threatening hill, How sweet the prospect of yon watery glade, With its grey rocks clustering in pensive shade— That, shaped like old monastic turrets, rise. From the smooth meadow-ground, serene and still! This is the entire poem and so quintessentially Picturesque as to require no further comment. Creative Writing Prompts! More frightening than this—at least for animals the jury who surely now must be out to lunch—is the attached footnote: The scenery on the Meuse pleases me more, upon the whole, than that of the Rhine, though the river itself is much inferior in grandeur. The rocks both in form and colour, especially between Namur and Liege, surpass any upon the Rhine, though they are in several places disfigured by quarries, whence stones were taken for the new fortifications. This is napolitano much to be regretted, for they are useless, and the scars will remain perhaps for thousands of years.
A like injury to a still greater degree has been inflicted, in my memory, upon the beautiful rocks of Clifton on the banks of the Avon. There is essay probably in existence a very long letter of mine to twenty years house thesis Sir Uvedale Price, in which was given a description of the landscapes on the Meuse as compared with those on the Rhine. This is the entire footnote and now comes the terrible blind taste test: who could, who would, write such staple, such superficial judging of one scene with another as if they were paintings: Gilpin? Knight? Wordsworth. “Epistle to Sir George Beaumont”—Beaumont, connoisseur, collector, painter, “befriended and encouraged many painters, notably Constable and animals essay, Ibbetson” (Bicknell, 15) and was a conservative follower of Picturesque tenets (see figure 13)—offers an example where scenery is described for essays huxley its own sake, where its very worth is sufficiently innate to protecting need virtually no additional coinage: Within the mirror’s depth, a world at rest— Sky streaked with purple, grove and craggy bield. And the smooth green of many a pendent field. And, quieted and resume napolitano, soothed, a torrent small,
A little darling would-be waterfall. One chimney smoking in its azure wreath, Associate all in the calm pool beneath, With here and there a faint imperfect gleam. Of water-lilies veiled in misty stream. (174-83) Of course, the protecting richness here is owed largely to the loveliness of the wordscape, a place opulent in picturesque elements: the craggy bield , waterfall, chimney, the stream. This epistle, penned in 1811, is a veritable treasure trove of picturesque landscape and elements. Never actually sent to Beaumont, it was clearly intended as a publishable poem.
Another typically Picturesque poem is “The Pass of Kirkstone,” published in 1817: Oft as I pass along the fork. Of these fraternal hills: Where, save the rugged road, we find. No appanage of human kind; Nor hint of man, if stone or rock. Seem not his handy-work to mock. By something cognizably shaped;
Mockery—or model—roughly hewn, And left as if by earthquake strewn, Or from the Flood escaped:— Altars for Druid service fit; (But where no fire was ever lit. Unless the glow-worm to the skies. Thence offer nightly sacrifice;) Wrinkled Egyptian monument; Green moss-grown tower; or hoary tent;
Tents of a camp that never shall be raised; On which four thousand years have gazed! (3-20) Gone then is the Pope-like catalogisation, the very antithesis of Wordsworth’s methodology; instead, though the poetic eye might survey a scene, the of 95 thesis poetic voice is selective of Constable-like charged spots: the fork in the road, one branch leading to reverie, the richly connotative fraternal hills, the rugged road, which by its very presence admits the essay absence of man, and and other, finally the essay rock, whose shape suggests still another landscape: imagined and drawn of history. There is, in “Composed Among the Ruins of a Castle in North Wales” (1824), a parallel to Price’s theories of landscape gardening, where the patina of time is recommended to provide an unfinished roughness to stonework, to replace bunched bush with unexpected tree and dissertations, shiny brick with sombre block. This aesthetic was, as we have seen, actually focused not merely upon essay, visually based appreciation, but upon associated emotional reaction. The acute interest in ruins demonstrated by artists during the Picturesque period was entirely germane with the dissertations general elegiac mood and graveyard melancholy.
This interest in ruins, obviously, was shared by Wordsworth. “Composed Among the Ruins,” after a conventionally ominous opening: “Through shattered galleries, ’mid roofless halls, / Wandering with timid footsteps oft betrayed (1-2), finally becomes a eulogium: Relic of Kings! Wreck of forgotten Wars, To winds abandoned and the prying Stars. Time loves Thee! at his call the Seasons twine. Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; And, though past pomp no changes can restore, A soothing recompense, his gift is Thine! (9-14) There can be no clearer example of poetic philosophical perspective—Father Time and Mother Nature, the benevolent patrons of Ruin—entirely born of picturesque aesthetic theory.
Doubtless there is animals also a playfulness here, and one reminiscent of Gilpin: What share of picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the Eighth, has contributed more to adorn this country with picturesque ruins. Twenty At Hull House Thesis Statement! The difference between these two masters lay chiefly in the style of ruins, in protecting, which they composed. Henry adorned his landscape with the ruins of abbeys; Cromwell, with those of castles.
I have seen many pieces by this master, executed in twenty at hull, a very grand style. . Essay! . . (II, 122-3) All this seems further indication of the longevity of the Picturesque. Landscape and (small case) nature clearly are the central rubric of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century cultural movement; and essays by aldous, Wordsworth’s transformation of poetry occurs in a context where new values and aesthetic parameters are well established. It is the colourful mixing of both palettes which is Wordsworth, and which defines early romanticism. Compared to earlier treatments of landscape and nature, offering that flat canvas description, Wordsworth adopts the criteria of picturesque aesthetics, but incorporates the emotional dimension offered by the associative value of word, of memory, of subjective response.
The elements of Picturesque landscape then become “the stuff that dreams are made of”: dreams reflective, dreams nostalgic, dreams dreaming, and dreams born of a learned appreciation for beauty that is particularly and properly Picturesque. There is a final plot twist: Watson cunningly has stacked the essay deck. He swiftly explains away the Picturesque in Wordsworth’s later poetry by suggesting that this is merely the work of “his uninspired years” (92). Of course, this is twenty years house much too glib, especially when we remember the protecting voracity with which critics inform us of Wordsworth’s rejection of the Picturesque, stressing and re-stressing its “limitations.” Again, what seems a more reasonable explanation is that the Picturesque provided not only the dissertations foundations for essay romantic poetry, but that without the Picturesque there would have been no romantic poetry at all. In simple terms, one can perhaps take the of 95 thesis poet out of the Picturesque, but you cannot take the Picturesque out of the poet. Figure 10: Kenneth Clark, Doctor Syntax sketching a lake, from Bicknell. Figure 11-12: Gilpin, Non-picturesque and picturesque mountain landscape.From Three Essays. Figure 13: Sir George Beaumont, Landscape , from essay, Bicknell. The Foreground: Keats. This section will firstly consider particular difficulties in approaching Keats and the Picturesque, moving then to Keats’ Picturesque view, its effects and influence.
The non-faddish longevity and ultimate importance of the Picturesque is finally determined. Wordsworth, born with and nurtured on the Picturesque, could never escape its influence and sustenance. Of 95 Thesis! Indeed, Wordsworth without the Picturesque seems himself a destitute and picturesque half-starved figure. Keats, although temporally distant from the eighteenth century Picturesque development, attempts to see with the Picturesque vision, to adopt the general philosophy, providing compelling evidence against the standard cultist and faddish judgements offered by faddish modern literary scholars and serves as testimony not only to animals essay the Picturesque’s diuturnity, but also its fundamental value. Dissertations! An examination of Keats in terms of the Picturesque, however, involves a number of initial problems. The Problem With Keats. Firstly, Keats (1795-1821) published his first solitary poem—“O Solitude,” in The Examiner —in 1816. In simple terms, Keats came of age with landscape firmly entrenched as an aesthetic concept that required no further exploration. The Picturesque, initially the only means of discovering landscape, now stood like an old well-travelled train puffing steam on some siding. Protecting Animals! Landscape was omnipresent, on main lines and branch lines, an aesthetic form no longer solely the stuff of agriculture and ownership.
This is not to imply that exploration could no longer take place, only twenty years at hull thesis that the imperative was now only an protecting essay, implication. Secondly, the title of Keats’ first penned poem—“Imitations of Spenser” (1814)—suggests Keats’ propensity to look backwards, not particularly to at hull house the neo-classicist’s Golden Age—though his use of myth glances in that direction—but most particularly to a Golden Age of protecting essay English poetry: Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton. Not surprisingly, poetic drama and epic seemed the fairest genres. Thirdly, as Keats claims, his interest was in people not pictures: “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). However, as with Wordsworth, autotelic acceptance of such claims overlooks the need to mine more valid resources in other areas and risk faulty and perhaps fatal conclusions. Finally, Keat’s interest in house thesis, language itself, in imagery and metaphor—in addition to the “felicity and animals essay, variety” ( Letters , xxxi)—leads him towards the adoption of diction born of those same grand masters; as well as to the inevitable effect of the essays unexpected: his singular phraseology. Standard Picturesque idiom, by now somewhat hackneyed, is unable to convey this effect and Keats’ early poetry provides the lion’s share of colloquialisms.
Further, it becomes quite clear quite soon that Keats’ goal was to depart from stylistic norms, particularly those of the eighteenth century and achieve some degree of animals originality. All this notwithstanding, the sustaining power of the Picturesque—and so its importance—can still be discovered in both the napolitano life and protecting, works of Keats. “O Solitude,” reveals a vision of landscape which is particularly picturesque: O SOLITUDE! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the steep,— Nature's observatory—whence the dell, Its flowery slopes, its river's crystal swell,
May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep. ’Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the deer’s swift leap. Startles the years wild bee from the fox-glove bell. But though I'll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the sweet converse of an innocent mind, Whose words are images of thoughts refin’d, Is my soul's pleasure; and protecting essay, it sure must be. Almost the highest bliss of human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee. Here, Keats paints no landscape with his words; rather, he adopts an attitude to nature which stems not from the southern regions close to home, but from the heartland of by aldous huxley quintessential Picturesque scenery.
It is animals here, amongst the steep windswept hills, the spilling streams, the dells and lonely haunts, that a true sense of sublime solitude is experienced. Rather than suggest unsupported influence, merely compare “O Solitude” with Wordsworth’s sonnet on the sonnet, “Nuns Fret Not At Their Convents’ Narrow Rooms,” clearly contextualised in by aldous, the Lakelands: “. . . bees that soar for bloom, / High as the highest Peak of Furness-fells, / Will murmur by the hour in foxglove bells” (5-7). In “Sleep and protecting animals, Poetry” (1816), Keats demonstrates a simple gratification in simple Nature descriptions, beginning his description of Poesy—the highest calling—entirely in naturalistic terms: Should I rather kneel. Upon some mountain-top until I feel. A glowing splendour round about me hung, And echo back the voice of thine own tongue? (49-52)
Here the mountain top serves as altar to the poet-priest: both the material manifestation and the token picturesque echo of the lobster and other essays poetry’s voice, the situation and inspiration. This soon progresses to a unclouded analogy between literature and animals, landscape: Will be elysium—an eternal book. Whence I may copy many a lovely saying. About the leaves, and flowers—about the playing. Of nymphs in woods, and fountains; and the shade. Keeping a silence round a sleeping maid. (63-68) The opening, “What is more gentle than a wind in summer” (1), “More healthful than the thesis leafiness of protecting essay dales?” (7) sets the initial tone: composed of a sappy repetition of at hull house statement feminine rhymes that describes entirely the sappy nature Keats first has in mind.
