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Essay on engineering as a career

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A Sample Graphic Design Business Plan Template. Are you about essay on engineering career, starting a graphic design business? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample graphic design business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE to models essays raise money . On Engineering Career! Okay, so we have considered all the california advantage requirements for starting a graphic design business. We also took it further by essay on engineering, analyzing and drafting a sample graphic design service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for graphic design businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Why Start a Graphics Design Business? Look around you and you will see graphics all around you; from the television, to the internet and argumentative on women then to the books. Essay As A Career! Truth remains that graphics will continue to get all the advantage attention it gets now because of the creativity involved in the profession. Those who are in the trade know that one of the essay on engineering as a things that make one stand out is the level of cover research paper creativity one is able to bring to the table.

The graphics industry is vastly becoming a saturated one as more and more people are beginning to take to the trade. This is because of the profitability that it assures. If you are a graphic designer, there is no limit to the amount you can make as a professional- especially if you know how to generate doable business ideas. The truth is that many talented graphic designers (graphic artist) gets stranded because they lack innovative ideas to transform their talents (skills) into a money making venture. What Does It Take to Start a Graphic Design Business Successfully?

The fact that you are a graphic designer does not in any way restrict you to a certain way of doing business. First and foremost, you must have mastered the skill, and then you should look outside the box. Looking outside the box could mean that you should also acquire complimentary skills like video editing and video coverage skills et al. The bottom line is on engineering as a that if you want to make more money as a graphic designer, then you should be ready to go out of pride prejudice first impressions your way to develop innovative business ideas that is in sync with your skills; ideas that won’t take you too far from your core area of business. On Engineering As A! This is also where having a detailed business plan comes in. Writing a business plan may not come so easy, and this is because of the technicality that it involves. This is one of the reasons why a sample business plan template has been together to meet the need of people like you who do not know how to write one.

A Sample Graphic Design Business Plan Template. Graphic Design Business Industry Overview. The graphics design business has really opened up over the years and this can be especially attributed to the advent of the internet. A whole lot of things have really caused the business to really boom and in turn attract people to start the trade as well. The advent of cover paper personal computers no doubt gave leverage to the graphic design industry, it is now easier for essay on engineering as a, graphics designer to carry out paper, their jobs from the comfort of essay on engineering their homes with ease and accuracy in terms of designs specifications and color combinations et al. Graphic design can be categorized under the visual and communication arts industry. Everyone will quite agree that the graphic design industry has come to stay and resume writer usa of course it is essay on engineering as a career one industry that plays key roles- not only in the business world, but also in nearly all the aspects of what goes around in our world today. For instance; organizations with top notch logos would have hired the services of a graphic artist. As a matter of fact, the services of graphic artists are needed in branding, print advertisement, the publication industry (books, magazines and newspapers et al), handbills, posters, billboards, websites, product packaging and in other areas. One of the good things about this business remains the fact that you can start by acquiring a skill in cover research paper, the business and then begin to horn your creativity skills in the industry. There are a thousand and one schools both offline and on line that offers trainings.

All that is therefore needed to be done is to be really attentive so that one can get all the career rudiments of the college art right. Over the years, the graphic design industry has experienced tremendous growth; from the use of crayons, colors, paints, markers and pencil, to on engineering career the use of desktop publishing and essay advantage graphic art software. Beyond every reasonable doubt, a graphic designer cannot be effective and efficient in this dispensation without the use of computers and computer software applications; computer enhanced creative process for graphic artists. The graphic design industry is undeniably a very large industry and pretty much active in all the parts of the essay career world. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are 138,035 registered graphic design companies, employing about 172,494 and the industry rakes in about $11bn annually. The industry is indeed a highly competitive industry, which is why no graphic design company can boast of generating more than 5 percent of the total revenue in the industry. As a matter of make cover paper fact, IBIS World has stated that the two biggest graphic design companies have a combined market share of only 5.2 percent. Statistics also has it that 93.2 percent of players in the graphic design industry employ maximum of 10 full – time workers per time. Over and on engineering career above, the argumentative essay graphic design industry is very open to aspiring entrepreneurs who have the required skills to start his or her own graphic design business and of course make good money from the industry. As a matter of fact, it was projected that over the next five years, new technology will continue to emerge that will make it easier for more players to come into the industry hence increasing the competition in the industry. Graphic Design Business Plan Executive Summary.

Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio Is a U.S based but world class graphics design company. We do not have plans to handle things with levity, which is why we have really made it a point of mandate to do all that we are able to essay on engineering as a We have been able to lock down a standard and well – positioned office facility in a busy business district in cover paper, Baltimore, the largest city in Maryland. We are a graphic design company that is set to compete in the highly competitive graphic design industry not only in essay as a career, the United States market, but also in the global market. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio will be involved in the all aspect of graphic design services- such as Web Design, Print Media Design, Advertising and Corporate Branding, Graphic and Commercial art services, Corporate Identification design services (logos), Cartoons and Animations. Our business goal is to become one of the how the the quality leading graphic design companies in the United States and on engineering as a we will make sure that every graphic design jobs that leaves our studio can favorable compete with the prejudice essays best in the industry. We believe that having the best of employees also have a ways of helping to boost a business. This is as a career one of the how the web destroys papers essay reasons why our workers will be selected from a pool of talented and highly creative graphic artists in and around Baltimore and also from any part of the world as the business grows. We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the required trainings that will position them to meet the on engineering career expectation of the company and to compete with leading graphic designers in the United States and throughout the globe.

We have put plans in place to build a state of the art graphics studio in Baltimore Maryland. Our studio will be well equipped and california essay advantage we will ensure that we follow the trend in the industry. On Engineering As A! At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, our client’s best interest come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and essays professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to essay on engineering the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and of students research completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in essay as a, our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is founded by Louis Clinton and his friend and business partner for many years Levi Bradford. They have a combine experience in corporate branding and advertising, cartoon and animations, graphic and commercial art services and print media design. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio was established with the aim of resume writer usa maximizing profits in the graphic design industry. We want to career compete favorably with the leading graphics design companies in models essays, the United States, which is why we have but in essay as a career, place a competent quality assurance team that will ensure that all our graphic designs and services meet and even surpass our customers’ expectations. We will work hard to ensure that Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is not just accepted nationally in make cover research paper, the United States of America, but also in other parts of the world.

Our products and services are listed below; Web Design Print Media Design Advertising and Corporate Branding Graphic and Commercial art services Corporate Identification design services Creating Illustrations Cartoon and Animations (3D et al) Production. Our vision is to career establish a standard graphic design studio whose services and brand will not only be accepted in the United States of America, but also in other parts of the world. We are poised to solve the graphics problems around town. Our mission is to make cover research paper provide professional and highly creative graphic design and related services that will assist businesses, individuals and non-profit organizations in promoting their brands. We want to build a graphic design company that can favorably compete with other leading brands in on engineering career, the industry. At Louis and Levi, we have structured our business so well so that all and sundry can benefits from Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio.

Our business is a graphic design company that intends to start small in Baltimore, but hope to grow big in cover research, order to compete favorably with leading graphic design studios in the industry both in the United States and on a global stage. We are aware of the importance of building a solid business structure that can support the picture of the kind of world class business we want to own. This is why we are committed to only hire the best hands within our area of operations. At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to on engineering as a all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as agreed by essays, the board of trustees of the company. In view of the above, we have decided to hire qualified and on engineering as a career competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer Creative Director Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Executive Accountant Graphic Artist Cartoon and pride Animation Specialist Client Service Executive. Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and essay on engineering as a appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and on women opinions; providing educational opportunities.

Responsible for providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and on engineering as a overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Research Paper! Serves as project manager of the organization; works directly with employees Responsible for essay on engineering as a career, designing concepts for advertisements and other promotional needs for client (s) In charge of copy writing and laying out chronological advertisement plans Develops strategic plan by how the the quality essay, studying technological and financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by establishing plans, budgets, and results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections. Coordinates efforts by establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff.

Builds company image by collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and employees; enforcing ethical business practices. Maintains quality service by establishing and enforcing organization standards. Maintains professional and technical knowledge by attending educational workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in professional societies. Make certain that production and essay on engineering as a development department perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and facilitate communications between management and college essays graphic designer Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices. Human Resources and Admin Manager. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Defining job positions for on engineering career, recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of pride prejudice employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and on engineering appointments Oversee the smooth running of the daily office and argumentative factory activities. Essay On Engineering As A! Makes sure that the smooth and daily cleaning is never compromised. Sales and argumentative Marketing Manager. Manage external research and as a coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer Identifies development opportunities; follows up on cover research development leads and on engineering as a career contacts; participates in how the of students research essay, the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects.

Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in essay as a, line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and writer evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Creates new markets cum businesses for on engineering career, the organization Empowers and motivates the models sales team to meet and surpass agreed targets Attends really warmly to the clients that come to the office. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and as a risks analysis. Resume Usa! Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for essay on engineering, developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for web destroys papers essay, administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for Pick ‘a’ Brain™ Finishing School Serves as internal auditor for Pick ‘a’ Brain™ Finishing School. Liaises with clients to determine their requirement and budget Responsible for developing concepts, graphics and layouts for product illustrations, company logos, and essay websites Responsible for managing client proposals from typesetting through to design, print and production Responsible for reviewing final layout and suggesting improvement if necessary Responsible for web destroys of students, working with clients, briefing and advising them with regards to design style, format, print production and timescales et al Determine size and arrangement of illustrative material and copy, and font style and size Responsible for liaising with external printers on on engineering a regular basis to ensure deadlines are met and material is how the research papers printed to essay the highest quality Responsible for preparing drafts or material based on an agreement brief. Researches and models college advice the organization on style, genre and other trendy info as it relates to essay as a graphic design. Argumentative! Cartoon and Animator Specialist (2) Responsible for designing models, background, sets, characters, objects and career the animation environment Works creatively to college essays produce original and aesthetically pleasing designs and solutions Uses specialist computer software applications such as Maya, Lightwave, Softimage, Cinema 4D, Flash and After Effects Presents designs to customers for evaluation Liaises and working effectively with other design and as a production staff. Client Service Executive. Welcomes students and california essay visitors by on engineering as a, greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries.

Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the essay on women highest level Through interaction with students on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in essay on engineering as a, the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the school coordinator in essay, an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the schools’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to students when they make enquiries. On Engineering Career! Graphic Design Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio engaged the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and structuring to assist our organization in web destroys of students research papers essay, building a well – structured graphic design business that can favorably compete in the highly competitive graphic design industry in career, the United States and the world at large. Part of what the team of business consultant did was to work with the management of our organization in conducting a SWOT analysis for Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio. We believe it was really expedient to have only professionals handle this aspect and so we got the essay best of results.

Here is a summary from the on engineering result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio; Our core strength lies in the power of essay advantage our team; our workforce. We have a team of creative and highly proficient graphic designers, a team with excellent qualifications and on engineering as a experience various niche areas in on women, the graphic design industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected graphic artists our designs and services will be guided by as a career, best practices in the industry. Resume Usa! We know that with a solid area of strength, we will be able to attract loads of people, who will patronize us. As a new graphic design company in Baltimore – Maryland, it might take some time for our organization to on engineering break into the market and gain acceptance especially from top profile clients in the already saturated and highly competitive graphic design industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. Another weakness is that we may not have the required cash to promote our business the way we would want to. No doubt, the models college opportunities in the graphic design industry is on engineering massive considering the number of individuals and corporate organizations whose businesses depends on the services of cover research graphic artist. As a graphic design company, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that is available in the industry. Essay On Engineering As A Career! Therefore, for us to harness what we have, we have to be all hardworking so that at the end of the writer usa day after putting our best, we will get what we deserve. Essay! Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power.

Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of writer usa a new graphic design company in same location where our target market exist and who may want to essay on engineering adopt same business model like us. Graphic Design Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The trend in the graphic design industry is that the target market keeps expanding, people and organizations are now seeing the how the web destroys research papers essay need for them to engage the services of graphic designers either in as a career, branding or packaging their products and services or in helping them create animations that will help them communicate their brand to a wide range of clients. Models Essays! For example; politicians no longer rely on graphic artists to design and essay produce colorful campaign handbills, posters, billboards and other print related campaign materials but also to help them produce animations and cartoons that will help them effectively communicate their message. Another common trend in the graphic design industry is that, most graphic design firms no longer settle for clients within the location where there physical office is california located but also from any part of the world. On Engineering As A! The truth is that with the advent of the internet, it is california essay advantage now easier for a graphic design company or a graphic designer to work for clients in any part of the as a career world. A graphic design company can be located in the United States of America and have their biggest client in United Arab Emirates. Essay! Many thanks to the power of the essay on engineering career internet. Lastly, the graphic design industry will continue to evolve due to the advancement of computer technology and software applications designs et al.

Before starting our graphic design business, we are certain that there is a wide range of both corporate and individual clients who cannot successfully run their businesses without the argumentative essay on women services of graphic designers. As a matter of fact, without graphic designers branding, publications and animation industry will struggle. In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various corporate organizations and individual who we know can’t afford to do without our services. Essay On Engineering As A! We have conducted our market research and pride prejudice essays first survey and we will ensure that all our graphic design services is well accepted in the market place. Below is a list of the people and essay on engineering as a career organizations that we have specifically market our products and services to; Banks, Insurance Companies and resume writer other related Financial Institutions Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Manufacturers and Distributors Real Estate Owners, Developers, and Contractors Research and Development Companies The Government (Public Sector) Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities) Hotels Sport Organizations Religious Organizations Political Parties Television Stations Printing Press (Publishing Houses) and Authors Branding and Advertising agencies Entrepreneurs and Start Ups. Our Competitive Advantage. No doubt the competition in essay on engineering as a, the graphic design industry is getting stiffer by the day, you have to be highly creative and come up with appealing designs and concepts in order to pride prejudice first survive in essay on engineering career, the industry. Essay! The graphic design industry is indeed a very prolific and at the same time a highly competitive industry. Clients will only hire your services if they know that they can get nothing but the best from you. On Engineering Career! We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in the graphic design industry means that you are not only expected to be able to paper deliver consistent and highly creative designs, but you must be able to meet set targets. No one would want to continue to essay on engineering career hire your services if don’t always meet up with the target date of resume writer completion of projects.

Our competitive advantage lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of creative and highly proficient graphic designers, a team with excellent qualifications and experience various niche areas in the graphic design industry. Aside from the on engineering career synergy that exists in our carefully selected graphic artists our designs and services will be guided by california, best practices in the industry. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and as a their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups graphic design businesses in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the resume writer business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives.

Graphic Design Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition in the graphic design industry; hence we have been able to hire some of the best marketing experts to handle our sales and essay on engineering marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experiences in the graphic design industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to models college essays be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall business goal of Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio. Our goal is to as a grow Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio and to argumentative on women become one of the top 10 graphic design studios in the United States of essay on engineering as a America which is california essay why we have mapped out as a career, strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in the United States of America but also in other parts of the argumentative on women world. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio are set to make use of the essay on engineering as a career following marketing and sales strategies to resume usa attract clients; Introduce our graphic design company by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, religious organizations and key stake holders. Promptness in bidding for graphic design contracts from the government and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets and essay career still deliver excellent design and services Leverage on make paper the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients Offer Probono services to people who need graphics designing services. Hold free graphics training for people who might want to learn. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the graphic design industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to meet and surpass the expectations of all our clients.

This is why one of the things that we have done is to identify the areas that we will source out startup funds from. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio will generate income by offering the following graphic design related services; Web Design Print Media Design Advertising and Corporate Branding Graphic and Commercial art services Corporate Identification design services Creating Illustrations Cartoon and Animations (3D et al) Production. Having good sales is one of the driving forces of as a career our graphics designing business. This is resume why we are always taking time to do a proper forecast.

We know that constantly doing this will help us sit up in the aspects where we may be found wanting. One thing is certain; there would always be corporate organization and individual who would need the services of graphic design firms. We are well positioned to take on the available market in career, graphic design industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow our graphic design company to enviable heights. Writer Usa! We have been able to critically examine the graphic design market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and career some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Baltimore Maryland. Below is the sales projection for Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, it is based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of our services and target market; N.B: This projection is california essay advantage done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same graphic services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio we will keep the on engineering career prices of our services below the pride prejudice essays average market rate for all of our customers by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in essay career, advance from corporate organizations who would hire our services. Research! In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at regular intervals. It is vital we do this so that we do not scare people away with our pricing.

We are aware that there are some one-off jobs or government contracts which are always lucrative; we will ensure that we abide by the pricing model that is expected from contractors or organizations that bid for on engineering as a career, such contracts. California Essay! At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash. Career! In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Graphic Design Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.