The centre weight of “Sleep and protecting animals, Poetry” is sweetness (the word sweet occurs ten times) rather than picturesqueness. Interestingly, Poetry—the answer to this famous string of rhetorical interrogations—is described in terms familiar to the Picturesque. There is the beautiful: “beautiful,” “smooth,” “wings of a swan”; intermixed with the sublime: “awful,” “fearful claps of consider and other essays thunder,” “low rumblings,” and “sounds which will reach the Framer of essay all things.” Keats then once again rambles in his southern fields of “joy,” to consider the lobster “woo sweet kisses,” amongst fanciful “Flora”; all in all, “A lovely tale of human life.” Briefly, Poesy is itself a kind of Edenesque landscape, where the gentle white dove wafts its wings in cooling wind for the resting poet. And yet Keats knew such joys he must “. . . pass . . . for a nobler life,” and there “find the agonies, the strife / Of human hearts. . . Protecting Essay! . (122-124). This re-introduces Poetry, this time in terms of “calling,” and again Keats offers images drawn from the picturesque landscape, eloquent as allegory for the solitude, agonies and transience of the human experience: “cragginess”; “winds with glorious fear”; the sky is no longer filled with fluffy white, but “ a huge cloud's ridge”; there are now “mountains” filled with “Shapes of delight, of mystery, and fear.” Keats, aspires to become the powerful “charioteer,” understanding “the agonies, the resume strife” of protecting “thousands” of different men.
Clearly and undeniably—and here we can be thankful that the literary jury who generally overlook Keats and the Picturesque are not only out to lunch but almost completely out of the picture—Picturesque allusions best express those agonies, that strife. The final verse paragraphs provide an extra dimension, an inventory of the art decoration in his friend Hunt’s house situated within the larger context of poetic fancy. Landscape is reframed as landscape painting, providing an early indication of Keats’ frame of mind: his leanings toward art. It seems clear from all this that Keats already understands the symbolic value of the picturesque scene: its ability to conjure up the essence of man’s existence: the beauty of youth coupled with the essays by aldous huxley awful of age, that dialogue which utters mutual pity and ultimate evanescence. At the same time there can be little doubt that Keat’s cheerful disposition at this time makes the Picturesque an uncertain subject. “I Stood Tip-Toe” (1816) offers another early effort at landscape poetry. Almost at protecting animals essay once the view from the “little hill” becomes an copy of 95 thesis, exercise. To peer about upon variety;
Far round the horizon's crystal air to skim, And trace the dwindled edgings of its brim; To picture out the quaint, and curious bending. Of a fresh woodland alley, never ending; Or by protecting animals essay the bowery clefts, and leafy shelves, Guess where the jaunty streams refresh themselves. (16-22) Unfortunately, there is no unity in Keats’ picture—despite the superlative editorial annotation of “pure nature-painting”—only a variegated catalogue of nature confused by occasional legends of Hellas and compounded by the lobster and other essays relentless rhyming couplets. If the landscape speaks to Keats, the voice again has sappily sweet tendencies, as with the feminine rhyme, “Nature's gentle doings” which are “softer than ring-dove's cooings.” Even quintessential picturesque elements become, like “the quaint mossiness of aged roots,” quaint rather than symbolic or expressive. If Keats found any authentic feeling in this landscape, the poem offers barely a sigh. This becomes clear when we compare:
My spirit is too weak—mortality. Weighs heavily on me like unwilling sleep, And each imagined pinnacle and steep. Of godlike hardship tells me I must die. Like a sick eagle looking at the sky. (1-5) This contemplation comes not from the vision of landscape but “On First Seeing the Elgin Marbles,” written the following year. During this early period, then, Keats is more often touched in a vague spiritual sense not by landscape nor nature but by art. As Maureen B. Roberts explains in protecting animals essay, her somewhat chimerical The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats : Within these few lines are themes and symbols which come to of 95 feature prominently in Keats’ mature poetry: the eagle as the protecting essay transcendent victory of beauty—the vision of unity—over the consider essays “dizzy pain” of the “undesirable feud” of opposites; the motif of heaviness representing the Gnostic “sleep” as imprisonment in the world, and sickness as the self-division which must be transcended in order to attain the ascent. (Roberts) Whatever the extent of protecting Gnostic influence, the fact remains that the Elgin Marbles lead Keats inwards, towards fundamentals, while the twenty years at hull house tip-toe view results in little more than a dance through the animals tulips; indeed by the end of the poem we can only imagine Keats tired of his tip-toe prance. And yet, in years at hull house thesis, “To Haydon,” written concomitantly with the animals essay Elgin Marble sonnet, Keats composed another in which he speaks of twenty years at hull house statement men who stare at sculptures “with browless idiotism.” The sonnet also includes: . . . forgive me that I cannot speak.
Definitively of these mighty things; Forgive me that I have not eagle’s wings, That what I want I know not where to seek. (“To Haydon,” 3-6) Keats then is essay still searching, rambling, as we shall see, between the vicarious and the actual. There is years at hull thesis some certitude: the unbreakable link between landscape and poetry: “Some flowery spot, sequester'd, wild, romantic, / That often must have seen a poet frantic” (“Epistle to George Felton Mathew,” 37-8)  ; and the particularly evocative effects of picturesque scenery which speak to protecting essay Keats of Poetry as vocation. Yet still the searching, which eventually will lead him towards the Picturesque. People not Pictures. March 13, 1818, Keats writes to his friend Bailey: “Give me a barren mould so I may meet with some shadowing of Alfred in the shape of years house a Gipsey, a Huntsman or as Shepherd.
Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). As an protecting animals, addendum to this, Keats felt that the principal use of poetry was to sharpen “one’s vision into the heart and nature of copy of 95 man” (qtd. Bate, 337). Although this seems to exclude any exploration of the protecting Picturesque, Keats’ catalogue of resume napolitano characters are, perhaps inadvertently, certainly importantly, all of the Picturesque scene. Further, Turner’s series of Picturesque landscapes of England and Wales, which beyond doubt are Picturesque studies, nevertheless express the idea that “man is as much a phenomenon of the natural world as are mountains, fields and oceans” (Shanes, 8). It seems clear that Keats, familiar with the beauty of southern landscape, still lacked in protecting animals, any actual experience of the Picturesque sublime.
An exhibition of the writing school American painter, Benjamin West, where “. . . Keats was altogether receptive to any effort to attain the essay ‘sublime’”(Bate, 243), featured one particular painting, “Death on of 95, the Pale Horse,” known for stirring such feelings. Keats was ultimately disappointed: . Animals Essay! . . there is biology dissertations nothing to be intense upon; no women one feels mad to kiss; no face swelling into animals, reality. The Lobster And Other Essays! . . . The excellence of every Art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate, from their being in close relationship with Beauty and protecting animals essay, Truth—Examine King Lear you will find this exemplified throughout. (qtd. Bate, 243) Although this does underscore the focus of Keats’ main interest, his dissatisfaction with this painting seems singular. A letter to Reynolds (25 March, 1818), for example, contains the dissertations following: You know the Enchanted Castel, it doth stand.
Upon a rock, on the border of a Lake, Nested in trees, A mossy place, a Merlin’s Hall, a dream. You know the clear lake, and the little Isles. The Mounts blue, See what is coming from the distance dim!
A golden galley all in silken trim. O that our dreamings all, of sleep or wake, Would all the colours from the sunset take. . . . Protecting Essay! ( Letters , 260-261) Keats explains in an endnote to resume napolitano this poem that his inspiration was Claude’s “Enchanted Castle” in “ Sacrifice to Apollo ” ( Letters , 263) . Further, Manwaring suggests that the same canvas was transmuted into certain lines of “Ode on animals essay, a Grecian Urn”—itself formed of pictures; and perhaps a sense of Claude is still heard in “. . . magic casements, opening on the foam / Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn” (“Ode to a Nightingale, 69-70). Although Keats will discover a sense of sublimity in landscape during his 1818 Picturesque tour, art provided the source from which he would most often and most naturally drink. The sense of sublimity through the subjective contemplation of objects is common to the romantics, but Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” demonstrates his variance with Wordsworth: for Keats it is the Urn rather than Nature which provides lessons of truth. And yet there is a striking similarity, for the main theme is not the figures on the Urn but the consider and other poet’s own response. The “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” notion requires further definition: Keats, by his own confession, states: “. . Animals! . my head is sometimes in such a whirl in considering the copy of 95 thesis million likings and antipathies of our Moments” ( Letters , 324); “I carry all matters to an extreme—so that when I have any little vexation it grows in protecting animals, five minutes into a theme for Sophocles” ( Letters , 340). In other words, his youthful mind changes with the frequency of English weather. His comment here is in particular reference to landscape scenes seen in real life: the letter was written during a prolonged stay in Devonshire, during a period described as, “splashy, rainy, misty snowy, foggy haily floody, muddy. . . .” ( Letters , 241).
Even if we willingly expand his scenery/human nature comment to all landscapes and all sunny days—the effect, for dissertations example, of offering the quotation without the context in order to prove a point—as ridiculous as this might seem, there still remains, as suggested by the “Gipsey,” “Huntsman” and “Shepherd,” the Picturesque character . The Picturesque Tour  We have so far seen reasons why a Picturesque Tour was long on animals, the books, not least of twenty years thesis which is the fact that literature cannot be writ from an exploration only animals of literature.  Keats’ keen literary vision and essays by aldous huxley, his initial rural blindness are unwittingly confessed in protecting animals, “To one who has been long in city pent”: To one who has been long in twenty years at hull house thesis, city pent, ’Tis very sweet to look into the fair. And open face of heaven,—to breathe a prayer. Full in the smile of the blue firmament. Who is more happy, when, with heart’s content, Fatigued he sinks into animals essay, some pleasant lair.
Of wavy grass, and reads a debonair. And gentle tale of love and languishment. (1-8) Certainly there is pleasure in this dulcet southern domain, though finally, typically, Keats turns his full attention to a book. Sidney K. Robinson, Inquiry into the Picturesque , repudiating the absurdity of comparing landscapes with paintings, states: For the by aldous huxley Picturesque, of course, studying paintings and books was the clearest recognition that designing the landscape was a complex amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of protecting arrangement and copy, selection inherent in the operation of the human mind. (Robinson 103) Although the connection might seem somewhat tenuous, designing poetry is equally “an amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in animals essay, the operation of the human mind.” Keats had studied literature and now the necessity of experiencing raw nature at first hand could no longer be denied. By mid 1818, Keats realised “there is something else wanting to one who passes his life among Books and thoughts on Books” (qtd.
Bate, 340). In April, Keats proposed. within a Month to put my knapsack at my back and make a pedestrian tour through the North of England, and essays by aldous, part of Scotland—to make a sort of Prologue to the Life I intend to pursue. . . . ( Letters , 264) As a citizen of the romantic province, experiencing nature at length and animals essay, up-close was a moral imperative, not only because other poets had trod that path, but because nature, especially the biology dissertations grander and awful, are essential for imaginative energy. Keats knew this and animals, Keats went a-wandering. In late June, his travelling companion, Charles Brown, wrote in his journal: The country was wild and romantic, the weather fine, though not sunny, while the fresh mountain air, and many larks about us, gave us unbounded delight. As we approached the lake, the scenery became more grand and beautiful; and from time to time we stayed our steps, gazing intently on it. Hitherto, Keats had witness nothing superior to creative writing prompts for high school students Devonshire; but, beautiful as that is, he was now tempted to speak with indifference. At the first turn from the road, before descending to the hamlet of Bowness, we both simultaneously came to a full stop. Animals! The lake [Windermere] lay before us.
His bright eyes darted on a mountain-peak, beneath which was gently floating a silver cloud; thence to the lobster and other a very small island, adorned with the foliage of trees, that lay beneath us, and surrounded by water of a glorious hue, when he exclaimed: “How can I believe in that?—surely it cannot be!” He warmly asserted that no view in the world could equal this—that it must beat all Italy. Protecting Animals! ( Letters , 425-426) (See figure 14. ) It is creative writing prompts students perhaps difficult for protecting animals the sensorially saturated modern to imagine the dissertations provocativity and, yes, the sublimity, of such landscape; this lengthy extract, however, makes clear the power of the Picturesque, temporally contextualised, when such scenes were relatively unfamiliar. In a sense, we have here the spectacular importance of the Picturesque, an indication of why a revolution it caused in protecting animals essay, aesthetics and art; and the comparison with Italy—the fountain-head from which swelled the creative writing for high school Picturesque—is beyond doubt no chancy happening. Keats’ own record of the tour, his correspondence, is equally mottled with superlatives: What astonishes me more than anything is the tone, the colouring, the slate, the essay stone, the moss, the rock-weed; or, if I may so say, the creative writing school intellect, the countenance of such places. Protecting Animals! The space, the magnitude of mountains and waterfalls are well imagined before one sees them; but this countenance or intellectual tone must surpass every imagination and defy any remembrance. School Students! ( Letters , 301) (See figure 15.)  Here then Keats finally discovers the Picturesque (note the catalogue) as well as its associational value. Paraphrasing Archibold Alison, Hipple states: “An object is picturesque if it is such as to awaken a train of protecting animals associations additional to what the scene as a whole is calculated to excite” (164). Again, the picturesque then is a term whether in landscape, painting or literature which has everything to do with associationism; and we see that Price’s attempt to divorce the term from twenty at hull, its reference to pictorial representation is by no means peculiar.  Keats, clearly, has imagined such scenes, imagines them as he hikes, and yet the intellect seems suddenly insignificant once confronted with the actual.
Keats goes on to tell Tom: I shall learn poetry here and shall henceforth write more than ever, for the abstract endeavour of being able to add a mite to that mass of beauty which is harvested from these grand materials, by the finest spirits, and protecting essay, put into etherial existence for the relish of one’s fellows. I cannot think with Hazlitt that these scenes make man appear little. I never forgot my stature so completely—I live in the eye; and my imagination, surpassed, is at rest. (301) There is too much for coincidence in these two passages: to resume “defy remembrance,” to “live in the eye,” to “forget my stature,” besides an echoing of negative capability, is clearly to defy Wordsworth—an assertion that though perhaps he follows in the old poet’s footsteps, he will find his own way in the Picturesque. Indeed, Keats himself admits this point:
As to the poetical Character itself, (I mean that sort of which, if I am anything, I am a Member; that sort distinguished from the animals wordsworthian or egotistical sublime; which is a thing per se and stands alone) it is creative writing for high school students not itself—it has no self—it is protecting animals everything and nothing. ( Letters , 386-7) In a similar vein, Keats comments on Windermere, which makes. . Biology! . . one forget the animals divisions of resume napolitano life; age, youth, poverty and riches; and refine ones sensual vision into a sort of animals essay north star which can never cease to be open lidded and steadfast over consider the wonders of the animals great Power. Creative Prompts For High Students! ( Letters , 299)  At the end of June, Keats visits the “Druids’ Circle.” Gilpin, in his tour of the protecting Lakes, discovered this same temple, which he admits is not particularly picturesque, though conjured up pictures of Druid priests and ritual sacrifice. A romantic fancy? Surely not! The pit-falls, obstacles and writing prompts school students, hardships of the tour increasingly insinuate themselves into his correspondence. Brown was a veteran hiker. For Keats—by no means weak-kneed nor namby-pamby—the going becomes too tough. The Picturesque of protecting animals northern Britain is by aldous a landscape of antagonistic elements, gentleness is anathema, where the only comfort can come from essay, discomfort.
All this, compounded with climactic and topographical alienness, becomes apparent in “On Visiting the Tomb of biology dissertations Burns,” written during the tour: The town, the churchyard, and the setting sun, The clouds, the trees, the rounded hills all seem, Though beautiful, cold—strange—as in a dream, I dreamed long ago, now new begun. The short-liv’d, paly Summer is but won. From Winter’s ague, for one hour’s gleam;
Though sapphire-warm, their stars do never beam: All is cold Beauty, pain is never done: For who has mind to relish, Minos-wise, The Real of Beauty, free from that dead hue. Sickly imagination and sick pride. Cast wan upon it? Burns! with honour due. I oft have honour’d thee. Great shadow, hide. Thy face; I sin against essay the native skies. ( Letters , 308)
Although largely a fault finding mission, a remonstrance, penned by a southerner spoiled by languid southern summer sunshine and summer warmth, there is here, as there is the lobster and other essays not in “I Stood Tiptoe” and other early poems, an authentic sense of feeling, a sense of being touched by landscape and protecting animals essay, nature, a genuineness that foreshadows “Ode to Melancholy.” There is also an important associational element, translating to by aldous the problem of judging beauty when both our judgement and beauty itself are tinged with the omnipresence of brevity and death. If the northern summer is only a brief delivery from winter, then what of our lives? The headiness of the first fine weather days are followed by an account of protecting a country dance, which Keats concludes with what is becoming a familiar refrain: “This is creative prompts what I like better than scenery” ( Letters , 307). In Scotland he writes: “I know not how it is, the Clouds, the protecting animals essay sky, the Houses, all seem anti Grecian anti Charlemagnish—I will endeavour to get rid of my prejudices, tell you fairly about the Scotch” ( Letters , 309). At the by aldous same time, there is a clue to protecting Keats’ understanding of creative writing students picturesqueness: “The barefooted Girls look very much in keeping—I mean with the Scenery about protecting animals them. . . . Twenty At Hull Thesis! They are very pleasant because they are very primitive” ( Letters , 318-19). Steeped in protecting animals, literature, with much of his experience experienced vicariously, Keats can never entirely lose his prejudice. As hinted above, Keats takes great delight in picturesque characters: Imagine the worst dog kennel you ever saw placed upon two poles from a mouldy fencing—In such a wretched thing sat a squalid old woman squat like an twenty years at hull, ape half starved from a scarcity of Biscuit in its passage from Madagascar to the cape,—with a pipe in her mouth and looking out with a round eyed skinny lidded, inanity—with a sort of essay horizontal idiotic movement of her head—squat and lean she sat and puffed out the smoke while two ragged tattered Girls carried her along. Dissertations! ( Letters , 321-2) Notice the skill with which Keats intensifies the picturesque effect: the essay mixed dog/ape metaphor, the alliteration and repetition. Essays! This, certainly, is a different Picturesque, though nonetheless Picturesque. The detachment we witnessed in Wordsworth—that frequent remoteness from the real trials and tribulations of country life—is also manifest in Keats.
John Clare, Keats’ contemporary, similarly notes: . Protecting Animals! . . his descriptions of scenery are often very fine but as it is the case with other inhabitants of great cities he often described nature as she appeared in his fancies not as he would have described her had he witnessed the things he describes—Thus it is he has often undergone the stigma of Cockneyism what appears as beautys in the eyes of a pent-up citizen are looked upon as conceits by those who live in the country—these are merely errors but even here they are merely the errors of poetry—he is often mystical but such poetical licences have been looked on as beauties in Wordsworth Shelley and in Keats they may be forgiven. Years House! (qtd. Protecting Animals! Watson, 23) The idea that such romanticisms are “merely errors of poetry” is indicative of the times, a kind of Claudian perspective where both the Picturesque and poetic vision could often turn a blind eye to social reality and see instead a dislocated ideal. The subject then is not merely inaccuracy in “descriptions of scenery” but the essays general anti-utilitarianism of romantic poetry. This, it seems, is much more “comic and faddish” (Brownlow, 43) than learning to appreciate landscape through painting. It is also entirely common to all the romantic poets.
Again, to quote Clare: And een the animals fallow fields appear so fair. The very weeds make sweetest gardens there. And summer there puts garments on so gay. I hate the biology plow that comes to dissaray. And man the only object that disdains. Earths garden into animals, deserts for his grains. Leave him his schemes of gain—tis wealth to me. Wild heaths to trace—and not their broken tree. Which lightening shivered—and which nature tries.
To keep alive for poesy to prize. (Clare, 80) Interestingly, however, such romanticism of country life is twenty years at hull house often omitted during the tour, where Keats comes face to face with the squalor—and a foreign squalor to such a southerner—of poverty and often describes it in empathetic or political terms: On our walk in Ireland we had too much opportunity to see the worse than nakedness, the rags, the dirt and protecting animals, misery of the poor common Irish—A Scotch cottage, though in that some times the Smoke has no exit but at the door, is a palace to an Irish one. ( Letters , 321) There is perhaps some implication that a philosophical shift occurs in moving from poetry to consider the lobster and other prose, as if the picturesque vanishes with the replacement of smock for Wellington boots and overalls, a justification for the might of “modern” prose. The subject of Keats’ complaint was also the subject of protecting essay a Picturesque sub-category: the Gainsboroughesque “cottage Picturesque,” where sublimity is replaced by romantic rusticity, where such squalor is biology dissertations marked by protecting essay its absence: in essence, a gentle Picturesque (see figure 16 ).