We have been able to work with our in house brand and publicity consultants to help us map out the quality of students research papers essay, publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into on engineering as a, the heart of our target market. We are set to become the pride prejudice first impressions number one choice for both corporate clients and individual clients in the whole of the United States and beyond which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our graphic design company. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio; Place adverts on as a career both print (newspapers and cover magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our services Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Baltimore Maryland. Engage in road show from time to time in targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Contact corporate organizations by calling them up and informing them of Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio and essay as a the services we offer List our graphic design company in local directories / yellow pages Advertise our graphic design company in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site. Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al. Graphic Design Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. California Advantage! In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on essay career the approach and scale you want to undertake. Web Destroys Of Students Research Papers Essay! If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is essay on engineering as a career conducive enough for workers to be creative and models college productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business.

The materials and equipment that will be used are nearly the essay on engineering career same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a graphic design company; it might differ in usa, other countries due to the value of essay their money. However, this is what it would cost us to setup Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio in the United of America; Business incorporating fees in the United States of America will cost $750. The budget for essay, Liability insurance, permits and essay as a career license will cost $3,500 Acquiring an make paper, office space or warehouse that will accommodate the number of employees for at least 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive to fit into the design of our graphic studio) will cost $150,000. Equipping the office (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost $10,000 Amount required to as a purchase the needed software applications $ 3,500 Launching an official Website will cost $500 Amount need to pay bills and staff members for at least 2 to 3 months $70,000 Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions will cost $5,000. Going by pride impressions, the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about career, two hundred and models college essays fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard graphic design company firm in the United States of America. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is on engineering a business that will be owned by Louis Clinton and his friend and business partner for many years Levi Bradford. They are the sole financial of the pride prejudice essays business which is essay as a why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the essay on women start – up capital from personal savings and on engineering as a sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from friends and how the web destroys of students other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility). N.B: We have been able to generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $85,000 and soft loan from on engineering, family members $15,000) and we are at the final stages of resume writer usa obtaining a loan facility of essay on engineering career $150,000 from our bank.

All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is how the research essay easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. We are aware of career this which is why we have decided to develop a various mobile apps for pride prejudice impressions, different clients and for different purposes. We will also work with corporate clients to help them develop customized mobile apps for their business. We know that if we continue to on engineering as a come up with highly creative and unique graphic designs and excellent job delivery for both businesses and individual, there will be steady flow of income for the organization. Our key sustainability and essay advantage expansion strategy is to essay as a ensure that we only hire creative, competent and resume writer usa selfless graphic artists and as a cartoon and animation specialist, create a conducive working environment and resume usa employee benefits for our staff members.

In the nearest future, we will give our most dedicated and prolific employees the opportunity to be part owner of the business. We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will achieve our business goals and objectives in record time. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and essay on engineering as a career Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Securing a standard office facility for our studio: Completed Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founders: Completed Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of Logo for the business: Completed Secure trademark for our products: In Progress Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the how the web destroys of students papers Needed furniture, office equipment, software applications, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the business: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in career, various industries: In Progress.

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Why i chose engineering as a career …

Senior SAP ABAP/4 Technical Consultant Resume. US-MO-SAINT LOUIS (will consider relocating) • Senior SAP ABAP/4 Technical Consultant with over 9+ years of SAP experience working in the Information Systems industry in as a SAP involving 3 yrs of pride essays experience in SRM XI. • Strong in functional areas, including GTM, IS-MEDIA, SRM, SD, MM, FI / CO, AFS with 2 full cycle SAP implementation and Upgrade Experience. On Engineering As A? Industry backgrounds include IS-Oil and Gas, Chemical, Semi-conductor, High Tech and of students research papers essay Manufacturing. • Centralized Contract Management in on engineering as a career SAP SRM (Global Outline Agreements distribution in R/3 backbends and central contracts in SRM Server) • Expertise in developing interfaces between SAP systems and various third party systems using SAP XI 3.0 integration tool, WEBMETHODS SAP BUSINESS CONNECTORS. • Involved in concept proofing in XI. Extensive experience in mapping transformations such as GUI, XSL mapping, and Java Mapping.

Strong in adapter configuration such as RFC, File, IDoc, HTTP, JDBC, JMS, SOAP, Business Connector. • Experience in EDI design, development, and implementation, mapping and testing. • Extensive experience in Cross Applications using EDI/IDOC/BAPI, OOP's and RFC technology in SAP R/3.Good understanding of ABAP and JAVA proxies. • Technically sophisticated SAP Specialist and ABAP Developer with excellent experience providing technical design and development for cover SAP implementation projects. • Extensive experience in ABAP/4, IDOCs, ALE, RFC, BAPI, ALV, LSMW, Reports ABAP/4 Workbench, Data Dictionary, Reports (Classical and Interactive Report), BDC (Batch-Input and Call Transaction Methods), SAP Scripts, Enhancements. • Experienced in working with SAP Business intelligent configuring InfoCubes, ODS objects, Info Objects, Worked on BEx Analyzer. On Engineering Career? Sound Knowledge on writer Bex Query Design, Structures, Hierarchies, Calculated. Interfaces, Dialog Programming, User Exits, BDC), ABAP-HR, JAVA, C C++

SAP BSP, VB Script, Java Script, HTML. MS SQL server 7.0. BUNGE SAP ABAP Consultant Sept 2008 -- Till Date. SAP Global Trade Management Module. • Design and Development Custom program for Reversing Applications, Credit Vendor, Return product and reverse settlement for various reasons, including wrong product shipped/received, applied to essay on engineering as a, wrong vendor/customer or pricing etc. Reverse Application program displays all the tickets applied and/or settled. In this screen user can reverse the application of a ticket and re-apply to another contract. • Reverse Application: This reverses the application and opens up the california advantage, ticket for re-application against different contract/pricings. • Credit Vendor: This reverses the essay, original ticket and releases to the billing/settlement to credit customer/vendor. Also creates a new ticket a copy of original ticket, so that users can change any data on the ticket including customer/vendor and material info to go through the application process as per the new data.

• Return Product: This will create a new return ticket with reference to original ticket. This will allow physical return of the product to one of writer our locations. • Reverse Settlement: This will cancel the check and puts a block on on engineering as a career A/P line item. This will not be allowed if check is resume writer, enchased. • Participate in essay as a defining/documenting technical system requirements and systems management procedures. Develop ABAP programs for web destroys the quality of students papers essay interfaces, reporting needs, and as a career user exits. • Design and Development Custom program for settling the invoice amount for the vendors. Expense process is models college essays, used to accrue and settle master contract, pricing contract and ticket expenses. User will have the capabilities to perform following actions on the report based on certain selection criteria: Create entry sheets, Delete service sheet, Create Settlement and on engineering Reverse Settlement. • Participate in application development for new projects as well as troubleshoot problems with existing code using ABAP, EDI, ALE, IDoc?s, BAPI?s, and BDC?s.

• Design, development and debugging of ABAP Programs (Dialog Programming, Standard and Interactive Reports), ALV Reporting, SAP Script, Menu Painter and Screen Painter, ALE, EDI and IDOC configurations, Custom IDOC development, Workflow configurations and development, RFC and BAPI Development, User Exit and Field Exit Development, Dialog Programming, Interfacing Data with external systems, Data conversions, Programming using BDC, • Assist with integration, performance testing, troubleshooting and application performance issues (e.g., performance tuning). • Developed Smart Form for shipment planning and Milling Certificate of Analysis from System/2000. • Developed Smart Form for Master and Pricing contracts. AIG SAP ABAP Consultant April 2007 -- Aug 2008. • Design and college development of outbound and inbound interface programs to on engineering career, third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. How The Web Destroys Of Students Papers Essay? Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. Implemented distributed Scenario in ALE. • Created Development Standards Guidelines, File Naming Standards, Interface Development Standards and Batch Job Standards. Performance tuning of custom programs and Extensive ABAP report/program development using of BAPIs, BDCs and User Exits. • Participate in defining/documenting technical system requirements and on engineering career systems management procedures.

Develop ABAP programs for interfaces, reporting needs, and user exits. • Production support including on-call rotation, Resolve problems, document issues and resolutions. • Design and prejudice development of outbound and inbound interface programs to third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. Implemented distributed Scenario in ALE for Vendor master, Cost Center, CoA (G/L Master data), Approver data) (message type CREMAS, COSMAS, GLMAST, ZAPPDT). • The current System used by essay as a career, Treasury is called SCU. The system is currently responsible for transmitting Master Data to different external applications.

SAP will be responsible for generating a standard flat file format for each Master Data element being transmitted. This includes CoA Data (G/L Master Data), Vendor Data, Approver Data, and Cost Center Data. The data will be transmitted to the Mainframe Application that will re-format and california distribute the essay on engineering career, data to the receiving systems. Configured the Communication ports, partner profile and message control for inbound and outbound processing in SAP. • For XI Developed templates for documenting interface requirements and technical specifications.

Developed naming conventions for argumentative essay Repository and Directory objects. Involved in general design of all interfaces for essay first phase. • IDOC/ALE configuration, development and enhancement on FI interface with external parties as well as Global System. Implements user-exits, customer-exits and BAdIs. • Directly responsible for college essays 15 interfaces using IDoc's, RFC's in and out of as a SAP, BAPI's and connecting to File and JDBC adapters on the non-SAP side.

Developed BAPI wrappers to how the the quality essay, perform standard BAPI's followed by a BAPI commit. Other RFC's were developed to perform common routines such as material conversions and description lookups that worked generically for any field whether a configured value or domain value list. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the on engineering career, incoming flat file to how the of students papers, the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Used BPM to configure cross component Business Processes with Receive, Send, control, block, and on engineering career transformation steps. Designed various BPM patterns, built scenarios using split/merge patterns and triggering alerts. • Object-Oriented Modeling/Analysis/Design, Inserting data into the database table using classes, working with Class Grid and Dock Container for displaying the interactive report program. Enhancing the web destroys the quality of students research essay, Standard Class in OOP's. • Decided specific integration approaches for various legacy systems based on parameters like - type of systems, amount of data to on engineering, be exchanged, frequency of data. • Setting up the XI 3.0 system including SLD configuration, XI base configuration for Profile Parameter settings -- Role of Integration Server, HTTP and RFC destinations for XI Setup, connectivity of pride prejudice first impressions Integration server to as a, SLD,, Queues, BPE automatic customizing etc, authorization profiles, HTTPS destinations to Business Systems. Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, FI and MM.

Pennsylvania State project SAP ABAP, SRM XI Consultant Oct 2006 to March 2007. SAP SRM, XI 3.0 SAP R/3. • Project Details, Analyze customer business requirements. Engage in BID management with prospects. • Design solutions and validate with customers. Support quality insurance process. Make Cover Paper? Training and self training on new solutions.

• SAP SRM EBP (Release 5.0 ) with respect to on engineering as a career, direct and indirect procurement processes (catalog and free text), including: Coding in SRM BADI's: When PO is getting created in backend then adding 'Bid Invitation number' and Requisition number' to argumentative essay, PO line item long text (BBP_CREATE_PO_BACK); Perform mandatory checks on goods receipt confirmation (BBP_DOC_CHECK_BADI); Program to essay on engineering as a, change the Organization assignment of External Business Partners; Program to create Business Partners (internal and external); Addition of custom fields in shopping cart item level and purchase order header level(standard display);Additional validations in prejudice first user-defined fields(BBP_CUF_BADI_2): worked on contracts (BBP_PD_CTR_CREATE, BBP_PD_CTR_UPDATE) Purchase order (BBP_PD_PO_CREATE , BBP_PD_PO_UPDATE ) for replication data from third party system to SRM system and back to SAP R/3. • Developed BID invitation BADI'S (BBP_DOC_CHECK_BADI BBP_UI_CONTROL_BADI) to check only essay career, responsible person of the bid invitation can display the bids for request for proposal. How The The Quality Of Students Research? Developed BADI's (ZROS_BUPA_DATA_CHECK z ROS_REQ_CUF) for Supplier registration (SUS) initial screens should be checked for duplicate SSN and EIN entries. • Designed and developed complex Custom interface to replicate Vendor Master data from essay as a, SRM EBP to R/3 system when the how the web destroys of students research, vendors register through Supplier registration screens. On Engineering As A? The standard SRM system only supports replication of vendors from SAP R/3 to SRM in (Classic scenario) and for extended classic scenario Vendor master data should be replicated from impressions, SRM to R/3 since the essay career, vendors are registered in SRM SUS to EBP. Interface was developed to replicate the new vendors created and changed in SRM system using remote enabled function modules to create vendor master data in how the the quality of students essay R/3 system. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Imported IDOCs from essay, R/3 system and essay mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Used BPM to configure cross component Business Processes with Receive, Send, control, block, and transformation steps. Career? Designed various BPM patterns, built scenarios using split/merge patterns and triggering alerts.

• Centralized Contract Management in make cover paper SAP SRM (Global Outline Agreements distribution in R/3 backbends and central contracts in SRM Server) • Developing BSP application in HTMLB involving other BSP Extensions to bring the screens in essay on engineering portal. Developed BSP application involving HTMLB, Class and related BSP extensions. Developed BSP and URL Iview to call the BSP application from within the portal environment. Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SRM and MM. DTE Energy Sr. SAP ABAP/4 SRM Consultant. April 2007 -- Nov 2007. SAP SRM, XI 3.0 SAP R/3. Interface -- ALE, IDoc BAPI.

• Part of Capability Development team SAP SRM 4.0 wherein was involved in master data setup; understanding and deploying the business process flow in the quality research PDP and Sourcing scenario. • SRM Centralized Contract Management (Contract Data distibution in on engineering as a career national backends systems). • Sales Order Create (Inbound: Message type ORDERS) -- When a Order is placed in the Web; Tibco receives the data in a flat file and paper convert it into IDoc format. The IDoc is as a career, send to SAP to create sales order in transaction VA01. The below customizing has been done in the inbound Interface. • Basic type ORDERS05 has been extended to pride prejudice, accommodate extra data points (Shipping type, Credit card CVV, Encryption scheme key, Tax Exempt ID and Customer /Seller Email ID) • Check for essay customer number existing in SAP. Resume Usa? If the customer is essay as a, new, call BAPI function module “BAPI_CUSTOMER_CREATEFROMDATA1” to models college essays, create a customer and assign the career, newly created customer number to structure DXVBAK of enhancement VEDA001.

For an existing customer call BAPI function module “BAPI_CUSTOMER_CHANGEFROMDATA1” to change the models, address. • Adding new catalogs and functionality, Approval hierarchies, Workflow, IDOC s, and interfaces to SAP R/3. Guarantee methodologies and tools integration and feedback for enhancements. • SAP R/3 MM Procurement (Release 4.7 or higher) with respect to requisitions and purchase orders and their respective release strategies and interaction with R/3 A/P (Req-to-Pay Process). • Design and development of outbound and as a inbound interface programs for creating PO, Contracts in SRM system once the Inbound IDOC is triggered and in turn data is replicate R/3 system. It is end to end data transfer from Non-SAP system to SRM and then to web destroys the quality research, SAP R/3 system. • SAP BC and XI communications protocol, utilizing XML or EDI and essay on engineering career ALE for data exchanges and Digital Certificates in a B2B e-procurement environment.

• Good communication skills to provide first line end-user support, resolving day-to-day issues, in addition to make cover paper, performing system upgrades/enhancements, and configuring new functionality and business processes. • System Study and Requirement specification including complete data inputs, end-user requirements, reporting format finalization, design of various reports. Coding, testing implementation. Assist the operators / end -users for day-to-day operations problems. • (SAP s E-Procurement Software). SRM 5.0 configured in Classic Scenario posting to R/3 4.7 Enterprise.

• Centralized Contract Management in SAP SRM (Global Outline Agreements distribution in R/3 backbends and central contracts in SRM Server) Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SRM, SD, FI and MM. Barnes Nobles SAP XI ABAP/4 development consultant Jan 2006 to March 2007. SAP XI 3.0, SAP R/3 SRM. • The project included SAP R/3 backend integration, online cataloging, and partner integration. XML was used as the data format and the Internet as the transportation medium. • Supply relationship management (SRM) software with several enhancements, including live auctions and essay on engineering supplier portals. • Design and development of outbound and inbound interface programs to third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools.

Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. • Hands on SAP interface work included BAPI, IDoc, ALE config, user exit, custom RFC primarily in PP, PP-PI MM modules (version 4.6C). • Involved in SAP XI implementation 3.0 in SRM MM, Modules. Designed and developed XI interfaces, defining Integration processes in california essay advantage BPM and developed complex multi-mapping programs utilizing XI (3.0) Integration Builder. • Involved in the configuration of SLD by career, creating software components, technical systems and business systems, creating message interfaces, message mapping, activating and testing of Integration Repository objects. • Involved in prejudice essays first configuring Sender adapters, Receiver adapters, Sender agreement, Receiver agreement, Receiver determination and Interface determination in Integration Directory. • Extensive experience in XI adapters (File, IDOC, RFC, JDBC, SOAP, HTTP and on engineering as a career JMS). • Estimate requirements for functional designs required for development including interfaces, enhancements, reports and workflow. • Decided specific integration approaches for various legacy systems based on parameters like - type of systems, amount of data to be exchanged, frequency of data. • Setting up the XI 3.0 system including SLD configuration, XI base configuration for Profile Parameter settings -- Role of Integration Server, HTTP and RFC destinations for paper XI Setup, connectivity of essay career Integration server to SLD,, Queues, BPE automatic customizing etc, authorization profiles, HTTPS destinations to Business Systems. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and college mapped the incoming flat file to essay on engineering, the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping.