In a gasping effort at brevity, much has been overlooked. In summary, Keats’ correspondence during the tour is overgrown with the Picturesque, from poems such as “Ailsa Rock” (see figure 17) and essays by aldous, “Ben Nevis,”—which, in protecting, its stumbling uncertainty, seem neither a Ben nor a Nevis—to comments such as “evey [sic] ten steps creating a new and beautiful picture—sometimes through little woods—there are two islands on the Lake each with a beautiful ruin—one of them rich in ivy ( Letters , 338).  In early August, after covering 642 horizontal and consider and other, vertical miles in sometimes cold wet conditions with sometimes poor food and indifferent accommodation, after suffering a fortnight from a cold and sore throat, Keats abandoned the tour and left his friend to continue alone. Animals Essay!  Watson—in his singular modern study of Keats and the Picturesque, which continues the standard criticism instituted with Wordsworth—provides a succinct panorama of the refracted light of influence the Picturesque tour radiates over Hyperion , and there is no need therefore to offer excessive focus.  In summary, Watson points out that the power of the the lobster essays poem stems from Keats’ “mythologising imagination” and the sublime “terrifying landscapes which form the background for the colossal figures” (155). Animals! But the picturesque, in addition to background, also serves as a form of characterisation, externalising the internal: . . Copy Of 95! . where their own groans. They felt, but heard not, for the solid roar. Of thunderous waterfalls and torrents hoarse. Pouring a constant bulk, uncertain where. Crag jutting forth to crag, and rocks that seem’d. Ever as if just rising from a sleep,
Forehead to forehead held their monstrous horns; And thus in a thousand hugest phantasies. Made a fir roofing to this nest of woe. (II,6-14) On similar lines, “The quiet sublime imbues the animals sorrow-worn face of Moneta within the copy of 95 thesis temple of Western memory built by Keats in The Fall of Hyperion ” (Woodring, 40). There are, however, a few additional points which Watson fails to note. Protecting Animals Essay! Firstly, the poem opens with Saturn and Thea postured “. Twenty Years! . . Protecting Essay! motionless / Like natural sculpture in napolitano, cathedral cavern” (I.85-86). The scene is represented through copious visual images at the expense the auditory.
Recollecting, “I live in protecting animals, the eye” from his picturesque tour, there is some hint of the visual memories which form the scenery of Hyperion’s stage. The “fallen divinity” of Saturn exists in a mythico-historical landscape formed of the transcendental imagination and nature experienced during the tour: the “thousand hugest phantasies.” Watson’s closing comment—“ Ode to Autumn originated in the Hampshire harvest-time, not on twenty thesis statement, a Lakeland mountain; and the nightingale, like Keats, sings only in the south of England” (157)—scores high marks for rhetorical tune and poetic twang; unfortunately, it is falsely based upon the premise that the protecting animals essay Picturesque is heterogeneous to Hampshire as well as drawing attention to his ornithological dullness. Following the Picturesque Tour, Watson states: “. Creative Writing Prompts School Students! . . and there, apart from animals, Canto I of The Fall of twenty house thesis Hyperion , Keats turned his back upon the picturesque for ever” (157). Although, again, rhetorically right and conforming to the standard ignominiously moulded analysis of the Picturesque, this is not, in actual fact, the essay case. The influence of Claude’s Sacrifice to essays Apollo on “Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale” has already been mentioned. In more general terms, and protecting essay, as Bate mentions: “It is interesting to note the number of of 95 spontaneous phrases and images in his letters now that are later echoed in the poetry, especially in the Odes“ (358). Although instances are numerous, a couple will prove the point. In terms of diction, compare: “There is no great body of water, but the accompaniment is delightful; for it ooses out from a cleft in perpendicular Rocks, all fledged with Ash. Protecting Animals! . .” ( Letters , 306) with, “ Fledge the wild-ridged mountains steep by steep” (“Ode to Psyche,” 55). In terms of a specific memory, compare the excursion to Ambleside waterfall: “. . . it is and other essays buried in trees, in the bottom of the valley—the stream itself is interesting” ( Letters , 300), with, “. . . over the still stream, / Up the hill-side; and protecting animals essay, now 'tis buried deep / In the next valley” (“Ode to a Nightingale,” 76-8). The Picturesque continued to work through Keats’ poetry: not always clearly; but the lines still are drawn.
Recalling Keats’ comments on first seeing Windermere, which included “refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star,” we move easily to its later transmutation: Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art- Not in copy thesis, lone splendour hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at their priestlike task. Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores, Or gazing on the new soft-fallen mask.
Of snow upon the mountains and the moors; No-yet still stedfast, still unchangeable, Pillow’d upon my fair love’s ripening breast, To feel for protecting ever its soft fall and swell, Awake for ever in a sweet unrest, Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever-or else swoon to death. ( Complete Poems , 329) One of the problems of looking at Keats in copy of 95, a Picturesque context, as mentioned above, is protecting animals essay his unwillingness to adopt standard phraseologies, choosing instead to create fresh imagery. Although this is writing prompts school indeed a “problem,” it is also a solution. Knight was perhaps the most adamant proponent of “novelty” in Picturesque scenes. A vast expanse of lawn is boring not simply for its smoothness, but for protecting essay its lack of surprise.
Abrupt variation produces mixture through novelty. Richard Payne Knight recognised the salutary effect of “irritation” as an interruption of sensations that had become “stale and vapid” through repetition. (Robinson, 7) It seems fair therefore to suggest that poetic coinings—“large dome curtains,” ( Hyperion ) and “massy range” ( Fall of Hyperion ), for example—are a form of napolitano such abrupt variation producing mixture through novelty. In a sense, Keats’ poetical methodology stems directly from the lessons of the Picturesque, at least in terms of “the noble metaphor, when it is protecting animals essay placed to Advantage, casts a kind of Glory round it, and creative prompts for high students, darts a Lustre through the whole sentence” (qtd. Robinson, 9).
That dart of lustre provides the interruption, the irritation, the unexpected that is “novelty.” This is key not only to protecting animals the Picturesque but to much of Keats’ better poetry. Although perhaps out on strechified limb, in danger of barking up the wrong tree, the suggestion merely provides some indication of the less obvious influence of the Picturesque. Hipple points out that the term “picturesque” can and is used solely as a literary term: “Blaire,” he says as a case in point, “repeatedly praises epithets, figures and descriptions as ‘picturesque’ as conjuring up distinct and forcible images.” (186) Indeed, compared with Robinson’s analogy between the complexity and mixture of the Picturesque and identical constituents of the 18th century Whig party, (“Compositions of Politics and Money”)—the picturesque here seems more associated with the copy of 95 wig than the party—the claim seems modest enough. The Liberty of the Picturesque. The difficulty of animals essay defining romanticism, which we have deliberately over-looked, stems of course from the diversity of of 95 poetry, of styles, of essay influences and of diction of romantic poets. That variety is itself a product of the times and the liberty that the Picturesque supported—liberty both in the political and personal sense. Consider Essays! Knight, in animals essay, Progress of copy of 95 a Civil Society , points out the connection between the picturesque landscape garden—and by animals extension, the twenty years statement Picturesque in general—and the essay composition of resume napolitano society: As when in formal lines, exact and true, The pruner’s scissors shear the ductile yew, Amused, its shape and symmetry we see, But seek in vain the likeness of a tree;
And while the artist’s pleasing skill we trace, Lament the protecting essay loss of every native grace: So when too strictly social habits bind, The native vigour of the roving mind, Pleased, the well-ordered system we behold.
Its justly regulated parts unfold, But search in copy of 95, vain its complicated plan. To find the native semblance of a man, And, ’midst the charms of equal rule, deplore. The loss of graces art can ne’er restore. (qtd. Robinson, 134) In a sense, an protecting essay, examination of the consider essays Picturesque in the context of its influence on romanticism—even when fairness, as here, is the animals essay ultimate goal—does a certain injustice to the subject and filters out much of the important material. Thus, for example, the liberating effect seems somewhat arbitrary. Hipple, in The Beautiful, the Sublime and resume, the Picturesque , occupies a unique position in modern Picturesque analysis, going beyond the positivism of art historians and suggesting that the Picturesque is consequential in and of itself. Although Hipple rarely ventures beyond summary and conflation of individual Picturesque theories, his treatise is comprehensive, detailed and animals essay, offers an twenty at hull thesis, important concluding point:
The aestheticians of this period [eighteenth century] all found their subject to be psychological: the protecting animals central problem for them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular substances, nor was it found among the characteristics of human activity or of the modes of symbolic representation; one and all, they found their problem to be the specification and discrimination of certain kinds of feelings, the determination of the copy thesis mental powers and susceptibilities which yielded those feelings, and of the impressions and animals essay, ideas which excited them. (305) Although the Picturesque, despite Hipple’s unqualified assertion, does indeed concern itself with particular substances: the elemental material of a scene; and with human activity: the hiking and picturesque tours, the picturesque guide books and plain and simple painting and poetry; and with modes of symbolic representation: the writing prompts for high school students Picturesque itself is a mode of animals essay symbolic representation; Hipple’s stress upon the psychological basis is nevertheless an important point, especially when we look forward to the psychological aspect of romantic poetry. One of the difficulties with the Picturesque is biology that it never became a unified system; the saving grace of the Picturesque is essay that it never became a unified system. It is fundamentally concerned with the native vigour of the roving mind, allowing for nature and art to stroll arm in arm, allowing and even insisting upon the liberty of variety and change: the liberty then of Wordsworth and Keats. Keats, for all his youth and gentle disposition, found the Picturesque health threatening to walk through and essays, almost anomalistic to incorporate in his verse; as a serious poet with ambitions of immortality,  he nevertheless realised its essentiality to his artistic development. As Robinson explains: “Picturesque colors are not fresh, delicate ones of spring, but those of autumn whose age and decay bespeak fullness and repose tinged with memory and the sharpness of abrupt terminations” (101). Keats then is seeking, not for something to save his life, but his immortality. Keats never reached an age when these colours could clearly be seen and so we find glimpses here and protecting, there and thesis, the constant desire to “bid these joys farewell”: those bright colours of youth.
Figure 14: Joseph Farington, Windermere, from Watson. Figure 15: Joseph Farington, The Waterfall at Rydal , from Watson (visited by Keats) Figure 16: Francis Wheatly (1747-1801), Girls washing in a stream, from Bicknell. Figure 17: Ailsa rock, from Bate. Four years after the death of Keats, engraver and publisher Charles Heath and essay, Turner came “to an agreement that Turner would produce a large quantity of water-colours over a number of at hull years, from which Charles Heath would choose 120 to be line-engraved and subsequently published under the title of “Picturesque Views in England and protecting, Wales.”(Shanes, 5) The Picturesque, even at this date, remains a vital force that warrants the attention of England’s finest artist. Indeed, “Turner was undoubtedly at the height of his mature creative powers during the years of this series”(Shanes, 17)
The implied perception of the romantic movement as a reaction against eighteenth century neo-classicism or, at the other extreme, as spontaneous literary combustion torched by Wordsworth’s egotistical sublime is prescriptivism unleashed, offering barely the bare bones of a story. It is consider the lobster neither immaterial nor coincidental that the 1770s—the decade of Wordsworth’s birth—also saw the beginnings of English landscape painting as a major genre, signifying not only a general artistic reaction but also attraction . The eighteenth century saw landscape modified from traditional perceptions of protecting essay ownership, agriculture and trial and trouble to aesthetic material. This then is the general Picturesque canvass. The Picturesque movement, in providing the initial way of seeing landscape actually encouraged the viewing of landscape, opening the scenery of England to enthusiastic travellers in search of the Picturesque and resume, finally revealing what had always been there though never before seen. This suddenly seen landscape was no longer lit by the golden light of a fanciful Golden Age; no longer mottled with classical sylvan shadows, where Pope’s “Fair Thames, flow gently from thy sacred spring, / While on thy banks Sicilian Muses sing”; no longer a continuation of the Works and Days of Hesiod nor theories of Theocritus: now the Island’s landscape might be seen in common light, casting its own shadow, peopled by common people born and bred, the works and days of a new age. In addition to protecting essay this aesthetic revolution, the heightened status of of 95 thesis landscape provided an environment in which nature, the individual elements of landscape—already of increasing importance by virtue of developments in the natural sciences—might find its aesthetic value enlarged. The Picturesque movement proved its importance and viability by its very popularity and protecting essay, success. Picturesque theory intellectualised landscape, transforming it into something that could only be truly appreciated through learning, just as neo-classicism had done previously, though now it was no longer classical learning but aesthetic learning that was sought; and the focus was decidedly the landscape itself rather than a superimposed classicism. Of 95 Thesis! It this manner, it was increasingly intellectually acceptable to study landscape, in painting, in poetry, and in pastime. As Christopher Hussey suggests in The Picturesque : The picturesque view of nature was the new, the only, way of deriving aesthetic satisfaction from landscape.
Previously, Englishmen had simply failed to protecting animals essay connect scenery and painting in their minds. And Other! They had liked certain views and certain lights, just as all men like sunshine and verdure, for their own sakes. But landscape as such gave them no aesthetic satisfaction. (2) The notion of complete detachment from an protecting, aesthetic appreciation of scenery—essentially the unfamiliarity of the familiar—seems, at least at first glance, rooted in a certain outlandishness. Additional proof comes from Wordsworth himself, who lodged for resume a time near Derwentwater. under the roof of a shrewd and essay, sensible woman, who more than once exclaimed in my hearing, “Bless me! folk [picturesque tourists] are always talking about prospects: when I was young there never was sic a thing neamed.” (qtd. Andrews, 153-4) On a hike through Wales, Uvedale Price came upon the lobster, a series of natural cascades and expressed his delight to the landowner: He was quite uneasy at the pleasure I felt, and animals essay, seemed afraid I should waste my admiration. The Lobster And Other! “Don’t stop at these things,” said he, “I will shew you by and by one worth seeing.” At last we came to a part where the brook was conducted down three long steps of hewn stone: “There,” said he, with great triumph, “that was made by Edwards, who built Pont y pridd, and it is reckoned as neat a piece of mason-work as any in protecting animals, the country.” (qtd. Robinson, 11)
Neither is this detachment merely a fact of by-gone days: During a recent journey to England, crossing the North Yorkshire Moors in the company of a local retired farmer, I was struck immediately by the picturesque landscape: a region of sudden chasms, blasted trees and weathered rocky outcrops, of bumbling uncertain stone cottages and creative writing prompts school, barns and shaggy sheep. My companion was indifferent to protecting its charms. Suddenly, all about the meandering road, we came upon an area quite changed, unusually verdant, with thick hedge-rows and trees full grown and full leafed--and decidedly less picturesque. The farmer suddenly came to life. “I did all this,” he began, with an all embracing wave of his hand. Creative Prompts Students! “It used to protecting animals essay be like all the rest, now’t bar rocks. Look at it now though.” For the next several miles he lectured on consider and other, his “improvements,” singing praise of its cultivated nature and even claiming to have caused changes in local climate! Soon we re-entered the picturesque and protecting essay, protected national park. “Now, just look at that,” he scoffed with a disdainful shake of his head. “It’s bloody awful.”
The Picturesque was, further, a ubiquitous movement which sought to understand the nature of aesthetic perception and to provide prescriptions which essentially affected an entirely new appreciation for the wild wilderness of places such as the Cumbrian Lake District. Finally, we should not discount the political and social overtones: the license it provided for liberalism, for variety, for for high students change, for originality. For all its seriousness, Picturesque musings were wont to wander into regions of protecting absurdity, sometimes finding their way into the real world, as with Charles Hamilton’s hiring of napolitano a hermit to sit in his back garden hermitage; or the estate village of Old Warden in Bedforshire where, in the early nineteenth century, the residents were cajoled into wearing red cloaks and tall hats to animals harmonise with the red paint work and creative writing school, charming dormers of their cottages. In the fictional world, this absurdity was also made apparent: A lecture on the picturesque immediately followed, in which his instruction were so clear the she soon began to see beauty admired by him, and her attention was so earnest, that he became perfectly satisfied of her having a great deal of natural taste. He talked of fore-grounds, distances, and second distances--side-screens and perspectives--lights and shades;--and Catherine was so hopeful a scholar that when they gained the essay top of Beechen Cliff, she voluntarily rejected the consider the lobster essays whole city of Bath, as unworthy to protecting animals essay make part of a landscape. (Austen 138) Indeed, the very pith of Picturesque theory might, to the cynical—and especially literary minded—modern, seems daubed with inanity, for it sought to mix landscape and painting, allowing the appreciation of a real scene for at hull house its likeness to art, rather than art for its likeness to a real scene—a notion which Hugh Sykes Davies, Wordsworth and the Worth of Words , finds particularly “unnatural.” The important thing to remember here, however, is that this was, plain and simple, the only way into landscape, the only way to see the invisibly visible. Such satire stemmed from the excesses of the Picturesque movement and the jocularity sometimes manifest in the debate, and is not a suggestion of animals ignis-fatuus . Further, as Hussey explains, “the picturesque interregnum between classical and romantic art was necessary in order to house thesis enable the imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eyes” (4). It is protecting essay unfortunate the modern reading of the Picturesque has turned a blind eye to the real meaning of years house thesis statement Picturesque and adopted the more authoritative expression of Wordsworth himself as well as satirical expression by essay writers such as Austin and William Combe. And yet the ridiculous that some have found in the Picturesque is found equally in those that find it. J. Essays By Aldous Huxley! R. Watson, for protecting essay example, provides a fitting conclusion: after a quotation in twenty at hull thesis statement, which Coleridge writes of a rocky climbing episode, he writes: “In both Wordsworth and Coleridge there is an exhalation at the danger and excitement . . . the danger was there. . . . Gilpin penetrated into essay, the valley beyond Rosthwaite, but did not consider it practicable to and other essays go further” (186).
So there we have it: the romantic poets were much braver than those mere writers on the Picturesque! And this is good. Watson admits, however, that Coleridge “exaggerated the essay dangers in his letter” (187)! Equally, the idea that the Picturesque had already run its course well before Wordsworth offered the final denunciating blow is patently absurd. Dissertations! We have already seen how Keats required some close experience of the Picturesque in order to further develop his poetic potential. We can remove further, both temporarily and geographically: Blake Nevius, in his slim volume, Cooper’s Landscapes , argues convincingly that the Picturesque strongly influenced his pictorial sense and description subsequent to protecting animals his 1826-1833 stay in Europe: What Cooper as a visual artist learned from his travels on the continent is apparent in the later romances. His sharper awareness of pictorial values to resume napolitano be sought in the natural landscape and of the means by which these values could be introduced into imagined landscape is most evident . . Protecting Animals! . in the forest romances written after his return. By Aldous Huxley! (89) We move forward in time, we cross the Atlantic, we leap from poetry to prose, yet still the Picturesque remains, exerting its influence. The Picturesque, popularised by the illustrated guides, general debate, fashionable sketching tours, the national fealty of Gainsborough’s work and so on, portrayed a populist and recognisable landscape. Protecting! Moving away from seventeenth and early eighteenth century depictions of myth-laden Italian scenes, the Picturesque embraced rustic England and adopted a visual idiom from consider, common life.
Bermingham’s suggestion that the concomitant “. . . improvement in real landscape, increasing its agricultural yield, raised its commercial and monetary worth” (1), provides a pragmatic exegesis for the new picturesque fashion and underscores changing cultural values. If agricultural developments—enclosure, consolidation of small holdings and so on—endowed land with new nummary worth, they also caused the physical transformation of large tracts of protecting countryside, working at odds with the increasing sense of cultural and aesthetic worth. As a result, remote rustic regions such as Cumbria’s Lake District, were discovered as “ . Creative Writing Prompts For High Students! . . the image of the homely, the stable, the ahistorical” (Birmingham 9). If at the last of the century—beginning with Cowper—there came poets and painters who . . . found beauty in hedge-rows and corn-fields, and in Hampstead and protecting, Mousehold Heaths, it was because of a long training in seeing landscape pictorially,—a training which of necessity began with the essays most elaborate and protecting, heightened forms of landscape, with the richest and most obvious appeal, and on the most vast and impressive scale. (Manwaring, 232) The importance of the Picturesque stems from the resume fostering of an intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and scenery which in turn opened up new vistas of artistic subjects.
The emphasis upon feeling and associational values which grew from protecting, analysis of the sublime and beautiful and blossomed in the Picturesque finally allowed those new vistas to be expressed in subjective and romantic terms. Romanticism, then, was, to a large degree, the natural development of Picturesque aesthetics. Of course, the story continues: Ted Hughes, (1930-) born in West Yorkshire and appointed poet laureate in 1984, has written several volumes which testify to resume the renewed interest in topographical poetry. Protecting! And all my holiday snapshots are Picturesque. Andrews, Malcolm. Of 95 Thesis! The Search for the Picturesque: landscape aesthetics and tourism in Britain, 1760-1800 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey . New York: Dell, 1962.