• Imported IDOCs from college essays, R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and career advanced Java functions to be used in make Mapping. • Used BPM to essay on engineering, configure cross component Business Processes with Receive, Send, control, block, and transformation steps. Designed various BPM patterns, built scenarios using split/merge patterns and resume usa triggering alerts. • Developed interfaces to integrate. § A legacy system to essay on engineering as a, a SAP R/3 system (Outbound -- File adaptor, Inbound -- IDoc adaptor) § HTTP client to SAP R/3 (Outbound - HTTP adaptor, Inbound - RFC adaptor) Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SD, FI and MM. Nov 2004 to Dec 2005. • Key member of the team to help the project go live and provide production support. • Developed ALV Reports as per make cover, client requirement Customizing standard SAP Programs using USER EXITS producing technical document Coding and Code reviewing.

• Working extensively on Legacy data Conversions, Batch Input, and BDC for various modules such as FI/CO, HR, MM, and SD. • Extensively worked with BAPIs, Injecting retail sales order from Web to SAP through BAPI. • Designing and coding in the BAPI (Business Application programming Interface), ALE (Application Link Enabling) and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) areas. • Created/designed LSMW projects/subprojects to load MM data, created/loaded the following views: Basic, Plant, Storage, Sales, MRP, Purchasing, Account (Plant/Valuation), Costing. • Successfully created high-volume data upload programs using BDC and direct-input methodologies. • Testing and optimizing the code in terms of career quality and essay performance. • Developed interface programs, conversion routines.

• Developed custom extractors on essay as a career the R/3 OLTP systems and defined the extract structures on the source and target systems. • Designed, developed and how the web destroys the quality research supported BW solutions based on requirements gathered from the business. • Performed extraction, transformation and loading of data into SAP BW constructs (PSA, ODS, Cubes). • Gathered business-reporting requirements, designed and career developed solutions, tested/verified the solutions, migrated the impressions, solution to production, and provided ongoing support. • Designed and created new BW objects (Info packages, ODSs, Cubes, Info objects, Transfer rules, Update rules, Communication structures, Data sources). Environment: SAP ECC 4.6C, ABAP/4, SRM, SD, FI and MM.

McAfee Inc. SAP ABAP/4 development consultant. Dec 2003 to Oct 2004. • Responsible for implementing ALE, encompassing both master and transactional data. • Maintenance of the as a career, customer distribution model (filters, conversions, etc.) • Distributing the argumentative essay on women, customer model, generating partner profiles and reducing IDOCs. • Customizing and essay on engineering career setting up of california essay advantage ALE on essay career new clients / systems. • ABAP coding of ALE User and Functional Exits.

• Design and development of resume writer usa outbound and inbound interface programs to essay, third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and usa Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. Essay? Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. • Hands on models college essays SAP interface work included BAPI, IDoc, ALE config, user exit, custom RFC primarily in essay as a PP, PP-PI MM modules (version 4.6C) • Define business process mapping, SAP R/3 business integration testing, SAP R/3 data transferring for on women legacy into as a career system. • Define and create functional specification for form, report, enhancement and interface program and End-user training, SAP R/3 Post Implementation Support and knowledge transfer to writer usa, key user. Environment: SAP ECC 4.6C, ABAP/4, SD, FI and MM. Sept 2001 -- Nov 2003. • EAI architecture study, Authored technical study for proposed integration. Study looked at Backend requirements of essay on engineering as a career integrating to make cover research, SAP 4.6 (IDoc, BAPI, variety of ABAP produced flat files) Integration requirements for certain subsidiary backend requirements (JD Edwards, custom DB applications) External partner integration (ftp, xml over https). • Error handling and monitoring (WebMethods Monitor, Modeler), BMC's patrol. • Created BAPI for career Sales Order, the web methods will poll the respective source applications.

Involved in developing EDI settings for Invoice and Enhancement for Plant in 4.0B. • SAP script for pre-printed and standard formats using print programs and how the of students research essay Layout sets Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from Legacy System to essay on engineering career, SAP R/3 System. • Created inbound and outbound GR Notification and argumentative essay on women this Message is sent to JDE, Oracle or WEBMETHODS. • Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from Legacy System to SAP R/3 System. • Involved in developing EDI settings for on engineering as a Purchase Order and Invoice.

When PO is created IDOC is generated and send to WEBMETHODS and same as Invoice. • Created BAPI for Sales Order, the WEBMETHODS will poll the respective source applications. Involved in developing EDI settings for Invoice and prejudice essays first Enhancement for Plant. Environment: SAP ECC 4.6, ABAP/4, SD, FI, MM, Webmethods. May 2000 -- Aug 2001. The current project was providing purchase order module and essay as a now we have implemented Forecast, Inventory and Shipment modules. In this project Buyers will send the data to III Hub.

This data will be sent to the Portal and from Portal the data is again passed to SAP to advantage, create Forecast, inventory and Shipment modules. SAP R/3 4.6C, JDE, Oracle Apps Web methods. • When PO is created IDOC is generated and essay as a career send to WEB METHODS and same as Invoice. • Developed BAPI Programming for passing data from pride prejudice essays, Portal to Sap and Sap to Portal. • Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from Legacy System to SAP R/3 System. Developed Reports as per client requirement. • Purchase Order Pending Report -- To display all the Purchase Orders for which the essay, Materials are not Received Partially or Completely along with Vendor Name, Pending Quantity, Pending Price and Pending Weight for a given Plant / Vendor / Material. • Report to find Receipts and Issues of pride prejudice impressions materials in various Plants grouped under Material Groups. • Order reports based on on engineering career sale order types lists out essays, a detail of orders with its value, quantity, tax, excise duty, freight etc. • Vendor Analysis reports which gives the percentage rejections for every material across the various vendors of the total tested samples. Environment: SAP ECC 4.0, ABAP/4, SD, FI/CO and MM.

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Sufi-Salafi Institutional Competition and Conflict. in the Chechen Republic. The Russian North Caucasus is one of the essay as a, most politically complex and turbulent areas in the world due to its plethora of essays impressions ethnic, national, and religious groups, as well as its history of violent conflict and repression. Since the Russian Empire annexed the Caucasus in the 19th century, the central government in Moscow has dealt with the region using a heavy-handed approach, often fanning the flames of identity-based resistance movements. This has particularly been the case in the modern-day Chechen Republic. Despite long-lasting political disputes extant in the Chechen Republic, Islam remains the “common denominator” of identity formation. However, throughout history, disagreements have emerged over which types of essay on engineering as a career Islamic political institutions and resistance movements are appropriate or necessary in models a given context. The reciprocal reaction from the Russian state, in as a its many forms, has been to subsidize and support the specific Islamic institutions that they consider congruous with their political goals in the North Caucasus and to crack down on opposing movements. Even under the supposedly atheistic Soviet Union, Islamic identity persisted in resume writer usa the Chechen Republic despite the state moratorium on essay on engineering career, the establishment of official, public Muslim institutions. Islamic traditions were still privately practiced by Muslim subjects of the essay advantage, Soviet state, but access to religious leaders and educational resources, as well as the ability to publicly organize, were heavily limited.

After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the essay on engineering career, resulting power vacuum, coupled with an underlying desire to create new identities through religion and models nationality, resulted in the development of competing religious institutions. The opening of the area to global influence brought in new ideas about Muslim identity and politics from abroad. Dormant local institutions began to reawaken, resulting in a multitude of competing religious-political actors with opposing goals and methodologies. This resulted in the critical defining phenomenon in the politics of the North Caucasus: competition by religious institutions and essay career movements for political resources, often leading to intra-Muslim conflict. For the past 25 years, the resume, ideological conflict between Muslim institutions in the Chechen Republic has pitted “traditionalists” versus “conservatives.” These terms are not easily defined, but they can be a useful heuristic for on engineering career examining the field of competition between institutions. “Traditionalists” seek to restore Islam in essays first impressions Chechnya to what it resembled before the Russian conquest, usually through the essay as a career, practice of tasawwuf (Sufism), which combines Islamic practices and web destroys the quality papers essay beliefs with systems of Chechen national laws, traditions, and as a career superstitions. They draw political influence from the make cover research, Sufi tariqa (brotherhood), once the major Islamic authorities in essay career the North Caucasus, and the history of Chechen Sufi leaders such as Kunta-Haji Kishiev (1830-1867).[1] While traditionalists were heavily aligned with nationalist revolutions during the early 1990s, in recent years they have faced stiff competition from resume “conservatives.” Conservatives (also referred to as Islamists) favor strict adherence to Islamic law, eschewing any practice, belief, or legal code that developed independently from the Q’uran and hadith .[2] One conservative iteration of Islam popular in the Caucasus is Salafi Islam, which draws its name from al-salaf al-Salih , the “righteous ancestors” who were the earliest followers of the Prophet Muhammad.[3] Salafi Islam stands in direct contrast to the syncretic approach of tasawwuf , which it derides for retaining legal principles and folk traditions outside of the scope of the sunnah, the standard canon of Islamic law derived from the Q’uran and hadith . In the North Caucasus and elsewhere in the Muslim world, Sufi and Salafi institutions have been in a constant, zero-sum competition for resources, religious legitimacy, and political capital.

This paper examines the motivations and methods of the competition between traditionalists and conservatives in the Chechen Republic after the fall of the Soviet Union. It addresses three interrelated questions: which religious institutions are competing, how they compete with one another, and why they compete. Using a political-institutionalist approach to religious competition and conflict, I argue that the position of these religious groups and movements in disputes is dictated by their level of access to the political and ideological resources of the state. In the Chechen Republic, the career, ruling regime draws a large portion of of students papers its legitimacy by essay as a subsidizing and supporting Sufi traditionalists in an effort to prevent conservative movements from seizing power. The underlying cause of impressions competition is the lack of separation between mosque and state. When the secular Chechen state intervenes on behalf of a particular religious tradition, it exacerbates the ideological divide between different groups and forces institutions to clamor for political resources, which fosters competition and conflict. “New institutionalism”, a strong preference for social science modeling wherein “[institutional] phenomena are best understood as the aggregate consequences of behavior comprehensible at the individual or group level,” has been the de rigueur approach for comparative political science during the past few decades, but only recently has it been applied to the study of religions.[4] Part of this gap is due to the longstanding belief within the political science literature that religion is a secondary or irrelevant consideration to essay as a how politics operates. Part is due to the academic field of religion’s rejection of the study of institutions for being monolithic and not taking into account various divergent individual beliefs in a society.[5] Obviously, institutional study cannot account for every variant of religious thought in a particular community, but it can still be a useful referent for understanding the important competing views within a group on a macro-scale and is thus necessary to analyze instances of widespread religious conflict. Religious institutions in this case, places of worship, educational centers, state-supported religious administrations, and public political mobilization of religious in-groups function as a “prism” to explain popular religious trends in essays a society and on engineering how they affect politics as a whole.[6] In Muslim societies, religious institutions often differ on make cover research, the question of separation of mosque and state.

Inevitably, some institutions develop connections with secular ruling entities, which affects not only the kind of doctrine they practice but also which people adhere to those institutions. At the same time, competing movements reject secular entities and oppose institutions with deep connections to the ruling regime. The competition between these groups has been a defining feature of politics in as a career the Muslim world.[7] Many studies of political Islam focus on the primordial split in Islamic legal thought and practice stemming from the resume writer usa, divide between Sunni and as a Shi’a Islam. On a larger scale, this divide is important for assessing the trajectory of conflict between different Muslim societies. However, the dichotomy between “traditionalists” and “conservatives” has generated more tension and fundamental debates within individual Muslim societies. Studying this dynamic is especially important for theoretical analyses of competition between different Muslim political entities in a particular society.[8] Elsewhere in web destroys the quality of students research the Muslim world, classifying institutions as conservative or traditionalist can often be methodologically impossible. Unlike the Sunni-Shi’a divide, which can accurately be described as a binary, conservativism and as a career traditionalism often exist within specific Islamic societies as a spectrum.[9] In areas within the Muslim world where Islamic legal thought and philosophy has developed independently from the influence and intervention of a non-Muslim ruling entity, ascertaining the difference between a “conservative” institution and a “traditionalist” one can be difficult; sometimes, single institutions fit both definitions or exist somewhere in the middle of the spectrum.[10] The North Caucasus is california essay advantage, unique because the population was not fully converted to Islam until the late 18th century, when local beliefs based on as a career, pagan traditions were still dominant, and Muslim institutions were not well established due to isolation and separation by papers mountain ranges.[11] Only about a century after the peoples of the North Caucasus had fully converted to Islam, the essay career, intervention of the Russian Empire put an immediate halt to the development of argumentative essay on women independent Muslim institutions. As a result of a lack of education and decades of limited public expression of Islam under the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, the local population lacked a coherent understanding of Islamic politics as they existed elsewhere, as well as the essay on engineering as a career, necessary educational background to understand nuances between the different interpretations of Islam. Thus, unlike in other areas of the Muslim world, the relationship between contemporary traditionalists and conservatives in research paper the North Caucasus can be understood as a binary.[12]

The current academic literature on the conflict between Sufi and Salafi Muslims in the Chechen Republic focuses heavily on essay as a career, public perceptions of Islam, society, and politics, but does not explain how those perceptions “trickle-up” to form large-scale political trends centered on religion. Essays Impressions. Two approaches are popular: ideological approaches, which argue that the career, rise of usa Salafism in Chechnya is tied to the influx of ideas from abroad due to the fall of the Soviet Union, and sociological approaches, which argue that the same trend is dictated largely by the public’s dissatisfaction with the Russian ruling regime.[13] These approaches are excellent on a theoretical level, but fail when applied to individual test cases like the Chechen Republic. One major problem is that they only seem to explain the development of Salafi or other conservative institutions, and do not describe the reciprocal evolution of Sufi institutions to compete with Salafism for religious legitimacy and political capital. They treat Sufism in essay the North Caucasus as frozen in college essays amber, invalidated by the failure of the nationalist revolutions and outcompeted entirely by Salafism. In reality, the nature of essay on engineering as a career competition between the resume writer, two groups forces them to constantly evolve to meet the demands, beliefs, and ideas of the public they serve, as well as the essay as a career, external political situation.

Ideological approaches are particularly suspect, as they legitimate the common perception within the Russian policymaking apparatus that conservative iterations of california essay Islam are “alien” to essay as a the North Caucasus and are simply the resume writer, product of foreign powers meddling in the region.[14] This narrative conveniently ignores many of the developments that have occurred within the North Caucasus to make Salafism popular today; it emerged due to contingent local circumstances and cannot be explained by foreign influence alone. While it is true that foreign investment in on engineering as a career Salafi organizations, movements, and models college essays institutions has dramatically increased since the Chechen Wars in the 1990s, Sufi organizations have also received a large share of foreign investment (often from the same countries that Russia accuses of sponsoring Salafi extremism, such as Turkey and Saudi Arabia).[15] The situation in the Chechen Republic today, where foreign investment is the essay as a career, highest in the North Caucasus and the most powerful institutions are Sufi orders, not Salafi mosques and extremist groups, helps to dispel the idea that foreign influence is necessarily correlated with the argumentative essay, rise of Salafi Islam. Thus, it may be true that foreign support is an objective of the essay career, Sufi-Salafi competition for resources; however, it is not the cause of it. The sociological approach simplifies the multiplicity of disputes in the quality of students research papers essay the North Caucasus to the single narrative that conservative forms of Islam develop out of revolt against the domination of Russian rule. Salafi Islam is seen as primarily a form of resistance on behalf of career Muslims in college the North Caucasus an attempt to reclaim their identity and wrest power back from the on engineering career, central government in Moscow. The sociological approach “cuts out the middleman”: over pride prejudice impressions the past ten years, the Russian federal government has increasingly delegated responsibility for essay policy regarding religious authority and countering extremism to the republics of the North Caucasus.[16] In response to these changes, the modern Salafi movement in the North Caucasus has adapted to on women not only criticize the Russian federal government but also local political structures, non-governmental actors, and international actors. The problems that have created the essay career, foundations for Salafi Islam’s popularity in the North Caucasus are not merely related to Russian “domination”, but also to intra-community disputes over essays how to create a space for Muslim identity within the framework of a largely non-Muslim state.[17] It is important to recognize that since 1991, both Sufi and Salafi organizations at various times have been involved in resistance against essay as a career, the Russian state; the idea that Salafis hold the how the the quality of students, monopoly on anti-Moscow sentiment or violent resistance in the North Caucasus is incorrect.[18] Additionally, this approach fails to account for resistance within the Muslim communities. As A Career. The targeting of Salafis by california Sufis and vice versa are both phenomena that exist widely within the North Caucasus. Certainly, the ideological and sociological approaches capture some of the underlying issues behind Sufi-Salafi competition in the North Caucasus. On Engineering As A. The roles of external influence and of students research papers dissatisfaction with the Russian regime should not be understated, but they only show a small portion of the larger picture.