Bate, Walter Jackson. John Keats . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. Benedict, Barbara M. Making the protecting animals essay Modern Reader: cultural mediation in and other essays, early modern literary anthologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Bermingham, Ann. Landscape and Ideology: the English rustic tradition, 1740-1860 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Bicknell, Peter. Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in Britain , 1750-1850.
Cambridge: The Museum, 1981. Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and Picturesque Landscape . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combe, William. Doctor Syntax his three tours: in search of the picturesque, of consolation, of a wife . London: F. Warne, 1890. Davies, Hugh Sykes. W ordsworth and the Worth of Words. Protecting Animals! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Dayes, Edward, A Picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and essays, Debyshire . London: J. Nichols Son, 1825. Denham, John, Sir. The Poetical Works . Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1969. Dyer, John. Poems . Ed. Edward Thomas.
Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, 1989. Gilpin, William. Essay on Prints. London: 1781. ---. Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape. London: Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty; made in.
the year 1772, on several parts of England; particularly the animals essay mountains, and lakes of of 95 Cumberland, and animals essay, Westmoreland . London, Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. Creative Students! A dialogue upon the gardens of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham at animals Stow in biology, Buckinghamshire . Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1976. --- . Animals Essay! Observations on the River Wye . Richmond: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd, 1973. Greenshields, E.B.
Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists . Of 95! Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1906. Gray, Thomas. Complete Poems of Thomas Gray. Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1966. Handy Guide to animals the English Lakes . Kendal: T. Wilson, undated. Hipple, Walter John. The Beautiful, the Sublime, and by aldous huxley, the Picturesque in protecting essay, Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1957. Hughes, John. The Poetical Works of John Hughes . Edinburgh: At the Apollo Press, 1779. Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque: studies in a point of view . London: Cass, 1967. Johnson, Ben. “To Penshurst” The Norton Anthology of English Literature . Ed. Abrams, M.H.
London: W. W. Norton Company, 1975. Keats, John. Complete Poems and Selected Letters . New York: Odyssey Press, 1935. ---. The Letters of John Keats 1814-1821, Volume One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958. Knight, Richard Payne. The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books Addressed to Uvedale Price . London: Printed by W. Bulmer and resume, Co., Shakespeare Printing, 1794.
Nevius, Blake. Cooper's Landscapes: an essay on the picturesque vision. Protecting! Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Pope, Alexander. The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Price, Uvedale.
On the Picturesque . Edinburgh: Caldwell, Lloyd, 1842. Roberts, Maureen B., The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in years house thesis, the Works of John Keats . Animals Essay! 1997. http://www.cgjung.com/articles/keats1.html. Robinson, Eric , ed. Biology! Selected Poems and Prose of John Clare . Protecting Essay! Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Robinson, Sidney K. Inquiry into the Picturesque . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Ruskin, John. Twenty Years House Thesis! (www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/ruskin)
Serle, John. A Plan of animals Mr. Pope's Garden . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1982. Turner, J. M. By Aldous! W. Protecting Animals! (Joseph Mallord William), Turner's Picturesque Views in house thesis, England and Wales, 1825-1838 . Ed. Eric Shanes. London: Chatto Windus, 1983.
Thomson, James. The Seasons and The Castel of Indolence . Animals! Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Watson J. R. Picturesque Landscape and English Romantic Poetry . London: Hutchinson Educational, 1970. Watkin, David. The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and garden design . New York: Harper Row, 1982. West, Thomas. A guide to the lakes, in resume napolitano, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire . Protecting! 4th ed.
London : W. Richardson, 1789. Williams, Ralph M. Poet, Painter and biology dissertations, Parson the Life of John Dyer. New York: Bookman Associates, 1956. Woodring, Carl. Nature into protecting, Art : cultural transformations in nineteenth-century Britain . Creative Writing Prompts For High School Students! Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England . London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
---. Poems. Protecting Animals Essay! The poetical works of Wordsworth . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982. As the title suggests, this is a cross disciplinary study. What might seem, initially, a grand tour—with hefty baggage—into remote realms outside literature proper is, in fact, a survey of the foundations of romanticism. Up until the 19th century, French Salon duries in state-run competitions adhered to a strict hierarchy of subjects determined in 18th century Rococo and Neo-Classical art: history and religious subjects, portraiture, still life and, lastly and leastly, landscape. Even the creative writing for high school French Academy's coveted Prix de Rome for art students had no landscape category until 1817, when historic landscapes with some narrative event were reluctantly allowed. As David Watkin, The English Vision , points out, a similar state existed in the area of architectural paintings: . . Animals Essay! . the creative writing students celebrated architectural competitions for the Grand Prix awarded by the French Academy and protecting, later by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: from the first competition held in 1702 up until 1962 no site was ever specified. In England, however, the simple outline elevation in the form of a diagram on an otherwise blank background gradually gave way to by aldous huxley drawings which show the building in its setting and eventually, as in the work of Blore for example, to fully developed water-colours of landscape in which the house appears as an incident. (x) When eighteenth century Britons referred to “Poussin” it was normally to Gaspard Dughet and not his now more famous brother-in-law, Nicolas Poussin.
Other influential artists, though less important to Picturesque developments, were Tintoretto, Ruisdael and Hobbema. One such example, as E. L. Essay! Manwaring notes, is Jonathan Richardson’s An Account of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, France, c. (1722) which became, for some time, a standard guide. Biology! The section on protecting animals, landscape pictures, tellingly, features a prefatory note explaining precisely what landscape pictures are! cite - Manwaring 62 63. Watkin essentially makes the same point, though contextualised within the standard literary bias: The history of creative writing for high school amateur sketching in the nineteenth century in the manner of De Wint and Cox affords another example of the way in which a particular mode of vision became established as a thing so “natural” that its artificiality and its debt to the theories of Sir Uvedale Price were generally forgotten. (xi) Roundhay Park—its central stately mansion now a noble pub—in my own home town of protecting essay Leeds, still features a mock ruin. Consider The Lobster And Other Essays! Over-grown with bramble, nettles, grass and dandelion, it is generally understood—by locals and visitors alike—to be as ancient as it is picturesque. See Manwaring, (8).
Johnson’s dictionary, although avoiding the protecting essay difficulty of defining Picturesque , actually employed it to define other words. Strange then that Burke’s Inquiry is as familiar to academics as the Gospel, whereas Gilpin ideas have become the copy Apocryphia. The very success of this codification played a prominent role in making banal the very theory it sought to sanctify. The importance of the animals essay imagination and subjective vision in landscape painting goes back at least as far as Claude. Samuel Palmer wrote: “When I was setting out for Italy I expected to see Claude’s magical combinations; miles apart I found the disjointed members, which he had “suited to the desires of napolitano his mind”; these were the beauties, but the beautiful ideal Helen was his own” (qtd. Greenshields, 16). Gainsborough’s rustic figures were influenced by those of Wynant. (1620-1684) . Amongst the sagging shelves of picturesque guide-books were those by Thomas Gray, James Clark and Thomas West. Besides Landscape and An Analytical Enquiry into the Principles of essay Taste , Knight published books ranging in subject from sexual symbolism to resume napolitano Greek philology. This note by protecting essay Knight is reprinted as a preface to Price’s The Landscape . Importantly, the dominance of the ocular sense which, in reference to the Picturesque, so bothered Wordsworth and copy, is often adopted in protecting animals, literary analysis in reference to Gilpin was most singular to essays Knight; and was, in fact, a cornerstone of the debate between Knight and Price.
For a detailed historical analysis of enquiries into the sublime and the beautiful, as well as the debt owed by Blake to Joseph Addison, see Walter John Hipple’s The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque . Somewhat ironically, Wordsworth once rebuked his friend Beaumont for painting-in an protecting, imaginary ruined castle in one of his favourite views. Constable was born in essays huxley, Suffolk, and though he found the Lake District too solitary a place, it was there, in 1806, that he met Wordsworth and Coleridge. See Bermingham for protecting animals essay reproduced illustrations. C. Meeks, The Railroad Station, An Architectural History. Early pastoral romances—Sidney’s Arcadia (1580-1582) , for example—were resplendent in romance, requiring their courtly readers to possess a familiarity not with nature but classical texts and the conventions of courtly behaviour and are thus excluded from consider and other, this study. Besides the protecting forced confinement of the heroic couplet, Abraham Cowley in Pindarique Odes (1665) set the example for twenty thesis statement deliberate irregularity, breaking the chords of the standard Pindaric precedent in protecting animals essay, an effort to stimulate more intense feeling. This is typical Pope: compare, for biology example, The Temple of Fame : Here naked Rocks, and empty Wastes were seen,
There Tow’ry Cities, and the Forests green: Here sailing Ships delight the protecting animals essay wond’ring Eyes. There trees . . Consider And Other Essays! . (15-18) Only myopic—perhaps: Lines 79-80 of Pastorals: Summer : “Your praise the tuneful birds to heaven shall bear,/And list’ning wolves grow milder as they hear.” In a footnote, Pope explains: So the animals verses were originally written. But the author, young as he was, soon found the absurdity which Spenser himself overlooked, of the lobster introducing Wolves into England. (131) Pope’s modesty here, of course, is overshadowed by the impressive achievement of discovering something even Spenser missed. Protecting Animals Essay! A fortunate discovery too, for the absurdity of the wolves was noticed by the “ Naiads ,” “Jove,” and “Satyrs” to name only a few native English characters included in dissertations, the poem.
Notwithstanding Wordsworth’s recognition of protecting essay Thomson as the first poet since Milton to offer new images of resume napolitano “external nature.” Gilpin, in protecting animals essay, particular, was fond of quoting Thomson in his various tours. The quotation in Section One, from The Castel of Indolence , Canto I, XXXVIII, sufficiently demonstrates Thomson’s familiarity with the great European painters of landscape which, as we have seen, played a crucial role in copy, the development of the English Picturesque school. Constable, for protecting animals example, quoted several lines from “Summer” for his Salisbury Cathedral from the biology Meadows . Topographical poems from as early as John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill , published in 1642, which provides a very early example of a genre that was to win increasing popularity, invariably involve the poet ascending a peak, surveying the essay whole and then painting a word picture of interesting prospects. After Wordsworth’s death, a volume of Keat’s poems was discovered amongst his possession, a gift, the pages still uncut. Read an unwillingness to use the creative writing for high students word source . Of course, between the lines we discover the implication that Gilpin developed nothing.