To understand how both of these factors come into on engineering play, scholars of essay on women religion and politics must analyze how institutions adapt and reform to respond to factors such as external influence and anti-Russian sentiment among the population. At its core, conflict between Muslims of the North Caucasus is a political matter, not a sociological or ideological one. II. Islamic Institutional Competition and Conflict in the Chechen Republic. In assessing how institutional differences between Muslim organizations have resulted in competition in the Chechen Republic, a thorough understanding of the institutions in question, the essay, methods of cooperation, and the role of the state vis-à-vis specific institutions is necessary. While the local political and cultural environments in prejudice essays first impressions the Chechen Republic both have an effect on intra-Muslim competition, the following section attempts to as a career ascertain each aspect of the environment and analyze their effects separately. However, in both political and cultural realms, underlying characteristics and effects of institutional competition are still evident due to the imposition of the argumentative, state in essay on engineering as a the religious sector. A. Pride. Religious Institutions. The Chechen Republic is the most ethnically and religiously homogenous republic in the North Caucasus: a 2010 census found that over 95% of the essay career, population identifies as “Chechen” and 98% as “Muslim.”[19] However, it is how the the quality research papers, impossible to understand Islamic institutions in the modern Chechen Republic without first understanding the system of ethnic hierarchies that organize the Chechen people. The Chechens, like other North Caucasus mountain peoples, divide themselves into on engineering sub-units based on essay advantage, geographic location, land, and essay heritage; there are nine “grand alliances of clans” ( tukkhum ), in resume usa sum containing around a hundred individual clans ( teip ).[20] Prior to the development of a concrete Chechen national identity during the colonization period, the teip system was the primary form of social relationship and belonging.

The teip leadership made individual decisions about how its members practiced Islam, and a majority of teip in the pre-Soviet period were ascribed to one of two Sufi tariqa : the Naqshbandiyya or the Qadiriyya.[21] Due to the erosion of religious institutions during the Soviet period, “the lines between teip and [Sufi] brotherhood have been blurredespecially as today the religious groups now maintain their structure mainly by means of kinship and heredity”.[22] In the modern Chechen Republic, the teip system still leaves its mark on how Sufi religious institutions are organized and on the internal political dynamics of the Republic. However, its role as the central organizing feature of as a Chechen society was essentially erased by another critically important event in Chechen history: the deportation of the how the web destroys papers essay, Chechen people to Central Asia during Stalin’s rule, under the pretense that they had collaborated with the Nazis during World War II. This event, referred to in the Chechen language as the essay, Aardakh , resulted in the deaths of thousands and permanently disrupted the traditional, geographic clan-based network of essay affiliations by displacing the on engineering career, Chechens and severing the ties to their homeland.[23] Although the Chechen people were eventually allowed to return to the North Caucasus in 1957 under Khrushchev, the clan system never made a full revival. In its place, the concept of being “Chechen” as a unifying national identity began to coalesce.

Central to this national identity were the last vestiges of the clan system, which survived in the Chechen cultural milieu through its integration with the Sufi tariqa hierarchy. Under Soviet rule, Muslim subjects were expected to live out an unrealizable ideal: being a “Soviet in public” but a “Muslim in private”.[24] Unexpectedly, this policy ended up privileging certain Sufi orders in the North Caucasus (most notably, the Qadiri and Naqshbandi brotherhoods) whose belief systems were based mainly on prejudice first, ritual, private practice such as the performance of essay on engineering dhikr (ritual recitation and repetition of essay religious phrases) and not on large-scale political practice, legal thought, or identity-based movements. Essay Career. These ritual-centric tariqa were not yet political institutions during the Soviet period, but through their ability to cling to private elements of Islamic identity, they survived the leadership purges and became critical to post-Soviet conceptions of Islamic institutions in the North Caucasus.[25] In many ways, the tariqa represents the “prototypical political party, meaning political movements supporting different interests for the Chechens”.[26] The subdivisions within the tariqa nowadays heavily resemble the former layout of the teip system, and individual Sufi shaykhs and web destroys the quality of students research essay murids (religious authorities) command a large amount of political resources, including followers, economic capital, religious authority and legitimacy, and, at times, their own military sub-units. Following the essay on engineering as a, collapse of the Soviet Union, collective demands for Chechen independence resulted in the attempted establishment of an independent state known as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (CRI) under the leadership of President Dzhokhar Dudayev.[27] The early political aims of the CRI leadership appeared mainly to be secular-nationalist, despite much of its army being made up of local warlords and religious leaders connected to Sufi brotherhoods.[28] To maintain control of the breakaway region, the newly-formed Russian Federation initiated a large-scale military intervention into the Chechen Republic. The First Chechen War (1994-1996) resulted in the utter devastation of Chechnya, a shocking number of civilian casualties, and mobilization throughout the of students research, Muslim world to provide support for the Chechens in their campaign against Russian imperialism.[29] After the essay as a, 1996 Khasav-Yurt Accords, which ended the First Chechen War, the CRI remained intact under the leadership of General Aslan Maskhadov.

The resulting “interwar” period “saw a critical mass of groups from criminals, anti-Russian ideologists and religious nationalists to Salafi-jihadist volunteers combine with regional groups, creating cleavages within theseparatist movement”.[30] The weak secular leadership was dependent on writer, support from Sufi orders in Chechnya, which provided the guerilla army recruits and ideological legitimacy for as a career the revolution; at the same time, foreign fighters from the Gulf States and elsewhere in the Muslim world began to spill into the North Caucasus to of students papers assist local revolutionaries and conduct what they saw as a mandatory jihad in defense of Muslims.[31] Foreign fighters such as the Saudi commander Ibn al-Khattab (Tamir Saleh Abdullah) were credited with bringing new conservative ideas such as Salafi Islam to the North Caucasus, but initially they were seen as interlopers and troublemakers by career locals, and the aim of introducing Chechens to Salafi Islam did not succeed.[32] Over time, however, Salafi Islam gained traction as Maskhadov’s government collapsed. Maskhadov and the revolutionary leadership attempted to paper over divides in essay the movement and tried to maintain the cease-fire with the Russian Army, despite pressure from local warlords and Islamists. The growing influence of essay career foreign fighters forced Maskhadov to make significant concessions, such as ending the Chechen Parliament and instituting shari’ah courts in 1996.[33] This change was sweeping: it made any Russian law or legal court invalid in the CRI and replaced it with a Supreme Shari’ah Court modeled after the criminal code of Sudan.[34] A major issue with the court was that it required individuals with experience in Islamic jurisprudence to serve as qadi (judges); the only people in the CRI with this sort of expertise were Salafi Muslims, giving them complete control over the legal system.[35] With this new source of power, Salafi jurists began issuing rulings that directly antagonized Sufi tariqa , including authorizing the destruction of several Sufi shrines and a ban on dhikr .[36] This created a large fissure between the Salafi and Sufi supporters of the Chechen revolution, and the concession backfired as Maskhadov lost both sources of his legitimacy to rule. Overall, Salafi-jihadist groups became emboldened, and several former Chechen nationalist warlords shifted their support from the state to the foreign fighters. The most notable of writer usa these warlords was Shamil Basayev, a seasoned Chechen military commander who became the emir of Ibn al-Khattab’s Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB) in 1999. When the Chechen Republic was a quasi-independent state during the 1990s, candidates in elections would not declare allegiance to a political party, but rather would openly declare which tariqa had backed them.[37] During the later stages of as a career Maskhadov’s government, the previously secular Chechen government began increasingly turning toward particular Sufi orders to infuse their ideology with Islamic content and provide a “middle ground” between the government and web destroys of students papers essay the increasing influence of essay more conservative interpretations of Islam. Resume Writer Usa. After the fall of the Maskhadov government, Moscow’s intervention into essay on engineering as a the political affairs of the Chechen Republic and its hand-selecting of candidates for leadership positions did not erase this dynamic; it merely created the perception that certain tariqa were aligned with or indebted to the Russian central government. In reconstructing the Chechen Republic, Putin and the Russian government placed a great deal of faith and political resources into the former Grand Mufti of Chechnya, Akhmad-Haji Kadyrov, his son Ramzan, and their Qadiri tariqa .[38] Many of the shari’ah courts established under Maskhadov were prohibited by the Kadyrovs, and models disbanded. In 2004, the elder Kadyrov was assassinated by Salafists in the Chechen capital of Groznyy during a World War II memorial parade. The same promotion of Sufi ideology and essay on engineering as a career the Qadiri tariqa continues under the leadership of his son, Ramzan, who was appointed Head of Chechnya in 2007 and remains in power today.

The younger Kadyrov has created a cult of personality around himself and paper his martyred father, and uses the substantial resources he receives from the Russian central state and the ideological legitimacy from the Qadiri brotherhood to wage an all-out war on Salafi movements in Chechnya. Qadiriyya supremacy in official religious institutions drained resources and support from other Sufi tariqa in the Chechen Republic, particularly the Naqshbandi order. The Kadyrov family’s political preference towards the Qadiri tariqa exacerbated the differences between the as a career, previously co-existent Naqshbandi and Qadiri orders: although both are highly connected to Chechen nationalism, organized similarly, and have taken revolutionary stances in the past against the Russian government, the make cover research, form of dhikr practiced by the Qadiriyya is loud, public, and demonstrative, while the Naqshbandi dhikr is silent, private, and essay on engineering as a career contemplative. Models Essays. In terms of leadership, “Qadiri adherents favored a more centralized form of organization than Naqshbandis and placed more stress on the role of individual sheikhs”.[39] The preferences of the as a, Kadyrov family placed the Naqshbandi order outside the scope of public institution-building, which made it a “second-class” order to the Qadiriyya. How can one describe the “official version” of Chechen Islam as advocated by the Kadyrov family? It resembles no other system of Islam in the world a conglomerate of Qadiri thought, the research, political realities of the Chechen Republic, and as a personal idiosyncrasies. Essay On Women. As described by as a one observer: [Islam] in Kadyrov’s Chechnya is an outlandish mish-mash created from the preferences of Kadyrov himself (amongst other things, his passion for noisy, glittering contests and sumptuous festivals), national customs, Chechen messianism, twisted fragments of shari’a, secular social practices, abstract slogans of unity with Russia, and many other things. With the best will in the world, it is hard to call this a coherent social doctrine.[40] The lack of similarity with any other Sufi doctrines around the world reveals the unique political considerations at resume usa, play behind why “Kadyrovism” has developed as it has.

In this case, there may be very little that is “traditional” about the “traditionalist” variant of as a career Islam. Essay. The Chechen state plays an essay on engineering official role in disseminating this form of Islam through the appointed network of Sufi leaders and shaykhs concentrated in the Muftiate (the official state board of clerics tasked with interpreting Islamic law). The public funds used for Islamic projects such as the models, building of mosques and on engineering financial aid for Chechens going on hajj , government-run Islamic education programs and schools, and Kadyrov-backed social campaigns and public demonstrations.[41] There is no part of political, civic, or social life in the Chechen Republic that has been left untouched by resume state religious institutions. However, the growing connection between the Qadiri hierarchy and on engineering as a the Chechen government “discourages support from prejudice essays impressions a certain section of the populationyoung people who are still studying or just finished their educationprecisely this notion of collaboration drives young people into essay on engineering as a the ranks of the [Salafis]”.[42] Like conservative Muslim political movements in other areas of the world, Salafi Muslims in the Chechen Republic have developed their own set of “parallel institutions”: schools, mosques, and political mobilization. For the majority of post-Soviet history, Chechen Salafis have used militant and insurgent movements as their primary political institutions, as many traditional methods of contestation have been shut off to Salafi adherents. The Salafi regional militant groups are referred to as jamaat . Due to california the threat of persecution, it is hard to gauge how prevalent Salafism is in the Chechen Republic or how many followers it has. Nevertheless, evidence of Salafi demonstrations and organizations in the Chechen Republic is essay on engineering career, abundant, and at a bare minimum it exists as a “boogeyman” in political discourse due to Kadyrov’s constant comments that “Wahhabists” and “foreign terrorists” are a threat to the Republic and the “traditional form of Islam”.[43] Many of the trends driving the development of Sufi Islam in the Chechen Republic are predicated on the global growth of Salafism, even if its influence in the Chechen Republic is limited. Salafi institutions in the Chechen Republic have undergone three distinct transformations during the post-Soviet era: first, from small battalions of foreign fighters during the interwar period to essays first large militant insurgency groups (19961999); second, from on engineering as a career regional organizations to pan-Caucasian Salafi organizations under the global framework of Al Qaeda (19992012); and the quality of students research papers essay finally and most recently, as a result of cross-border movement of militants to join the conflicts in Syria and Iraq (2012present).[44] A result of the third transformation is the growing popularity of the Islamic State of essay on engineering career Iraq and how the the quality essay the Levant (ISIL), a transnational Salafi-jihadist militant group, amongst Salafis in the Chechen Republic.

This has been demonstrated by online declarations of support posted by Chechen Salafi leaders, and essay career an incident in 2015 where graffiti was found in web destroys the quality papers essay Kadyrov’s hometown of Tsentaroi (Khosi-Yurt), including the ISIL flag and an English declaration that “Khosi-Yurt is Support ISIS (sic)”.[45] Until 2015, most Salafi militant groups in the Chechen Republic were allied with Imarat Kavkaz , an Al Qaeda regional affiliate, but most have now switched to ISIL since Imarat Kavkaz regional emir Aslan Byutukayev declared allegiance to ISIL in June 2015.[46] While the dynamic of competition between Al Qaeda and ISIL plays out in a number of areas around the world, the particular transformation in the North Caucasus is partially a result of changes in the local political environment; groups adapt to become more successful in dynamic and rapidly changing political atmospheres. B. On Engineering. Methods of Competition. The Chechen Republic’s Sufi and Salafi Muslim institutions compete with one another politically in three separate ways: through violent attacks and campaigns; through establishment of make cover research mosques, schools, and public infrastructure; and through ideological competition. Of these three methods, violent interactions are the on engineering career, most visible and therefore measurable. In the Chechen Republic, there have been numerous attacks by the official Sufi institutions against Salafi adherents and vice versa. Kadyrov’s personal militia (referred to as the Kadyrovtsy ) is mainly made up of prejudice essays impressions Qadiri adherents, many of career whom were former warlords and insurgents during the Chechen Wars. The Kadyrovtsy , with help from the how the web destroys papers essay, Russian FSB (the Federal’naja Sluzhba Bezopasnosti the main security agency in the Russian Federation, and the primary successor to the USSR’s KGB), were largely successful in eliminating organized insurgent activity in the mountainous wooded areas of the Chechen Republic, and the overall rate of terrorist attacks in the Republic has dropped off considerably since Kadyrov’s installation in 2007.[47] In urban areas, the Chechen police and the Interior Ministry also enforce the religious norms and rulings of the Muftiate. For example, they ensure that dress codes are followed and citizens attend mosque during prayer times, and are also tasked with cracking down on adherents of essay on engineering alternative or non-normative faiths, especially Salafi Islam.[48] Dress code rules are indicative of the amalgamation of Islam that Kadyrov has created: the police enforce conservative rules such as female modest dress and the wearing of hijab , but also profile, harass, and sometimes arrest men for wearing their beards “Salafi-style” (long and unshaven, without a mustache).[49] The Chechen police and Interior Ministry are highly successful in countering terrorism when looking at the numbers alone; yet they often use extreme methods, including torture, scapegoating, forced “disappearances”, and the targeting of family members to accomplish their aims.[50] Their violent tactics are, without a doubt, a major push factor for Chechen adherents of writer Salafi Islam.

Salafi institutions also legitimate violence to compete with the on engineering as a career, state-run Sufi institutions for influence. During the 2000s, the organization Imarat Kavkaz (Caucasus Emirate) was responsible for a slew of terrorist attacks throughout the Chechen Republic, the prejudice impressions, North Caucasus, and Russia as a whole. Although Salafi militant movements are far less organized today than they were in the past, individual adherents still manage to conduct pointed attacks against Sufi religious infrastructure. In late 2015, a group of (presumably Salafi) arsonists burned down the mausoleum of a 19th century Sufi saint from the on engineering, Qadiri tariqa in the town of Shali; Salafis view elaborate gravesites for saints as contrary to the Islamic principle of tawhid (monotheism).[51] After a brief period of inactivity, it appears that the rise of ISIL has motivated local Chechen Salafis to challenge the official institutions through violence. Between 500 and 5,000 Chechens have left the Republic for Syria and Iraq, and the 2014 establishment of Vilayat Kavkaz an college official branch of ISIL in the Caucasus threatens to bring insurgency violence back to the Chechen Republic. In 2014, clashes between the Kadyrovtsy and militants associated with Vilayat Kavkaz in the Chechen capital city of Groznyy resulted in essay on engineering career several deaths and a symbolic strike into pride impressions the heart of Kadyrov’s area of control.[52] Since that time, anti-Sufi and anti-Kadyrov activity on behalf of Salafi groups and individuals has increased in regularity. In many ways, the outward displays of Sufi-Salafi violent conflict are merely a veneer for most of the essay on engineering career, political competition, which occurs through institutional forums: the official state mosques, schools, and public movements and the “parallel” underground institutions of the Salafis. Interestingly, while the paper, Qadiri tariqa has a near-monopoly on state resources and essay as a career political capital, competition between political institutions still occurs in argumentative essay the Chechen Republic. Where the Sufis have the advantage in terms of traditional resources, the Salafis benefit from on engineering as a career strongly criticizing the essay on women, connection between the Sufi tariqa and the corrupt, authoritarian Chechen central state, which gives them ideological leverage and a “moral high ground”.[53] Each group attempts to leverage its advantages to gain an edge in the competition for essay as a adherents and political power.

Sufi organizations in the Chechen Republic are involved in a number of goodwill activities, whereby they attempt to california essay advantage curry favor with the Republic’s citizens and provide an alternative to conservative Salafism. Using state budgets, the Muftiate has made “[significant contributions] to the reconstruction of ziarats (Sufi holy sites) and the creation of magnificent mosques and Islamic educational establishments in the style of Turkish architecture, as well as to the construction of houses, stadiums, and parks of rest for children and adults”.[54] These projects attempt to essay on engineering as a demonstrate a moral-humanistic dimension to Islam and argumentative the administration’s extensive finances and connections. Official Sufi educational training centers, funded by a state-supported organization named after Akhmed-Haji Kadyrov, have grown in on engineering as a popularity and size. Official competitions in Quran recitation and how the web destroys the quality of students essay Chechen folk arts (dancing, horseback riding, wrestling, and martial arts) are held frequently by on engineering the government, and essay advantage public dhikr ceremonies occur regularly. In addition, social movements and protests that align with the government’s interpretation of Islam are usually financially assisted with state funds. Kadyrov’s regime held public (some reportedly mandatory) protests against the Jyllands-Posten cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad #65018; and has funded anti-alcohol, pro-hijab, and pro-Putin demonstrations under the auspices of the NGO Islamskii Put’ (The Islamic Way).[55] Kadyrov’s efforts mark a major change in the organization of Muslim infrastructure building in on engineering as a the Chechen Republic. Advantage. During the Chechen Wars, most of the social aid and reconstruction efforts were financed by Salafis with donations pouring in from around the essay on engineering as a career, Muslim world.[56] Partially due to cover research paper the disruption of global Salafi financial networks during the War on Terror, and partially due to Kadyrov’s crackdown on essay career, Salafi institutions, the Salafi groups active today in advantage the Chechen Republic are at a large disadvantage when it comes to economic resources. To garner support for their activities, the preferred arena of competition is not capital, but ideology. Contemporary Salafis use a wide array of networking tools including social media sites like vKontakte and the websites KavkazCenter and IslamDin to recruit followers and issue biting critiques of Kadyrov (often referred to by Salafis as “Kafirov” from the essay on engineering, Arabic kafir , unbeliever) and his conceptualization of Sufi Islam.[57] They report on the brutal counter-measures used by the Chechen police and resume writer Interior Ministry, collaboration between Kadyrov and the central Russian government, and Salafi-jihadist movements throughout the North Caucasus and the world.

Salafi ideological critiques of Kadyrov rest on a handful of premises, based on the work of scholars influential to on engineering career the global Salafi movement, including Ibn Taymiyyah, Mohammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, Said Qutb, Osama Bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Anwar al-Awlaki, Abu Mohammad Asim al-Maqdisi, and Chechnya’s own contribution, Shamil Basayev.[58] Salafis argue for strict application of shari’ah law, with no regard to pre-Islamic folk practices. They view the Qadiri Sufi legal system, which combines shari’ah principles with Chechen adat (folk laws) as a conflation between the role of Allah ( subhanahu wa ta’ala ) and the role of humans. In addition, they find many of the personalistic interpretations of the models essays, Quran and hadith used in Sufi Islam (e.g. the emphasis on dhikr , sometimes with the use of musical instruments, and Sufi mystical practices) to on engineering as a career be bid’a , or unnecessary deviation from the original law. Another critique concerns Sufi celebration of various saints and holy figures, including the resume writer usa, common practice of praying at gravesites. Drawing on the work of al Wahhab, Salafis argue that this is to ascribe to human entities the status of Allah ( subhanahu wa ta’ala ), a major sin that is referred to as shirk (polytheism). Finally, and most importantly, modern Salafi writings center around a concept referred to as ‘al wala, wa’l bara (loyalty and disavowal). According to the Salafi interpretation, it is forbidden for Muslims to collaborate with non-Muslims when it comes to essay juridical matters. Essay. Kadyrov’s active subordination of as a career Chechen Muslims to the Russian legal system is therefore considered treasonous, insofar as the general perception amongst Salafists is that Orthodox Christians dominate the Russian government. Compared to Kadyrov’s seemingly disjointed approach to Islam and shari’ah , the Salafi approach appears to be far more meticulous and parsimonious.

Some official Sufi rulings in the Chechen Republic are clearly similar to Salafi fiqh (jurisprudence), in particular rulings governing private life (e.g. the enforcement of hijab , mandatory prayer and mosque attendance, strict regulation of Ramadan fasting), but their rulings on essay, public affairs directly dispute Salafi fiqh altogether (e.g. deference to Putin, public practice of dhikr , and using state money to on engineering as a rebuild the gravesites of Sufi saints). As opposed to the “pick-and-choose” strategy employed by models Kadyrov in regard to Islam, Salafism represents an all-encompassing world system for its followers, one that does not distinguish between public and private life to make itself politically appealing to secular state authorities. This gives Salafi preachers and essay as a career mosques the upper hand in terms of recruiting followers who are concerned about their Islamic identity. The strategy of advantage using this ideological angle despite the clear deficiency in traditional resources is referred to as “outbidding”, and essay forms a critical part of the competition between Sufi and Salafi institutions.[59] Salafis in Chechnya have been most successful in recruiting younger Chechens, especially those with significant socioeconomic disadvantages, a criminal background, or conflicts with the security services.[60] While violence, attacks, and public suppression are the resume, most commonly assessed tactics of competition between Sufi and Salafi institutions in the Chechen Republic, the essay on engineering as a, political nature of the conflict also has effects on the “hidden transcript” of competition, most of which occurs in the realm of institution formation and ideology. C. Factors in Competition. The competition between Sufis and Salafis in the Chechen Republic tells us a great deal about the factors involved in generating intra-religious competition. Returning to the section on methodology, the web destroys the quality of students papers essay, Chechen situation represents an on engineering career important counter-example to theories that place ideology or social dissatisfaction as the sole driving force behind institutional conflict. In this case, there is how the web destroys of students research, a clear example of a changing political dynamic the end of the Chechen War and the installation of Kadyrov as a local proxy of the Russian central government that shaped which Muslim institutions had access to political and economic resources, adherents, and ideological legitimacy. The ideological perspective is essay on engineering as a career, invalidated because in cover paper this case, religious ideology is the dependent , not the independent variable. Essay. Two decades ago, both the california essay advantage, Sufi tariqa and Salafi jamaat in the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria were involved in violent resistance against essay as a, the Russian central government, as well as a multitude of social aid and reconstruction programs. Contrary to ideological theories of change, the ideology of Sufi and Salafi groups remained intact over the past 20 years; what occurred instead was a centralization of political control in the hands of specific Sufi orders that changed the relationship of the resume writer, two groups to particular political methods.

Salafi adherents became associated with resistance, terrorism, and underground institutions, while the essay on engineering career, Qadiriyya heavily leveraged repressive state violence, infrastructure-building, and public demonstrations to how the the quality research papers essay promote their interpretation of essay as a Islam. In short, the political atmosphere of the Chechen Republic in the post-war period created a disparity between the levels of connectedness of Muslim institutions to state resources, which aligned the pro-Putin interests of the make research paper, Kadyrov family with the state-controlled Sufi orders and created an antagonistic ideological relationship between Sufis and Salafis. The inverse situation, where ideological differences create a particular political atmosphere that breeds competition, did not occur in the Chechen Republic during this time period. Sociological explanations also fail to explain this situation in its entirety. The impact of the Kadyrov family’s political impositions cannot be underestimated; in this light we can understand the competition between Muslim groups as a reaction to dynamics of career Islam in resume writer the region, not due to Russian imperialism alone. During the Chechen Wars, Russian impositions in the Chechen Republic’s politics were at their highest; yet the Sufi-led resistance movement and on engineering as a career Salafi foreign fighters were not at odds with one another. At times they even collaborated, and they shared many of the same goals and models methods including social projects, militancy, and the establishment of an independent Chechen state free from Russian oppression.

Interestingly, the periods with the essay career, highest incidence of Sufi-Salafi conflict have occurred during times when the Russian central government was the least involved in Chechen politics, during the writer usa, interwar period and during the Kadyrov period. Incidence of political and ideological competition peaked during these periods, because the local government was highly dependent on connections with religious institutions for ruling legitimacy. This is an unexpected result: while Russian colonialism and the Soviet period undoubtedly set the essay, stage for some of the events in Chechen history during the post-Soviet period, religious competition between Muslim institutions does not seem to have been affected by the historical situation. The political-institutional approach is validated by the rise of institutional conflict between Sufis and Salafis in the Chechen Republic as a result of the Kadyrov family’s extensive use and support of the Qadiri tariqa to achieve its political ends. This politicized the dynamics of religion and polarized Muslim institutions to either clamor for state support or reject the models, collaboration between mosque and state altogether. Sufi and Salafi institutions utilized different tools to gain followers, resources, and ideological legitimacy, sometimes completely switching their positions on or abandoning a particular method that made them successful in the past. For example, the position of the Sufi tariqa leadership to try to as a accommodate Salafi foreign fighters during the interwar period changed to outright hostility when the Russian central government began supporting and writer subsidizing the essay on engineering as a career, Sufi leadership to combat Salafism. These sea changes were generated by the large political shift that came with the essays first impressions, devolution of essay political and argumentative essay on women religious authority to the republican level: without a mutual enemy (the Russian central government), Sufi and Salafi groups began taking different stances on whether collaborating with a local Chechen Muslim regime with a particular ideology was legitimate or necessary.

As a result, the over-imposition of the regime into the religious life of the essay on engineering career, Republic sparked tensions between the models college essays, different Muslim institutions and caused them to turn on each other. Political alliances between the Sufi tariqa leadership and the government of the Chechen Republic have caused a power imbalance between the on engineering career, specific tariqa and alternative forms of Islam in the Republic, wherein Sufi orders have an abundance of economic resources and finances and cover research paper unparalleled access to the security services. Essay Career. They use capital, economic connections, and control over the policing apparatus to out-muscle Salafi groups and silence dissent. In turn, the Salafi organizations are pushed away from on women political and economic engagement and on engineering as a toward violence, terrorism, and ideological “out-bidding”. The situation in the Chechen Republic clearly illustrates why and how Sufi and Salafi institutions view their relationship as inherently zero-sum and competitive. The result has been ideological conflict and mass violence. Given this background, is Sufi-Salafi coexistence possible in the Chechen Republic, or has the investment in pride prejudice first impressions establishing an “official” form of as a career Islam in the Chechen Republic permanently erased any chance of reconciliation? The answer is not simple and will require large-scale shifts in institution-building. First and foremost, to resume writer usa level the playing field, the republican government must substantially divest economic support and ideological investment from the Sufi tariqas and essay as a career introduce measures leading toward separation of mosque and state. This would include dismantling and models college revising state religious authorities that only represent a single branch of essay on engineering Islam, such as the Muftiate in the Chechen Republic. Salafi groups cannot, in good faith, enter into negotiations and de-radicalization programs as long as they perceive the republican government, security services, and official Islamic institutions as one and the same.

Only after this step is argumentative essay on women, achieved can the republican governments attempt programs aimed at Sufi-Salafi dialogue. Otherwise, the most radical viewpoints on either side have zero incentive to cooperate and may even lash out against the groups that did accede to negotiations. Essay Career. To erase the prejudice, toxic legacy of previous decades, long-term reconciliation programs need to essay on engineering career be given a substantial amount of time to achieve results. However, there is almost no chance that any reconciliation effort will be implemented in the near future, given the nature of the essay, current regime. The republican government has strong political disincentives to pursue these programs: they would completely alienate their traditional base, reduce their control over the societies and states that they currently govern with an essay iron fist, and potentially incite backlash and violence directed against them. Pride Prejudice First. In the Chechen Republic, there are no signs that Ramzan Kadyrov is willing to open up dialogue on the topic of Islam or take a softer approach to essay as a Salafis. Thus, the resume usa, problem of Sufi-Salafi competition and intra-faith conflict is likely to continue indefinitely in the North Caucasus. The result is likely to be a continuation of violence, persecution, and career societal schisms that will plague the Chechen Republic for decades to come. [1] Kunta-Haji Kishiev was a Chechen Sufi mystic and the ideological founder of the Qadiri tariqa in Chechnya.

[2] In most Muslim societies, “traditionalists” and “conservatives” often refer to the same group. Argumentative Essay On Women. In the North Caucasus, this begs the question of tradition; “traditionalists” in this sense attempt to on engineering career retain ethno-nationalist traditions, but not necessarily religious ones. [3] Many authors and regional sources use the term “Wahhabi” or “Wahhabist” to refer to conservative iterations of Islam in web destroys the quality research papers essay the North Caucasus. This article favors “Salafi”, as there are deep methodological and political issues with using the former term. There are critical distinctions between the essay on engineering career, Salafi tradition as practiced in the North Caucasus and the school of thought derived from the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd ‘al Wahhab (1703-1792).

For more, see Wiktor-Mach, 63-65. [4] March and Olsen, 735. [8] Sadowski, 220-222. [9] Weismann, 144-150. [11] Wiktor-Mach, 68-69. [12] Knysh, 513-514. [13] For examples of usa ideological approaches, see Lanksoy (2002), Sagramoso (2012), and Hahn (2014).

For examples of on engineering as a career sociological approaches, see Schaefer (2010), Akaev (2014a, 2014b), and Campana and Ratelle (2014) [14] Wiktor-Mach, 63. [15] Yemelianova, “Islam, Nationalism and State in the Muslim Caucasus”, 8-10. [17] Yemelianova, “Islam and Power in Post-Communist Islamic Russia”, 1. [19] This homogeneity has not always been the case; prior to 1991, many ethnic Russians and other minorities lived in the Chechen Republic. [All-Russia Population Census] has the advantage, most updated data. [20] Swirszcz, 60-61.

[26] Vatchagaev, “Sufism in Chechnya”, 222. [27] Akaev, “The History and essay as a Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in the Chechen Republic”, 90. [28] Vatchagaev, “Sufism in Chechnya”, 222-223. [30] Moore and Tumelty, 74. [34] Akaev, “Religious and Political Elites in the Northern Caucasus: Formation, Ideological Contradictions, and Practical Opposition” [37] Vatchagaev . California Essay Advantage. “Sufism in Chechnya”, 227. [38] The name “Kadyrov” (sometimes spelled as “Qadyrov”/”Qadirov”) itself indicates that the family is a follower of the Qadiri tariqa . [41] Akaev, “The History and Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in the Chechen Republic”, 95-100.

[42] Vatchagaev, “Sufism in Chechnya”, 231. [43] Avedissian, 10-15. [45] Vatchagaev, “Increased Insurgent Activity Reported in Chechnya”, 1-2. [46] Flood, “The Islamic State Raises its Black Flag over the Caucasus”, 2. [47] O’Loughlin et al., 596-600. [48] Souleimanov, “An ethnography of counterinsurgency: kadyrovtsy and Russia's policy of Chechenization” 91-100. [49] Yaffa, “Chechyna’s ISIS Problem” [51] [Caucasian Knot], “ ” [Residents of Chechnya censure suspects in arson of a ziyarat] [52] Flood, “The Caucasus Emirate: From Anti-Colonialist Roots to Salafi-Jihad.” 8. [53] Campana and Ratelle, 124.

[54] Akaev, “The History and Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in the Chechen Republic”, 99. [57] Sagaramoso 563. [59] Whitmeyer, 25-40. Akaev, Vakhit. Essay. 2014a. How The Of Students Research. “Religious and Political Elites in the Northern Caucasus: Formation, Ideological Contradictions, and Practical Opposition.” Central Asia the Caucasus 15 (1). online. . 2014b. Essay Career. “The History and Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in cover the Chechen Republic.” Anthropology Archeology of Eurasia 53 (2): 79102.

Avedissian, Karena. 2015. “Clerics, Weightlifters, and Politicians: Ramzan Kadyrov’s Instagram as an Official Project of on engineering as a Chechen Memory and Identity Production.” Caucasus Survey , 124. Campana, Aurélie, and Jean-François Ratelle. 2014. “A Political Sociology Approach to the Diffusion of Conflict from california advantage Chechnya to Dagestan and Ingushetia.” Studies in Conflict Terrorism 37 (2): 11534. Flood, Derek.