My own parents, as Yorkshire as Yorkshire Pudding, received, as children of the 1930s, the rare gift of a rare orange for essay Christmas, finding it to be the ultimate in exotic luxury! Davies’ enclosing imagination within the essays by aldous huxley confines of quotation marks subtly suggests that Knight meddles with something that was not, in actual fact, imagination, but some pale imitation, a phantasmagoric and protecting essay, fraudulent imagination, an imagined imagination. Watson’s discomfort is palpable, etched in every repetition of the problem: “Yet the pugnacity of the note needs some explaining” (72); “Yet the poem also contains a direct attack on the picturesque in its footnote” (74); “Yet, as we have seen, the biology poem also contains an explicit rejection of the habits of protecting picturesque viewing” (77). For High School Students! Turning to The Prelude , Watson offers the standard glib solution: another “yet”: “Yet the energy and protecting, power of the experience seen in the light of memory transforms the picturesque scene into something much more powerful” (76). Even Wordsworth’s initial premise, that the “jagged outline . Copy Thesis! . . has a mean effect, transferred to canvas,” is perhaps a sentiment more nationalistic than artistic. Indeed, the influence of this book extends beyond Wordsworth into other critical examinations of the animals essay Picturesque and literature, forming the general thesis, for copy of 95 thesis example, of Brownlow’s study of Clare, who rides the contemporary critical aversion to the Picturesque like a hobby-horse in the Grand National to the point where either the beast dies a sudden death or the race is cancelled: “The Romantics . Protecting! . Twenty Years House Statement! . inherited the picturesque way of protecting animals essay looking at nature, but realised that it, in turn, had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of essays by aldous seeing which were new ways of feeling” (16). On a personal note, I would mention that the Yorkshire Dales are in fact much more picturesque than the Lake District—as are its native inhabitants. It is typical of Davies’ double-dealing study that these particular pictures are excluded from his pages. Compare this to Wordsworth’s complaint, quoted above, that the picturesque eye sees “Less spiritual, with microscopic view.” Davies also draws attention to animals Wordsworth’s familiarity with other Picturesque guides, including those of Thomas Gray, Dr.
John Brown, Thomas West and James Clark. In addition: John Harris [“English Country House Guides, 1740-1840,” Concerning Architecture, ed. J. Summerson, 1968.] has catalogued as many as ninety guides . . . Dissertations! including no less than thirty-one editions of guides to a single house, Stowe. We can thus see how far the protecting Picturesque had helped to foster a literary and intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and scenery. Huxley! (vii) Wordworth’s almost exclusive employment of his own poems, however, might be considered—by some—as egotistically sublime.
Although the edition is undated, an advertisement section features a blurb from protecting essay, a Kendal photographer citing an award won at the Edinburgh International Photographic Exhibition in 1890-91. Copy Of 95! Such is the longevity of this “faddish cult.” This picturesque apperception took place in 1803. The Prelude was begun in 1799, and protecting animals essay, completed in the summer of 1805. The conclusion is as obvious as it is unavoidable. We might even waggishly hazard that this superlative picturesque experience took place during the very period of Book XII’s composition.
Although Watson provides the fairest literary based analysis of the Picturesque, it is nevertheless incredible that he includes such evidence yet still endorses conventional assumptions. Keats, as a schoolboy, began a translation of the Aeneid . Twenty Years House! Alternatively, as Walter Jackson Bate informs us in protecting essay, his minute biography, Keats felt that Pope was “no poet, only a versifier” (49). The notion of originality is itself a legacy of the romantic ethos: originality becomes vital in copy of 95 thesis, art and in animals, life; experimentation with new experiences, diction, systems of thought all become the hallmark of the true romantic genius. Resume Napolitano! Indeed, critics’ unwillingness to give the Picturesque the importance it deserves as both the essay inaugurator of a new aesthetic vision and as a factor of lasting literary influence stems, perhaps, from the romantic desire to see originality rather than acknowledge the thesis temporal continuity of artistic development. Wordsworth’s preface to Lyrical Ballads disdains overworked poetical diction, though his adoption of animals essay Picturesque terminology speaks of following rather than leading. Thomas Gray, in “The Progress of Poesy” (1754), expresses a similar bond between poetry and landscape: Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake, And give to at hull house statement rapture all thy trembling strings. From Helicon's harmonious springs.
A thousand rills their mazy progress take: The laughing flowers, that round them blow, Drink life and fragrance as they flow. Now the rich stream of music winds along. Deep, majestic, smooth, and strong.
Thro' verdant vales, and Ceres' golden reign: Now rolling down the steep amain, Headlong, impetuous, see it pour; The rocks and nodding groves rebellow to the roar. (I.i.1-12) The central image here is protecting animals essay Poetry in general global expansion, finding echo in consider and other, both the objects of nature and poets of various ages.
Interestingly, even though Keats himself occasionally uses the word Picturesque in protecting essay, his correspondence; even though his companion Brown, in Walks in the North , offers the at hull house clear sign-post: “Here are the beautiful and sublime in unison,” ( Letters , 428), Bate, in essay, his tomeish biography, avoids such inkish sully. Keats’ early literary life was marked by constant frustrations: “. Twenty Thesis! . . I have not an Idea to put to paper—my hand feels like lead . . . I don’t know what to protecting essay write” (qtd. Bate, 342). Indeed, Keats shortly hereafter saw the first waterfall of his entire life. Perhaps suffering still from a mind “in such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments,” Keats, in a letter filled with similar portrayal, ironically concludes: “. Creative School Students! . Protecting Essay! . descriptions are bad at all times” ( Letters , 301).
Compared to John Hughes’ comment (Section Two), this represents by no means a development in the poetic continuum as Keats’ leanings towards the dramatic. Supporting this, and in the context of the picturesque: “Turner undoubtedly had what John Gage has perceptively called ‘an almost obsessive readiness to associate ideas’” (Shanes, 21). Indeed, Keats’ “negative capability,” unless we suspect that he, like Coleridge, was—to quote Edgar Allen Poe—”buried in metaphysics” seems a direct challenge to Wordsworth. The notion itself germinated from a lecture on Shakespeare given by Keats’ friend, Hazlitt, who stated that Shakespeare. was the least of an egotist that it was possible to be. He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were, or that they could become. He had in himself not only the germs of every faculty and feeling, but he could follow them by anticipation, intuitively, into all their conceivable ramification . . Creative Prompts For High School Students! . He had only to think of anything in order to become that thing, with all the circumstances belonging to it. (qtd. Bate, 260)
It is no surprise that Keats should whole-heartedly adopt the idea, not only since there is no superior poet to emulate, but because it was so oppositional to the crowned King of romantic poetry: Wordsworth. Perhaps in revolt against the popular, Keats, as in protecting essay, this instance, makes a studious, though far from successful, effort to avoid the word picturesque , even when the description itself spells out the word. Also, ruins are the single most common scenic feature of the biology dissertations tour. In 1739, on a tour of the Alps, Thomas Gray cunningly wrote: Mont Cenis, I confess, carries the permission mountains have of being frightful rather too far; and its horrors were accompanied with too much danger to give one time to reflect upon their beauties. (qtd Woodring, 34) In 1803, Coleridge, overwhelmed and over-tired, abandoned a tour with William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Protecting Animals! Proof, perhaps, that the sublime can get the better of the egotistical. A continuation, perhaps, of the question, “How is essays by aldous huxley it they did not [various picturesque and sublime scenes] beckon Burns to some grand attempt at Epic” ( Letters , 331). The reappearance of the Druid Circle is animals taken as a given.
“. . . to one whom you understand intends to be immortal” ( Letters , 305).
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Day of Infamy: The Attack on the U.S.S. Liberty. Today is the 48th anniversary of the attack on the U.S.S. Liberty , in which 34 Americans were murdered by the Government of Israel. by Dr. William L. Pierce. JUNE 8, 1967, is a day which will live in infamy. Animals? On this day an American Navy vessel, the U.S.S.
Liberty, was deliberately attacked in international waters by the armed forces of Israel in a treacherous attempt to sink the ship and twenty house thesis, kill everyone aboard it. The Liberty was an electronic intelligence gathering vessel, and it had been sent to the eastern Mediterranean to monitor radio communications. Israel had launched its latest land-grabbing war against its neighbors just four days earlier, and the U.S. government was curious as to what its Jewish “ally” was up to. (ILLUSTRATION: The heavily damaged U.S.S. Liberty after the treacherous Israeli attack on that fateful day.) The Jews, on the other hand, were quite determined that the United States not learn what they were doing. The Jewish plan was to grab as much Arab land as possible before the United States could figure out what was going on and begin insisting that Israel halt its latest aggression. Essay? The Jews did not want the United States, their principal source of military, economic, and diplomatic support to tell them to “cool it” until they had achieved all of their objectives, and biology, so it was important to the Jewish warlords to animals essay keep the American military in the dark for a few more days. Early on the morning of June 8, 1967, the napolitano, Liberty was just over 12 miles off the Egyptian coast in international waters and in sight of the Egyptian town of El Arish, monitoring radio signals and flying a large American flag.
Jewish forces had occupied El Arish two days earlier, and the Israeli Army was involved in killing a large number of Egyptian prisoners of war that very morning. Groups of Egyptian prisoners were marched into the desert, made to animals dig their graves, and then were shot by their Jewish captors. American personnel on the Liberty would not have been able to essays by aldous see these atrocities from more than 12 miles away, but they were intercepting Israeli radio communications discussing local operations. Of much more serious concern to the Jews was the interception by the Liberty of radio communications concerning their strategic military intentions: specifically their planned invasion of Syria. Just after dawn, a twin-engine, propeller-driven Israeli reconnaissance plane flew out protecting from the the lobster, coast and slowly circled the Liberty three times. A little before 9:00 AM an Israeli jet fighter flew out and circled the Liberty. Throughout the protecting essay, morning and early afternoon, the Jews sent one aircraft after another out to circle the Liberty. Some of these aircraft flew so low that the crew members aboard the Liberty could see the faces of the pilots. The Jews were keeping the Liberty under very close observation and seemed to essays huxley be concerned about the presence of the eavesdropper.
The Israelis finally decided to get rid of this threat to the secrecy of their military operations. At 2:00 PM several Israeli jet fighters streaked out from the coast and protecting animals, without warning began raking the Liberty from stem to stern with rockets, 30-mm cannon fire, and twenty years at hull thesis statement, napalm. A number of Americans on the bridge and deck of the Liberty were killed immediately. The Jewish aircraft made pass after pass over the ship, pouring their fire into the helpless, slow-moving American target, riddling it from stem to stern with explosive ordnance and leaving it looking like a floating piece of Swiss cheese. Protecting Essay? The hull and superstructure of the Liberty had 821 holes larger than a man’s fist from the rocket and cannon fire. Among other things the Jewish air attacks had shot away the consider and other, Liberty’s radio antennas and wrecked the radio room. As soon as the Israeli jets had exhausted their munitions and flown off, the crew immediately ran up another American flag to replace the one the Jews had shot away. The new flag was an protecting, oversize one, seven feet high and 13 feet long. Then, while the crew was fighting fires started by by aldous, the aerial napalm attacks and attempting to tend to the wounded and dying men on the deck, three Israeli torpedo boats appeared and began raking the decks of the Liberty with 20-mm and 40-mm automatic cannon fire. The Liberty’s life rafts in the water were machine-gunned by the Israelis.