2014. “The Caucasus Emirate: From Anti-Colonialist Roots to Salafi-Jihad.” CTC Sentinel 7 (3): 1317. . 2015. “The Islamic State Raises its Black Flag over the Caucasus.” CTC Sentinel 8 (6): 14. Gill, Anthony. 2001. “Religion and essay on engineering as a career Comparative Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4 (1): 11738. Hahn, Gordon M. 2014. The Caucasus Emirate Mujahedin: Global Jihadism in Russia’s North Caucasus and Beyond . First. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishing. Hefner, Robert W. 2009. Remaking Muslim Politics: Pluralism, Contestation, Democratization . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Henze, Paul B. 1995. On Engineering. Islam in the North Caucasus: The Example of Chechenia . How The Web Destroys The Quality Of Students Research Papers Essay. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Knysh, Alexander.

2007. As A. “Contextualizing the SalafiSufi Conflict (from the models college, Northern Caucasus to Hadramawt).” Middle Eastern Studies 43 (4): 50330. Lanskoy, Miriam. 2002. “Daghestan and Chechnya: The Wahhabi Challenge to the State.” SAIS Review 22 (2): 16792. Lapidus, Ira M. 1996. “State and Religion in Islamic Societies.” Past and essay as a Present 151: 327. March, James G, and Johan P Olsen. 1983. “The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life.” American Political Science Review 78 (3): 73449. Moore, Cerwyn. 2015. “Foreign Bodies: Transnational Activism, the essay, Insurgency in the North Caucasus and ‘Beyond.’” Terrorism and Political Violence 27 (3): 395415. Moore, Cerwyn, and Paul Tumelty. As A Career. 2009. “Assessing Unholy Alliances in Chechnya: From Communism and Nationalism to Islamism and Salafism.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 25 (1): 7394. O’Loughlin, John, Edward C Holland, and Frank DW Witmer.

2011. “The Changing Geography of Violence in Russia’s North Caucasus, 1999-2011: Regional Trends and Local Dynamics in Dagestan, Ingushetia, and Kabardino-Balkaria.” Eurasian Geography and Economics 52 (5): 596630. Reynolds, Michael. 2005. Models College Essays. “Myths and Mysticism: A Longitudinal Perspective on Islam and Conflict in the North Caucasus.” Middle Eastern Studies 41 (1): 3154. Ridgeon, Lloyd. 2015. Sufis and Salafis in the Contemporary Age . As A Career. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. Ro’i, Yaacov. 2000.

Islam in pride essays first impressions the Soviet Union: From the Second World War to Gorbachev . New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Russell, John. 2010. “Kadyrov’s Strategy against Extremism in Chechnya.” In Russia and Islam: State, Society and Radicalism , edited by Roland Dannruether and Luke March, 1253. London, UK: Routledge Publishing. Sadowski, Yahya. 2006. “Political Islam: Asking the essay, Wrong Questions?” Annual Review of Political Science 9: 21540. Sagramoso, Domitilla. 2012. “The Radicalisation of Islamic Salafi Jamaats in the North Caucasus: Moving Closer to the Global Jihadist Movement?” Europe-Asia Studies 64 (3): 56195.

Schaefer, Robert W. 2010. The Insurgency in Chechnya and the North Caucasus: From Gazavat to Jihad . Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Souleimanov, Emil. Essay. 2015a. “An Ethnography of Counterinsurgency: Kadyrovtsy and essay Russia’s Policy of Chechenization.” Post-Soviet Affairs 31 (2): 91114. Swirszcz, Joanna. 2009. Impressions. “The Role of Islam in essay on engineering as a career Chechen National Identity.” Nationalities Papers 37 (1): 5988.

Vatchagaev, Mairbek. 2014. “Sufism in Chechnya.” In Chechyna at War and Beyond , edited by Anne Le Huérou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey, and usa Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski, 1244. Essay As A Career. London, UK: Routledge Publishing. . 2015. “Increased Insurgent Activity Reported in Chechnya.” Eurasia Daily Monitor 12 (46): 12. Weismann, Itzchak. 2011. “Modernity from Within: Islamic Fundamentalism and models essays Sufism.” Der Islam 86 (1): 14270. Whitmeyer, Kevin. 2015. “Religious Outbidding in Chechnya.” Caucasus Survey 3 (1): 2540. Wiktor-Mach, Dobroslawa. 2009. “Competing Islamic Traditions in the Caucasus.” Caucasian Review of International Affairs 3 (1): 6369. Yaffa, Joshua.

2016. Essay On Engineering. “Chechnya’s ISIS Problem.” The New Yorker , February 12. Online. Yemelianova, G. 2002. “Islam and Power in Post-Communist Islamic Russia.” ISIM Newsletter 10: 1. Yemelianova, Galina. 2014. “Islam, Nationalism and models State in the Muslim Caucasus.” Caucasus Survey 1 (2): 323. “ [All-Russia Population Census].” 2010. Moscow, Russia. Online. [ Caucasian Knot ] . 2015. On Engineering As A. “ Residents of argumentative essay on women Chechnya censure suspects in the arson of a ziarat],” November 19. Essay On Engineering As A Career. Online.

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6 Things Attorneys and Law Students Need to Remove from Their Resumes ASAP If They Want to as a, Get Jobs with the Most Prestigious Law Firms. Prejudice First. At the highest levels, legal recruiters put an incredible amount of thought into how you are perceived. You can drastically increase your odds of getting hired by removing various items from your resume. If this is all too much for essay on engineering career, you … then just have your legal resume professionally done. See Attorney Resume. If you submit your resume here, I will review it and advantage, give you some feedback. Overview. With a resume, you are applying to be a firm#39;s employee and go to work for them.

Your resume is essentially an application. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to Stanford Law School and being a second-year associate at Mayer Brown means. As A Career. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to University of Chicago and spending eight years at argumentative on women, Kirkland Ellis means. Essay As A. If you are in law school and looking for your first job, everyone knows what going to essay, Duke for essay as a career, college and being in the top half of your class at Columbia Law School means. Web Destroys The Quality Of Students Research Essay. While I hate to on engineering career, be so generic, this is really (for the most part), the models essays, most important information for large law firms hiring laterally or hiring people out of law school. Everything else on your resume presents a giant opportunity for you to mess up. Essay On Engineering Career. The most important thing most big firm attorneys can do is strip down (and not puff up) their resumes . The more crap that is on there, the more reasons people can find not to hire you. Cover. If you take one thing from this article, you need to understand that. Most large law firms do not like people who try to stick out. In their experience, these people can be problems: they will leave if they do not get lots of praise, may turn on the firm and undermine morale, are likely to seek unnecessary attention from clients (and may even try and steal them), and essay as a, are most likely to leave if something better comes along.

Being in a large law firm requires a lot of selflessness: You need to let partners, senior associates and others take credit for california advantage, your hard work. You need to put in time before large rewards come. You need to be working for the team and the group and not just your own self-interests. You need to be motivated to essay, work hard even when there is no immediate benefit. You need to essay on women, stay with the law firm when things are bad and not leave at the first signs of on engineering as a trouble.

If your resume gives any indication to law firms that you are anything other than a soldier, you are going to look like an asshole and will have a difficult time getting hired. It is not about you. It is how the research essay, never about you. It is essay career, about the how the of students research, employer. 1. Too Many Personal Details. Avid hunter and outdoorsman. Depending on essay, where you are located, a number of the people you are interviewing in resume writer usa, are not going to be too impressed with the fact that you enjoy killing animals in as a career, your spare time. This is not a good idea.

While this may work in certain states more than others, it is simply not smart to have on there. If you piss off just one interviewer, this will harm you. Member of the First Baptist Church. Nothing wrong with being part of a church. However, if you are interviewing with a law firm in essay, a large city, the odds are pretty good you will be interviewing with gays, Jews and people of various religions and backgrounds. Broadcasting that you are part of a particular religion is essay, not a good idea. Member of the gay law students association. There is nothing wrong with being gay (and proud of it!) but you need to understand that many people in law firms may have very conservative views about sexual orientation. Prejudice First. There are plenty of on engineering gay attorneys in most law firms in models, big cities, but they got their jobs without advertising this on their resumes. There are people in every law firm that have prejudices against gays.

Why would you put this on your resume? Member of the Black Law Students Association. Sadly, many law schools and recruiters urge people to on engineering as a career, put their race on their resumes so they will be more likely to resume usa, be hired. Their thinking is that broadcasting your race will make law firms more likely to essay on engineering as a, hire you. What if the firm has recently been sued for racial discrimination? What if the firm has hired a series of non-performers who were of a particular race? Your objective is to get a job. My experience has shown: If I send out two equally qualified attorneys who are black (same practice area, caliber of law schools and resume usa, law firms), and on engineering, one has a bunch of prejudice impressions stuff about their race on their resume and the other does not, the person without the essay career, racial information is more likely to get interviewed and hired. Discrimination? Maybe.

Or, it could just be that the law firm does not like the person playing the how the web destroys the quality essay, race card to on engineering, try and get a leg up on pride essays first, the competition. Alternatively, interviewers want to feel the person got hired on their merits and essay on engineering, not because the resume advertised their race. Member of the Muslim Law Students Association. Same logic as above. Why put something on your resume that is going to make research paper, possibly alienate others? After September 11th, I remember several people with this on their resumes that were blackballed in the entire city of New York and could not get jobs despite incredible qualifications. Obviously, there was discrimination going on there, but it would be insane to leave this on your resume. Member of the Jewish Law Students Association.

Anything that can alienate others should be removed from on engineering, your resume. Missionary for two years (LDS) in Brazil. Do Mormons approve of pride prejudice first impressions gays? Weren#39;t blacks barred until the 1970s from holding the Mormon priesthood? You get the essay career, idea. Why risk alienating others? Married mother of three. Married?

You are gorgeous but not that qualified. I#39;m moving on. I spend my life in this office and am looking for a potential mate to be my associate! Never a good idea to put this on essays, your resume. Don#39;t kill the messenger here (this is just how many attorneys think). Three kids? Does that mean you are going to essay as a, be jumping up during meetings to take phone calls from your kids? Does that mean that that you are going to miss work when they get sick? What if you cannot find childcare?

Creative email address. While I have taken a bit of essays liberty here, I#39;ve seen some emails like this in the recent past: sexluvrockroll@hotmail.com, weedlover@aol.com, likelongmen@gmail.com . I#39;m not kidding. These are more common than you think. If you were a billion dollar corporation hiring an attorney (or a law firm that hired attorneys to work on on engineering as a career, matters for resume usa, large corporations like this), would you want someone with an email address like this? Leave this stuff off of your resume. No one wants to essay, see it. Make sure your personal email address is professional.

Your work email address. This is essay on women, very common. Really? You want us to communicate with you at your work email address? What this says is pretty simple: c. As A. I must not respect my employer very much. d. I must not be very loyal. e. I must not care what my employer thinks of me. f. Essays. I do not care if my employer learns I am looking for a job on their time. g. Maybe I was fired and essay on engineering career, my employer knows I am looking which is why I don#39;t care (hey, I#39;m bad at my job anyway!) h. I will do the same to pride impressions, you if you hire me! An email address like Harvard.edu, Stanford.edu, UChicago.edu, Princeton.edu, Yale.edu. Career. You went to a prestigious college or law school!

Good for you! What have you done since then? Do you think you need to advertise what a great school you went to? I went to Ohio State you arrogant asshole! Get a Gmail or similar personal email address. There are people everywhere that use their law schools or colleges as a badge of superiority, and advantage, it pisses a lot of people off who do not have the same credentials. Many people in large law firms grew up poor and worked very hard to get into essay on engineering, prestigious state schools that their parents could afford and research, then worked very hard once they were in career, college. Princeton? Are you kidding?

2. Argumentative. Irrelevant Work Experience and Education. Left a law firm and career, started a business (with a description of the business). You started a business and how the web destroys the quality research essay, failed? Sorry, our law firm does not hire people who fail. What#39;s wrong? You did not like practicing law? You think you are better than us?

People leave law firms all the time to essay as a, start businesses and want to come back. It is rare that large law firms will ever welcome these attorneys. Large law firms are sort of like medieval guilds from which you can never return once you leave. The biggest issue with leaving a large law firm is that, in almost 100% of the cases, the resume, person who leaves to start his own business will do so again and be plotting their escape from the second they step back in the door. In addition, these people are a threat to partners because they could steal their business. These attorneys are rarely hired. This telegraphs a lack of deferring your wants to a group as well as other issues. HOW TO TELL IF YOU ARE MORE OF AN ENTREPRENEUR THAN AN ATTORNEY: I know a guy that makes over $500,000 a year (in cash) washing windows in a suburb outside of Detroit. He has been doing this for decades.

He has two pickup trucks and about $1,000 in equipment (4 or 5 ladders, some rags, squeegees and buckets). He hires people for career, $10 an hour to go to homes to clean windows during the spring and fall. He works about six months a year. Would you rather do this or work as an attorney for $180,000 a year? Personally, I would rather be an attorney due to resume, the sense of essay career a higher purpose, working with talented people and other reasons. Many people would rather run the window washing business. If this is you, you are far more of an entrepreneur than an attorney. Took business courses while at a law firm and got a certificate. Wait a minute. Of Students Research Papers Essay. You took a six-week course in financial accounting while working full time as a litigation associate at as a career, Jones Day? Are you serious?

I have seen intellectual property attorneys list real estate courses they took at New York University Law School and corporate attorneys list courses they took in paper, How to be an entrepreneur. As A. Anything that shows a lack of commitment to being an attorney should not be on there. If you are a tax attorney that took a bunch of classes in tax law, that should be on your resume. Cover Research Paper. Just do not put anything on there that is essay as a, likely to detract from showing your commitment to being an models college essays attorney. Too much emphasis on what you did as an undergraduate. You were in essay on engineering career, a fraternity? You must be the type of person who made it difficult for me to sleep when you were partying all night while I was trying to get good grades in college. If you played a varsity sport in college, or were president of some non-polarizing student organization (think CHESS CLUB and not REPUBLICANS AGAINST ABORTION) then it is fine to have this on your resume. In general, though, no one cares about: Your race Your religion Your pro-feminist leanings Your socialist leanings Your political affiliation Your sexual orientation. Why on earth would you put any club, organization or other information on your resume that would force an interviewer to how the, choose sides? Wars, protests and killings occur due to peoples#39; passion for one religion, political affiliation and essay as a career, other organizations.

Leave this off your resume. Jobs prior to law school that are irrelevant or do not help to show you in a good light. If you worked for california advantage, three years at on engineering career, a top American accounting firm, law firm, or investment bank prior to law school, this is good. Essay On Women. It shows your commitment to being part of the labor force and working hard. If you worked as a waiter, nanny, or some other less-than-serious job, this is unlikely to essay on engineering career, impress employers. If you were in the military, a policeman, fireman, or did something else that society values, then that position is fine to leave on your resume. California Essay. You just do not want anything on there that shows you are not a high performer. Bar in a different state despite the essay on engineering career, fact that you have only ever worked in one state.

Many attorneys take the bar exam in the state they are from and essays, where they are working. Someone from California working in New York may take the California Bar Exam in addition to the New York Bar Exam. Someone in Chicago may take the bar exam in Florida. This does not help you. Essay Career. Having a bar in a different jurisdiction (unless this is models college, where you are applying) simply shows that you are interested in working somewhere else and probably will at essay, some point. Anything that does not show your 100% commitment to the location where you are working is suspect and models, can disqualify you from jobs. Take this off your resume. Parenting time between jobs. On Engineering As A. Women sometimes take years off between jobs.

In the experience of 95% of legal employers, if a woman takes more than a year off, she is (1) unlikely to come back to the workforce for long, or (2) is likely to jump around to jobs seeking less and models, less accountability when she does come back. Law firms want people who are 100% committed and willing to work hard. If you took off more than a few months after having children, law firms will assume that you were not 100% committed to your firm and its clients. Your class rank and grade point average (unless it is extraordinary) . Many attorneys are proud to on engineering, have graduated in the top half of their class or earned a 3.0 grade point average. Models Essays. The problem with doing something like this is career, that it draws attention to the fact that you were nowhere near the best.

Why on earth would a large law firm hire you if you are not the best? RULES FOR WHEN TO LIST CLASS RANK AND GRADE POINT AVERAGE ON RESUME. Top 10 law school: If you were in the top 20% this is fine. Web Destroys The Quality Of Students Research Papers Essay. I still do not recommend this, though. If you were in essay as a career, the top 10%, I recommend this. Top 11-25 law school: Top 10% and above is OK. I recommend this, though, in the top 5% only.

Second-tier law school: Top 5%. Third-tier law school: Top 5%. Fourth-tier: Only list if you were #1 through #5 in your class. Skills that everyone should have as an attorney. You are being paid to analyze complex legal matters as an attorney. Putting on your resume that you understand Westlaw and Lexis, or are proficient in pride essays first impressions, Microsoft Word is essay as a, insane. I see this every day, however. Please get this off your resume.

You make yourself look really stupid when you list this on your resume. If you are a person with a high school education applying to work in a records room, this is fine. Cover Research Paper. It does not belong on on engineering career, the resume of an attorney seeking a position in a major US law firm, however. Grades in law school classes (or worse yet, college classes). This is something I see all the time too. Writer Usa. No one cares. If you take the time to talk about on engineering as a career, your best grades, people will assume that the how the of students research papers essay, rest of them were not that good. Essay On Engineering. Leave this off. Make Research Paper. It makes you look like you are not big firm material.

Classes you took in essay, law school. No one cares about this either. If you list this, you look weak as well. The fact that you took corporations in law school does not qualify you to be a corporate attorney . Your mind, ability to think, motivation and college, a bunch of other factors are more relevant to this than anything else. Titles of papers and theses that you wrote in college or law school that show anything other than your commitment to on engineering as a career, practicing law. Usa. For whatever reason, people continually put this stuff on essay on engineering as a, their resume, and it is not helpful. Essays. If you are a patent attorney and wrote about something science-related that#39;s great; however, for the most part, looking like an intellectual is not the smartest thing you can do. With the exception of appellate attorneys, most attorneys are not that intellectual and are expected to reach conclusions in a direct way without massive analysis. I have seen attorneys list topics like: Why Corporations are Cheating Americans Out of as a career a Middle Class Life An Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation Ceremonies in first impressions, the African Subcontinent Why Gays and Lesbians Need Separate Proms: A Case for Separate But Equal in Public Education Why Black Reparations Should be Priority #1 of the Obama Administration Plato v. Socrates and the Foundations of Western Empiricism An attorney sitting in a small office in a high rise who has been working 50 hours a week for career, decades for demanding clients in an ultra-competitive environment has no time for california advantage, that nonsense. If you are sitting around writing that sort of as a career stuff while he is proofreading a 200-page stock prospectus for the eighth time at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday morning, you are not going to identify with him. He also does not have much time for people with these sorts of interests.

In addition, why are you interested in this crap anyway? A ridiculous regurgitation of stuff everyone in your position does. There are certain things every litigator does (respond to how the web destroys, discovery, conduct legal research, write memos, draft motions, draft discovery and review documents). Putting this on your resume makes you look like a moron. Get it off there! If you drafted an career appeal to the US Supreme Court, or did a trial you can put this on there. Other than that, everyone knows what Litigation Associate at pride prejudice essays, Morrison Foerster means.

If you have specific experience (environmental law, intellectual property litigation and career, other subject matter expertise), then it is useful to writer, leave this information on your resume. It is essay on engineering as a, just not a good idea to have mundane tasks on your resume that everyone who has this position does. This is no different than a waiter writing Waited on tables on california advantage, their resume. Use of colors and fancy/unusual fonts. Essay On Engineering. For some people, their resume becomes an art project. For attorneys and law students applying to large law firms, their experience speaks for itself. If you draw attention to essay, yourself with crazy fonts and colors, you are just going to on engineering career, look weird. It would be no different than wearing a pink suit to a funeral when everyone else is wearing black. You are applying to work in a giant law firm and be part of a group of people who are (1) conforming, (2) working together and (3) basically pretty dry. If your resume looks too different or strange, people are going to assume you are strange. You do not want to look strange.

Your objective is to get a job. Listing words for HR software on the top of the resume. Someone out the quality of students papers essay, there is telling attorneys to do this. I have literally seen resumes with words like this at the top right under the person#39;s name: attorney, lawyer, counselor, litigation, law firm attorney, Westlaw, Lexis, AV Rated. Huh. If you are the one doing this to legal resumes, PLEASE STOP! You are doing incredible amounts of damage to good people. Putting your objective on on engineering, the resume. This one confuses me so much.

Let me make something clear: Most law firms where the average partner makes over advantage, $1 million a year ASSUME that everyone wants to work there. You do not need to put something like some of the statements I have seen on on engineering, your resume: Objective: To get a job with a major US law firm. Objective: To work at an international law firm with a strong patent practice. Objective: To find a law firm that affords me the opportunity to have work-life balance while working on sophisticated matters. Models Essays. Shut up! No one cares what your objective is. In addition, if your objective is to essay career, simply work at a huge law firm then why us? Your resume should get you in the door and then allow you to make your case.

No giant law firm is going to hire you with this crap on your resume. If you are applying for a high-paying and demanding job with a giant law firm, that is your objective. Do not waste space on your resume with this. Putting References Available upon Request on the resume. Are you kidding? If you are interviewing for a $250,000 a year job (or one with the potential to pay that much in models college, a few years), you better believe you will need references. The law firm is likely to review all of your social media profiles, run a light background check and essay, find out what they can about you before ever hiring you (and some cases even before bringing you in make cover, the door for an interview). You better believe you will need references.

Do not waste any law firm#39;s time putting this on your resume. On Engineering. In addition, it sounds pretty presumptuous. Models Essays. Putting a summary of yourself on your resume. Essay As A. Here are some that come to california essay advantage, mind I#39;ve seen recently: Ivy league-educated corporate attorney currently practicing at the law firm ranked as the 32nd largest in the world. Fearsome, aggressive and tenacious litigator able to bond easily with clients and opposing counsel. (This was a first-year attorney.) Great! Again, no one cares. Is that how you see yourself: Ivy league-educated? Most of as a career our attorneys went to the University of Minnesota.

You sound like a pompous asshole! Our law firm is not even in the top 200 largest law firms. Is that all that matters to you? Why are you applying here? Patent Attorneys. You should put together a list of patents you have written or assisted with.

You should always have this second page attached. Long, professional scientific resumes (a second resume) are also sometimes requested by how the the quality of students research essay law firms. Corporate and Real Estate Attorneys. Deals and transactions you have worked on (with names of clients omitted). On Engineering As A Career. You can send this regardless of whether it is models college essays, asked for essay on engineering, (and should).

Litigators. Many law firms will ask for writing samples. Copies of briefs you have signed that you are proud of are fine to argumentative essay on women, send (when asked). Cooking Animals Reading historical Judaic literature Spending time with your family Volunteering at church Horseback riding Polo Golf If you have benign interests like cooking, this is not going to impress most law firms. In general, I recommend leaving your interests off. You should generally only have interests on your resume that are relevant to the job. Otherwise, leave them off. Using giant words that not everyone knows. Attorneys are paid to career, communicate clearly and concisely. Judges, corporations and others that they are dealing with are not interested in hearing words that draw attention to the attorney and models college, away from whatever the issue is.

Your resume should not use large words that draw attention to your vocabulary. As A. No one cares. You are being hired to serve others and communicate clearly and concisely. Using adjectives to describe yourself. Attorneys like to call themselves things like detail-oriented and hard workers, for example. You need to writer, keep in mind that when you are applying for jobs where the career, upper income bracket could be over $1 million, and you have an outside shot at this, any positive adjective you could possibly use (outside the box thinker… blah, blah, blah …) is already assumed. You are competing with the pride prejudice essays, best. On Engineering. Do you think a professional boxer would have a resume that describes him as aggressive, motivated and hard hitting? If someone is cover research paper, getting in the ring and on engineering career, getting beat up and beating others up, this is assumed. Don#39;t weaken your profile with the use of a bunch of adjectives. Too many words.

Many attorneys love to write and talk. No one wants to essay, read a long diatribe of on engineering career a resume that goes into unnecessary detail about you in a ton of words. If you have to say a lot, many attorneys will assume that something is wrong with you. You need to the quality research papers, communicate in your resume with brevity and make it easy for people to read and understand. You also do not want to on engineering as a, use a lot of words in first, your resume when you could say the same thing in fewer words.

Saying less is on engineering as a, saying more because it shows (1) you can edit your work down and (2) you have enough confidence in yourself to on women, not overdo it. Including testimonials in the body of your resume. Quotes from superiors and career, others should not go in pride essays first impressions, your resume. Quotes from essay, reviews often go in college essays, peoples#39; resumes as well. Not a good idea. This makes you look desperate for attention. On Engineering As A Career. The most confident attorneys have strength that comes from models college essays, within and are not dependent on others for their validation. Using words the wrong way (or misspelling them). Your resume is no different than a legal brief, a corporate document, or a patent. A mistake in it could be very serious and literally cost you interviews and jobs. Understanding the difference between various meanings of similar-sounding words is also a huge issue that can cost you jobs.

Here are some of the biggest screw-ups I see that have hurt attorneys (that are never caught by spell-checkers and make you look dumb): Learn the on engineering career, difference between Principal and argumentative essay, Principle Learn the difference between Discreet and Discrete Learn the difference between Precede and essay, Proceed Learn the difference between Insure and Ensure Learn the difference between Adverse and Averse Learn the argumentative on women, difference between Eager and Anxious Learn the difference between Affect and Effect Learn the difference between Criteria and Criterion Spelling errors. Even more serious are spelling errors. If you have spelling errors, the odds are pretty good you will not be hired. On Engineering. Just because you run a spell check does not mean you will catch every spelling error. Omitting exact dates. You need the writer usa, month and year, not just the year.

Attorneys who were at a job a few months, or lost a job for one reason or another, like to as a, put in years for argumentative, employment dates rather than months and the year. Attorney interviewers are smart and will generally ZOOM IN on this information and find out why the essay on engineering as a career, attorney did this. They will always assume the worst ! If you worked at writer, some place for a short time, that is fine. You do not need to essay on engineering career, cover it up. Trying to hide something makes you look weak and college, sneaky and could cost you a job.

Inappropriate dates. On a weekly basis, I see the following: Attorneys with dates on their resumes indicating they started as an associate at essay as a career, a major law firm a decade before they even graduated from law school. Attorneys who have the same date for two different jobs. Attorneys where the dates indicate they graduated from law school before college. You get the idea. This needs to stop! Attorneys with large law firms are paid to look for errors and root them out.

You need to have at least three or four people review your resume carefully for things you may have missed. Your resume is an extremely important document, and one typo can doom you! 5. Lying or Exaggerating on Your Resume. If you lie about your hours billed at your previous firm, you will generally not be fired because your former employer will not cooperate with another firm in disclosing this information. However, you will not be trusted, and this will do long-term damage to your career. If you are caught lying (severely) about web destroys the quality of students papers, how much business you have as a partner, you will generally lose your job and have a difficult time in the legal community thereafter. If you lie about why you left your existing position, you will in almost all likelihood not lose your job, and your reputation will not suffer too much. In some cases, though, the firm may go ballistic.

If a firm learns you were fired while they are interviewing you, they will generally not hire you. Attorneys should never lie on their resume and doing so is very dangerous. You need to have the trust and as a career, the respect of the people you are working with. 6. Saying Anything Negative About Any Former Employer. When I was growing up, my mother decided to usa, retire from her government job. Essay On Engineering As A. She had worked for the government for models college, over two decades and started applying for various jobs. On Engineering Career. She figured that it would not be too long before she found a new position, and she was bored working in a drab, government office with a bunch of unenthusiastic employees. She took a course on resume construction. She hired an expert to advise her on her resume. She began spending hours in the living room perfecting her resume each night (I am getting old and am sorry to report she did this on a typewriter, as we did not yet have a computer). The completed resume was several pages long and had all sorts of action verbs and other aspects to make research paper, it that described her limited experience in one organization in incredible terms.

The completed resume contained: Tons of bullets, large words, massive amounts of as a formatting, things she had done decades ago, and, all sorts of irrelevant information. Her resume could easily have been one page. Models College. It did not need to on engineering as a, have all this detail. It would take a person an hour to go through it and fully understand it. The Quality Research Papers. What do you think are the most important things attorneys and law students should include in their resumes to as a career, get top law firm jobs? Why are law firms so particular about what they expect in attorney and law student resumes? CURIOUS ABOUT COVER LETTERS? See the following for writer usa, more information about attorney cover letters: Interested in Learning More About Attorney Resumes? See more articles from BCG Attorney Search here: AGREE/DISAGREE? SHARE COMMENTS ANONYMOUSLY!

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I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. ?Fred Cotten Descriptive Essay September 27, 2014 English 1010 - 85 A Mini Vacation to Atlanta, Georgia Traveling is essay on engineering career one . of my family’s favorite things to do. The family has visited numerous places throughout the United States, however, none are as memorable as Atlanta, Georgia. In Atlanta, there are many places to go and sights to see such as: Cola-cola factory, Cabbage Patch Kids Factory, Under Ground Mall, the Zoo, Atlanta Braves Stadium, Six Flags Over Georgia, Stone Mountain Park, and. 1996 Summer Olympics , Atlanta , Atlanta metropolitan area 788 Words | 3 Pages. | Descriptive Essay | Rough draft | | Gatewood, Jasmine | 10/12/2012 | Myself: Person Hello kitty . collection thing Homemade spaghetti food Downtown Dallas place Jasmine Gatewood English 0331.2 Ms. Fischel 10/12/12 Description Essay Downtown Dallas home of the dart and the drug dealers on every corner, my friends and I used to essay advantage visit regularly to have a nice chipotle dinner. Essay As A! When you are hear you cannot help but, visit the many food places, and argumentative on women cultural.

Dallas , Dallas Area Rapid Transit , Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex 1433 Words | 4 Pages. Cynthia Morris – Descriptive Essay There is a quote that says: Mothers are angels who teach their children how to fly. . Indeed my mother was an angel who in my younger years I thought was sent here to as a torture me especially when I wanted to the quality of students papers hang out with my friends instead of doing chores or homework. My mother was the pillar of strength, love, and compassion. Mothers may be misunderstood but that doesn’t mean they don’t care or know better. Essay As A Career! My earliest memories of my mother, was her pretty. Anxiety , Family , Father 861 Words | 3 Pages. College Writing 2 October 2012 Descriptive Essay A compact two-door car might not mean a lot to pride essays impressions someone, but to essay on engineering as a career me, working . and improving my car is college my favorite thing to do.

When I am not inside my house or hanging out essay as a, with my friends, you’ll be sure to california advantage find me working or cleaning my car. For most people, leaving their car stock is career passable for their needs, but to me it’s not. My car is modified which makes it one of a kind. Models College Essays! My car consists of essay career its exterior, interior, and performance level. Automobile , Color , Headlamp 2139 Words | 5 Pages.

ENC1101 Date: 9/17/2012 Assignment: Essay #2 - Descriptive Relaxation Destination Everybody has that one place. Prejudice! A . place that they run to in times of joy, stress, and sorrow. For some people it's a social setting, but for others, and essay myself included, it's a place to get away from argumentative on women others. A place where I can unwind, relax and as a have time to myself, even though at times some friends or family would tag along. The place I'm talking about is my cottage back in Canada. Three hours north of. Dock , Dune buggy , Hiking 840 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay A Horrid Memory My sweaty palms ran through-out the thin strands of my hair as I tried to comfort . myself for just a single moment. I felt scared, almost terrified as the screams of my nightmare echoed in my ears and made my head throb.

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My mother is a strong feminist woman and I tried as hard. 2008 singles , English-language films , High school 2045 Words | 5 Pages. ?Name Professor Course Name and Number Date Descriptive Essay One of tha problems with growing older is losing tha wonder and . fascination of tha world that children see. With tha everyday drudgery of on engineering as a career life, it gets harder and harder to see tha world with tha child like perspective that we all once did. This is tha reason that having children has been so exciting because I can once again regain tha opportunity to argumentative essay see tha world through thair innocent, creative eyes. Thare are few places where tha. Disney Vacation Club , Epcot , Magic Kingdom 1533 Words | 6 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is essay on engineering as a one of the many types of writing styles . Of Students Research! that provides a detailed description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Essay! Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. 2) Example: Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation.

They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . Essays! Montaigne has published the book “Les Essais”. In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to essay on engineering as a each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and cover paper inconclusive sides. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages.

Chandell Gabler English 099-22-Intro to College Writing 9:05-10:15 am Professor Braxton-Robinson/Professor Sheffield Assignment: Write a . On Engineering As A Career! Descriptive Essay describing a storm you have witnessed. Make Paper! The storm I witnessed was Hurricane Sandy. When I first heard of the hurricane I thought it wouldn't be as bad as some people were prediciting, but as the storm approached I certainly changed my mind. As we sat in the house it became very real how bad the storm was going to be. On Engineering As A! It was scary to. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor , Denzel Washington , Paterson, New Jersey 971 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay As I walked through the cold, lonely streets of Aberdeen, I decided to take a shortcut home. Making a sharp . right, I was headed down an pride prejudice essays first impressions, alleyway, which was dark and on engineering sinister.

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Of all the things we have prepared for her, I am most proud of her room, my mother and I painted it and sat it up with all the accessories together. Essay! I sat on the floor and taped off the stripes to be painted, and my mom painted. It was a great team effort, and we are so happy how it turned out. With flowers and butterflies. 2007 singles , Caesarean section , English-language films 2924 Words | 6 Pages.

number of extended family living throughout the country and some surrounding areas. My dad is california essay advantage full Palestinian and he moved here with my grandparents when he . Essay On Engineering Career! was nineteen years old along with his sister and the quality research essay a few aunts, uncles, and many cousins. I was about twelve years old when I took my first flight to Israel with my dad. In fact, it was the as a career, first time I had ever been on advantage, a plane and with the flight expectancy of the trip being 15 hours or more, I was pretty terrified. Essay On Engineering As A Career! Not having my mom there with me. Arabic language , Dead Sea , Family 1615 Words | 4 Pages. ultimately changing us forever. This moment came for me when I was rather quite young. Essay On Women! In fact, I was in the middle of my third year of elementary school. Essay On Engineering As A Career! . Essays! Before we go any further down this recollection trip of ours, I will have you know a little about essay my past.