Then a torpedo from one of the torpedo boats struck the ship, tearing a large hole in animals essay, its side below the waterline and killing 22 more crew members. Just before the resume napolitano, torpedo struck, the Liberty’s radiomen had managed to rig an emergency antenna and animals, get an by aldous huxley, auxiliary transmitter working. Throughout the attack the Jews were using radio jamming equipment in an attempt to drown out any radio message from the Liberty. Nevertheless, the protecting essay, Liberty managed to get off one radio message to the U.S. Sixth Fleet reporting the attack and calling for help. The Sixth Fleet, to the west in the Mediterranean, responded with a message that help was being sent. The U.S. aircraft carriers America and Saratoga launched jets which sped toward the Liberty. As soon as the Jews realized that the Sixth Fleet had received the Liberty’s signal, the of 95, attacks were halted. The clear intention of the Jews had been to animals essay disable the ship’s radio communications and biology, then sink it before a radio message could be sent. Any survivors in the water then would have been killed by the Jews.
No one would be able to prove the Jews had done it, and it could be blamed on the Egyptians. As soon as the Jews understood that their scheme had failed, they shifted from the military to the diplomatic mode. Protecting Animals? The murderous assault on school students the U.S.S. Liberty had been a “mistake,” the protecting animals, Jews claimed. They had thought the ship was Egyptian, they told their media friends and their bought politicians in Washington. President Lyndon Johnson didn’t even wait for this excuse from the essays huxley, Jews. Protecting? As soon as he was given word that an American Navy vessel had been attacked by the Israelis and that the napolitano, U.S. Sixth Fleet was sending help, he ordered that the help be recalled.
He was terrified that the U.S. aircraft would inflict casualties on the Jews attacking the protecting essay, Liberty, and the Jews would blame him. If the Jewish attack on the Liberty became a public “incident” involving conflict between the United States and Israel, Johnson would be forced to take the American side and might be regarded as “anti-Israel,” which would turn America’s Jews against him. So he sent an emergency message to writing prompts the Sixth Fleet, ordering that the American jets flying to the relief of the animals, Liberty be recalled and that no further assistance be given. By Aldous? Perhaps the essay, stricken ship would sink, and the whole matter could be hushed up. But the U.S.S. Liberty did not sink, much to the embarrassment of the Jews and by aldous huxley, their collaborators. The survivors among the crew even managed to get the ship’s engines running again, and the Liberty limped out to sea, eventually rendezvousing the protecting animals, next day with an American destroyer, the U.S.S. Davis. Thesis? The wounded crewmen — 171 of them — were airlifted off the ship. Protecting Essay? Many of the dead — 34 of them — could not be recovered from the interior of the ship until it had reached port in Malta. Even while the wounded crewmen were in a Naval hospital, they were given strict orders not to tell anyone, not even members of their families, about the Jewish attack on dissertations their ship.
The U.S. Navy went through the animals essay, formalities of holding a court of inquiry, but it was a complete sham. Copy Thesis? No Israelis were even questioned during the inquiry, and the U.S. government meekly accepted the Jews’ explanation that the protecting animals, attack on the Liberty had been a “mistake.” The news media were indecently silent about the whole affair. The obvious concern of the Jews and their sympathizers in the United States was not that an American ship had been attacked treacherously and 34 Americans killed; their concern was only to keep Israel from being blamed for the attack. And the politicians were all too eager to go along with the Jews. The members of the Liberty’s crew who had been wounded during the Israeli attack asked for damages from the Israeli government. The Israelis refused to copy pay, and it was necessary for the wounded crewmen to animals essay hire attorneys and file suit. When the Israelis did eventually pay, nearly two years later, attorneys’ fees ate up most of the payment.
The commanding officer of the Liberty during the Israeli attack was Captain William McGonagle. Though severely wounded during the attack he remained at his post throughout and behaved in a heroic manner. Creative For High Students? A year after the attack Captain McGonagle was awarded the Congressional Medal of essay, Honor for his heroism, but so desperate was President Lyndon Johnson to avoid offending the Jews that he refused to present the medal himself, as always has been customary. Instead of receiving his Medal of resume napolitano, Honor from the President in protecting, the customary White House ceremony, McGonagle was quietly given the medal by the secretary of the consider the lobster, Navy at the Washington Navy Yard, so as to attract the least possible public attention. Protecting? The citation accompanying the medal, which customarily describes in detail the action for essays, which the medal is being awarded, carefully omitted any mention of Israel. The Washington Post did not even report the award. One of the Liberty’s officers, Lieutenant James Ennes, wrote a detailed account of the animals essay, Jewish attack on his ship and its aftermath, and consider the lobster essays, his account was published in 1979 as a book under the title Assault on the Liberty. The Jews immediately began a campaign to keep the book out of bookstores and to keep reviews of the book out of newspapers.
This campaign was much like the one the Jews have been conducting against one of my books, The Turner Diaries. Ennes reports that whenever a bookstore would stock his book, the local Jews would begin complaining to the store owner that the book is protecting “anti-Israel” and is “offensive to Jewish people everywhere.” The Jews have been fairly successful in keeping the book out of the hands of the public, and it is now out of print and generally unavailable. I have been able to obtain a number of copies of the original hardback edition of Assault on the Liberty directly from Lieutenant Ennes, so this book is available from National Vanguard Books, the publisher of Free Speech. Essays By Aldous? If you would like a copy see the National Vanguard Books Catalog section of this web page. The button for the catalog is on our home page.
To his credit Lieutenant Ennes has kept the truth about the Jewish attempt to sink the Liberty alive for animals essay, 30 years, in years at hull, the face of a concerted effort by the controlled media, the Jewish establishment, and the U.S. government, including the U.S. Essay? Navy, to kill this truth. In return for his efforts, the Jews and their collaborators have been calling Ennes an “anti-Semite,” a “neo-Nazi,” a “professional Jew-hater,” and lots of things that are too crude for me to write. Of 95? Among these collaborators of the Jews attacking Ennes are individuals claiming to be veterans and patriots, but it is clear where their allegiance really lies. Ennes always has declined to respond in kind to these attacks and has been unfailingly polite. We might fault him for animals, failing to draw some general conclusions about the Jews and for continuing to maintain that he is napolitano not anti-Jewish, but let us instead credit him for standing up for the truth in his own way against the almost unbelievably intense barrage of hatred that has been directed against him. What should be shocking and disgusting to every American, what should outrage us all, is not the protecting animals essay, lies of the Jews or their attacks on Lieutenant Ennes — we expect that sort of behavior from the Jews — but rather we should be outraged by the collaboration of the dissertations, U.S. Animals Essay? government with the Jews. During the attack on the Liberty, when it was calling for help and was in danger of being sunk, President Lyndon Johnson recalled the U.S. aircraft that were rushing to assist the Liberty. He was more concerned about not offending the Jews in the United States than he was about his responsibility as commander-in-chief of copy thesis, America’s armed forces. And Johnson’s recall of these American jets cannot be explained away as a mix-up or a misunderstanding in the heat of the animals, moment.
This action of creative prompts for high, Johnson’s was deliberate. It was consistent with his behavior in every instance involving the Liberty. Protecting? Johnson even checked with the Israeli ambassador a year after the attack to see if the government of Israel had any objection to Captain McGonagle’s receiving the Congressional Medal of biology, Honor, and then he refused to present the medal himself. That sort of protecting animals, behavior goes beyond outrageous, even for a Democratic politician. It is nothing but the basest treason. Now do you understand why we have a piece of filth like Bill Clinton in the White House? We had a piece of filth in the White House 30 years ago. It is the system itself which is filthy, and so it should be no surprise when filthy individuals rise to the top of it. One of essays by aldous huxley, these days we have to change the protecting essay, system itself radically, but that will take a full-scale revolution. What we must do until then is make ourselves heard. Resume Napolitano? What we must do is raise our voices.
The reason that Israel is able to lead America around by the nose is that the Jews, through their control of the news and entertainment media in America, have the only effective voice, the only voice that the damnable politicians respond to. Animals? Lyndon Johnson didn’t betray the men of the Liberty because he loved Jews. Nobody loves Jews. They are the most unlovable race on this earth. Essays By Aldous? Johnson behaved as he did because he feared the protecting animals, Jews. And he feared them because he knew that they control the political process in this country through their control of the media.
That is the key fact, the salient fact, the essays by aldous, most important fact in the life of our people today: Jewish control of the media. Why do you think the Jews did such a rash thing as attack the Liberty in the first place? That, after all, was a very rash thing to do. Essay? If the United States were a nation led by honorable men, a nation in essays by aldous, control of its own destiny, such an attack would have meant the essay, end of Israel’s existence right then and years house thesis statement, there. Animals? Why did the Jews do it? Are they stupid? I think not. They did it because they knew they could get away with it. They did it because it might have worked, and they had nothing to napolitano lose if it didn’t work. Protecting Animals? They knew they could get away with it.
And they knew they could get away with it because they control our news and entertainment media. And so here we are, 30 years into this shameful episode, 30 years after the treacherous and arrogant attack by Israel on the U.S.S. Liberty which killed 34 Americans and wounded 171 of them — an essays huxley, attack which was intended to protecting kill everyone aboard our ship. And for 30 years the media have maintained their blanket of silence, and the politicians have maintained their sickening pretense about our “gallant, little Jewish ally” in the Middle East. This is the Jewish ally which continues to moan to the world about how it is “persecuted” by everyone else and continues to make demands on the world for money which it claims the world owes it. Our politicians make pious speeches about China’s abuse of human rights — and I have no doubt that the creative prompts for high, charges against China are true — but then these same politicians vote for more of our money to be given to Israel, a country which murders prisoners of war wholesale and which routinely tortures Palestinians suspected of wanting freedom for their people. These are the same politicians who vote for laws requiring that our children be brainwashed with Jewish propaganda about the so-called “Holocaust” in their schools and who express their abhorrence of “anti -Semitism” whenever any American, such as Lieutenant Ennes, tells the nasty truth about our “gallant, little Jewish ally.” Surely, the protecting, citizens of Sodom and by aldous huxley, Gomorra were paragons of virtue and rectitude compared to the current inhabitants of Congress, the White House, and the Federal courts.
And surely, what happened to the citizens of Sodom and Gomorra will happen to protecting animals them.