In my younger days, I had been branded as what you may refer to as a “liar”, but the reality wasn’t found in the sense of that word. Instead of “lying” in modems of deceit, I simply and honestly believed with all my being that if something. 2006 albums , Classroom , Mind 1495 Words | 4 Pages. ? Descriptive narrative Assignment September 25, 2013 A Terrible Event No one could ever imagine that such an usa, incident could . happen. On December 31, 2008, in Benin precisely in West Africa, my friends Erick, John, and career I decided to go out, as we were welcoming the writer, New Year. Erick and John were my best friends in High school, and as a we were together almost all the california essay advantage, time. Erick was tall, short hair with a moustache, whereas John was short and as a career had a long beard.

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be a few children arguing over on engineering as a career how long a turn should be or who is next in how the the quality papers essay, line. Each child pushes off of the essay on engineering, step and models college zips over to the other side stopping . with a thud and trying to catch their balance without letting go of the handle. Career! Just as each kid is california done with their turn another one is pushing and shoving to be the next one to try out the fast and essay on engineering career exciting equipment. Surrounding the how the papers, busy zipping, are many red and yellow steps varying from career small and low to argumentative essay the ground and on engineering gradually growing to models larger. Apple , English-language films , Flowering plant 1655 Words | 4 Pages. work because while the rappers in 1993 were referring to essay on engineering career women as “hoes” and “bitches”, Tupac chose to resume usa honor women and as a refer to them as “sisters”. Argumentative On Women! It is . important to people to read about violent or negative representations of gender because doing so sheds a light on essay on engineering as a career, the reality of situation.

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115 date Essay 1 Do You Want to essay on engineering Build a Snowman? Is incredible all that a piece of how the the quality of students papers paper can reflect about someone life, . On Engineering! these pieces of paper illustrated by characters or passages can be meaningful for resume writer us, all the memories this brought to essay as a career people minds, those wonderful papers are called pictures. When we thought of pictures we just take those for granted. The images shown in pictures tell us more than one thing at once, it depends on on women, everyone perceptions about it and the feeling about others to. 2008 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 935 Words | 3 Pages.

PREDRAFTING: In June of 2009 right after father’s day I found out essay career, that I was pregnant with my first and only child, which brought so much joy to my life. At . first I was nervous about the news, but then the more I thought about it the more excited and happier I got. How The Papers Essay! I finally realized that I was going to career be a mother. I had scheduled my first ultrasound to see how my baby was growing and on that same day I found out that I was going to have a little boy on February 6, 2010. At that same ultrasound. Doctor , Family , Inch 1089 Words | 3 Pages. Zach Dolenar Professor English English 1102 19 September 2012 Ode to a Cherry What’s better to chill out a hot summer’s day than something sweet and . cool? No, I am not talking about pride impressions a Popsicle.

I am not talking about an essay as a career, ice cream cone, either. I am not even talking about iced tea or lemonade. Make Cover! It is something better than all of those, and it doesn’t even have all the sneaky calories of those other tasty treats! The answer to the question is essay on engineering career simple. Have you guessed it? It is a cherry. Upon first. A Great Way to resume writer Care , A Little Bit , A Little Bit Longer 1012 Words | 3 Pages. outside. As I lookdown the essay on engineering, street I can see the fog setting only feet away from me.

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law school on resume Writing your law school personal statement is a daunting task. But at least you can quickly realize that you don’t have to boil your entire life down into two pages – you can tell a single story that had a profound impact on you. The resume, on the other hand… You have one page to tell me what you’ve done with your life. Go. A lot of people view the essay law school resume as superfluous. While it doesn’t carry the weight of other elements, it does represent a whole lot more. You’ll be showing the law school what type of student you are, what you spent your time doing, and what accomplishments you can list.

It sets the tone of resume usa your life, and if it doesn’t create a good impression, admissions officers will be going through your law school application with a sour taste in their mouths. So how can you make a great resume? Key #1 to a Great Law School Resume: Cut anything from high school. You were captain of your school’s baseball team and drove a sweet Camaro. Good for essay on engineering as a career you.

Now cut that stuff from your law school resume. If you have high school achievements on essays your law school resume, schools will think you peaked in high school (which is just sad). Essay On Engineering As A Career! They’ll also view you as immature, since you’re lending more weight to things than they should have. Unless it’s an Olympic medal, it’s gone. Key #2 to on women a Great Law School Resume: One page. Seriously. I’ve edited hundreds of resume going to law schools. Two of them have warranted a second page. One person had spent a decade doing missionary work overseas.

The other was a decorated military veteran. Career! If you aren’t either of these people, get it down to writer one page. I don’t need a description of on engineering your job as an administrative assistant. I don’t need to how the the quality research essay know what programs you worked with when you were managing payroll. Let me know what you spent your time doing, and leave it at that. Key #3 to a Great Law School Resume: This is an academic resume. What’s this mean? Your academic achievements should be highlighted. Essay Career! Education information up top, cut work achievements to fit in academic ones, and essay include relevant coursework/papers if you need to fill in some space. Key #4 to a Great Law School Resume: I don’t care that you’re good at MS Word. Throwing a section in the bottom letting me know that you’re proficient in essay as a Word, Excel, or Powerpoint is a waste of space.

Including an Objective section is a waste of space. I assume you’re proficient in pride prejudice essays impressions Word at essay on engineering as a career a level that law school work requires because you’re submitting an make research essay written in Word. Essay On Engineering As A! I know your objective in advantage applying to law school – to on engineering career get into pride prejudice first impressions, law school. That being said, I almost always recommend including an Interests section. You never know who’s going to share your love of on engineering career crafting homemade butter churns and become a cheerleader for you during the process. Key #5 to a Great Law School Resume: Add depth to your other elements. A resume should create depth to the rest of your law school application package. Talk about your desire to go into public interest? I better see something on your resume to back this up.

Want to use your degree to go into some type of corporate law? (*cough* sell-out *cough*) Make sure to highlight your internships and role in argumentative essay on women your school’s business club. Whatever you talk about in your personal statement should be backed up in the resume. Check in next week for some law school resume formatting tips! Photo Credit: W Nicolai Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) I did Running Start, a program that allows Juniors and on engineering Seniors in high School the opportunity to take college classes, and graduated High School with my AA. Essays! Due to this should I include information about essay as a career, my high school activities during those years? I am 33 years old and applying to law school.

I will graduate with my Bachelor degree in May, 2014, and work full-time. I have actually been pursuing my education since 2003, with 4 years off between 2006 and resume writer 2010, and essay as a have always worked full-time. My jobs during my periods of education have been law-related (for example, I’ve worked as a paralegal at a medium-sized law firm for the last 4 years), but those during my hiatus were in prejudice first impressions Human Resources. Should I include ALL of my work experience while attending school since 2003, or just the law-related jobs? Definitely focus on the law-related jobs, but feel free to include any others that required helpful skills necessary for law school. To add to what Hank said:

Most law schools will ask for your full work history through the LSAC’s online application. So you can make your resume shorter and more focused, since they’ll be able to see your full work history anyway. I have previously qualified and essay on engineering worked as a lawyer in models Ireland. However in essay 2009 my son was diagnosed with autism. I have been out of the profession since then , being a stay at home parent and college essays caring for essay career his needs.

I am now in a position to return to law. I have since moved to argumentative on women the USA and am anxious to essay as a career apply to first impressions law school. Essay As A! I am unsure though how to argumentative on women address the previous five years in on engineering as a career my resume and/or statement. Congratulations on how the web destroys of students research papers essay returning to essay on engineering as a the profession. Essay! If you’re anxious about the gap in your resume, my advice would be to consider the essay as a career work you’ve done with your son as a strength. Use your personal statement or optional essay as an resume opportunity to be forthcoming about why you made that choice and what perspective you’ve gained from it, particularly if it’s influenced the way you view the law in some way. That pure fact alone, absent any additional context, indicates to me that you’re a loving and responsible father, which is essay on engineering as a career, certainly not going to first impressions hurt your application. As an older (and foreign) applicant, your resume is already going to look much different than the undergrads who you’re competing with, so don’t sweat about it too much – just state your life experience as honestly as possible. The fact is that you have a unique and compelling story, and that can certainly be advantageous in your applications.

Take a look at these articles, which may be helpful in formulating your statement: Any advice would be appreciated.thank you. I just completed a mission trip called The World Race. We went to 11 countries in 11 months partnering with local ministries and organizations. In each country we did different work (visited orphanages, taught English, cleaned neighborhoods, spoke at churches, helped with children’s programs). How should I address this in my resume? Should I include it as part of my experience so that I can elaborate or add it to community work? If it’s part of my experience, how do I adequately describe it? First of all, sounds like a great program.

Either way, it’s going to look good on essay as a career your application. As to specifics, if that’s pretty much all you’ve been doing for the last 11 months, I’d say it’s fair to include it in your work experience – otherwise it will look like you’ve been twiddling your thumbs for a year at first glance. However, if it was something along the lines of cover research one weekend per month for 11 months, it probably belongs in your community service section, since describing at ‘work’ might come off as disingenuous. Another variable to weigh is the strength of different facets on your resume. You want to look well-rounded, so if your resume is lacking on other forms of community involvement, it might behoove you to essay on engineering place it in california that section either way. I have read from multiple sources that the best practice for law school resumes was to have around 2 pages to essay on engineering career go more into detail about various honors organizations, work experience, etc. I originally had my resume at 1 page as you suggest but I recently went into more detail after hearing from various counselors, law school websites’ suggested best practices, and paper online forums that a longer resume than a 1 page job application resume is on engineering as a career, preferred. Why is there such conflicting information on this front? Thanks for your help.

It’s unlikely that your resume is going to be the thing that makes or breaks your law school application either way. Models! So don’t stress about it TOO much. But the reason many people suggest trying to keep your resume to essay as a career one page is because it forces you to edit yourself; law schools simply don’t need to know that you were drum major in high school, or that you were the Chipotle Employee of the Month in cover paper June 2009. That kind of stuff is a waste of on engineering as a their time. You want to present information that is argumentative essay on women, productive and relevant.

Most law school applicants don’t have two pages worth of essay on engineering as a experience that fits those criteria. Web Destroys Of Students Research Essay! So we recommend you shoot for a one page resume for on engineering as a the same reason that you don’t start your personal statment with the sentence “I spent the first two years of my life learning English.” If you think you have more than one page of distinguishing accomplishments, by all means submit a two page resume. Our advice isn’t so much as “ONE PAGE AND ONLY ONE PAGE” so much as it is on women, “be judicious.” I had to on engineering put law school on pride prejudice essays hold for a couple years to take care of my grandmother who was diagnosed with cancer. I decided to take on a job as my grandmother’s home health aide. I have put home health aide in my resume, however, I’m worried law schools will not take that job as serious as others who graduate after college taking on essay as a career careers. Also, the other jobs on my resume are not very serious, career driven jobs, such as being a server, sales associate, attendant, house staff, etc. Pride Prejudice Essays First Impressions! Is there something I can put on my resume that will not make my resume look down on? My personal statement is essay, already written.

It does not go into details about college, my job choices. First, that’s a very noble thing that you did, and you should take pride in it. Don’t try to diminish your choice in any way. On the flip side, don’t try to as a exaggerate your accomplishments — that’s a slippery slope that can get you into trouble down the line. Your work history is essay, your work history, plain and simple. There’s no magic resume bullet.

You have some options. If the schools you’re applying to accept optional essays, you could take that additional space to go a little bit deeper into why you chose to take care of your grandmother and what you gained out of it. Alternatively, you could revise your personal statement to on engineering as a career focus on essay advantage that choice. And finally, if you’re extremely concerned about your work history, you can delay your applications to the next cycle to as a gain some more work/volunteer experience. But honestly, resumes are a small part of the make research admissions puzzle. If you nailed your LSAT and have a solid undergraduate GPA, a light resume won’t hurt you much, if at on engineering all. I worked full time as an assistant manager at argumentative on women a convinence store for all 4 years of college. This didnt allow much time for essay as a career any other law related internships or voluneer work.

After college I joined the Army for 4 years. Models Essays! Now as im preparing for law school, I have the essay on engineering career feeling of not being able to put together a strong or relevant resume. California! Any suggestions? So I am actually an Active Duty Military member and I was wondering if I should put some of the military awards I’ve gotten one the resume (like Leadership awards, meritorious promotions, medals, etc.) or is this type of information better left off the Law School Resume? Thanks for any help. Yes, you absolutely should. I’ve been out of college for essay on engineering as a 5 years, mostly working for pride first and volunteering for nonprofits relevant to the work I want to do as a lawyer. However, during those 5 years I also held outdoor educational, waitressing and on engineering administrative jobs to pride prejudice essays pay the bills while I volunteered.

Do I need to account for every job I’ve held since college? If I don’t include them, will admissions officers look askance at the gaps in work history? My current job is on engineering as a, excellent and essays what I want to on engineering as a career focus on in the argumentative essay on women resume, but I don’t want to omit things I should be including. It’s probably a good idea to include at least some of those other jobs, both to give depth to the resume and to on engineering answer any questions about cover research, how you’ve been spending your time. That said, as Matt mentioned in the post, you don’t need to provide a description for on engineering as a career those types of jobs unless there’s something worth noting. Also, if you’ve had a lot of those side jobs, I’d suggest picking just the jobs that you had for web destroys the quality of students research essay the longest period of on engineering time. You’re right that the volunteer experience that is models college, more relevant to law school should be emphasized — you could even do “relevant experience” and “other work experience” sections. So, the tl;dr is that it would be good to as a mention those other jobs as space permits, but definitely not at the expense of highlighting the california advantage more directly applicable volunteer experience. I worked both a full-time job as a bartender and a part-time job as a kitchen worker in essay on engineering as a career a sorority house for the last 3 years of undergrad.

Some people have been telling me to leave it off of my law school resume because they aren’t “real jobs.” But I feel like it shows that I at least have some time management skills. Any thoughts? I’d say include it — not only does it show that you have time management skills, but it also serves to make your GPA (whatever it may be) look even more impressive. Hello, I am a junior in Rutgers University majoring in global business management and i am applying to top 25 law schools in the U.S. Make Cover Research Paper! My gpa is 3.83 and my last is 173/180. I am on deans list for all 3 years and a member of 2 honor society’s. However I have had only 2 internship experiences over the summer and 1 extrenship. Is that enough? My goal is Columbia Law school.

In high school I was an Eagle Scout and I also was a regional officer for essay on engineering a youth group which regularly had me plan all the logistics and schedule for weekend long and week long events for 50-400 attendees and give public speeches. I was flying all over the country for pride prejudice essays first this, and essay on engineering career it was a huge time commitment, that really taught me to argumentative essay work on a team, how events are run and gave me a lot of speaking time. Should I include these two things on my resume? They seem pretty big. I have them after my two internships and my senior thesis. Also, where is the best place to address interests and how should relevant course work be highlighted? Hi Chase. Essay On Engineering As A Career! I think it’s great to put both of essay advantage those things on your resume unless it pushes it over essay a page. Admissions officers read literally thousands of resumes, and how the of students research papers you want to keep yours punchy and as a career not too dense.

I think you can choose to list interests or not. If an interest is not relevant to law school or the practice of law, then it should probably end up on the cutting room floor. And, really, the interests important to law school ought to get some kind of writer usa mention in your personal statement. Again, with relevant coursework, if there’s room in your resume, it’s fine there, toward the bottom. Otherwise, I don’t think it’s terribly important. So I feel like I’m in a unique position in that my decision to apply to essay career law school is a total career change.

I studied journalism and worked as a reporter for four years before making the leap this summer, quitting the paper and taking a job as a paralegal. Naturally, my resume will be all my newspaper jobs and internships in college at media companies except my new job and a recent start with the local ACLU chapter. How The Essay! How can my resume be strong despite the severe lack of essay on engineering law-related jobs/organizations/internships? Law schools operate on the assumption that they’re taking people who don’t know anything about law and making lawyers out of them. Argumentative On Women! So, while they certainly like to see legal experience when you have some, a whole bunch of time in as a career a law office doesn’t necessarily mean a lot more to them than experience elsewhere. Instead, what they want to know is california essay advantage, that you’ll be a good student with a strong work ethic. So, if your resume reflects that, it might be considerably stronger than someone who had a law office job for six months. One last thing, it might be good to as a mention in your personal statement how your work in models college journalism relates to your ideas about law school and practicing law. If you’ve been a journalist and now work for the ACLU, it seems like you’d be a good First Amendment scholar, which might look better than a stint as a legal assistant.

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