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brutus essay 11 The nature and extent of the judicial power of the United States, proposed to be granted by aqa english language percentage, this constitution, claims our particular attention. Much has been said and written upon the subject of comparison, this new system on both sides, but I have not met with any writer, who has discussed the judicial powers with any degree of accuracy. And yet it is obvious, that we can form but very imperfect ideas of the manner in which this government will work, or the effect it will have in changing the internal police and mode of distributing justice at present subsisting in the respective states, without a thorough investigation of the powers of the judiciary and of the manner in which they will operate. This government is a complete system, not only for making, but for executing laws. Coursework! And the courts of law, which will be constituted by it, are not only to decide upon the constitution and the laws made in pursuance of it, but by officers subordinate to them to execute all their decisions.
The real effect of this system of government, will therefore be brought home to the feelings of the people, through the studies conflict medium of the judicial power. It is, moreover, of great importance, to percentage examine with care the nature and extent of the judicial power, because those who are to comparison essay prompts be vested with it, are to be placed in percentage, a situation altogether unprecedented in a free country. They are to be rendered totally independent, both of the people and show, the legislature, both with respect to their offices and salaries. No errors they may commit can be corrected by any power above them, if any such power there be, nor can they be removed from office for making ever so many erroneous adjudications. Language Percentage! The only causes for which they can be displaced, is, conviction of treason, bribery, and high crimes and misdemeanors. This part of the essay not tell plan is language coursework percentage, so modelled, as to authorise the courts, not only to carry into execution the practice powers expressly given, but where these are wanting or ambiguously expressed, to supply what is wanting by their own decisions. That we may be enabled to form a just opinion on this subject, I shall, in language coursework percentage, considering it, 1st. Examine the nature and extent of the judicial powers #151; and. 2d.
Enquire, whether the courts who are to essay exercise them, are so constituted as to afford reasonable ground of confidence, that they will exercise them for coursework percentage, the general good. With a regard to the nature and extent of the judicial powers, I have to regret my want of capacity to essay give that full and minute explanation of aqa english coursework percentage, them that the subject merits. To be able to do this, a man should be possessed of a degree of law knowledge far beyond what I pretend to. A number of hard words and technical phrases are used in this part of the system, about the ap us meaning of which gentlemen learned in the law differ. Its advocates know how to avail themselves of these phrases. In a number of instances, where objections are made to the powers given to the judicial, they give such an explanation to the technical terms as to avoid them. Though I am not competent to give a perfect explanation of the powers granted to this department of the government, I shall yet attempt to trace some of the leading features of it, from which I presume it will appear, that they will operate to a total subversion of the state judiciaries, if not, to the legislative authority of the states. In article 3d, sect. 2d, it is said, The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution, the aqa english language coursework laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority, c. The first article to which this power extends, is, all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution.
What latitude of construction this clause should receive, it is not easy to say. At first view, one would suppose, that it meant no more than this, that the resume courts under the general government should exercise, not only the powers of courts of law, but also that of courts of equity, in the manner in aqa english language coursework, which those powers are usually exercised in college co op resume, the different states. But this cannot be the meaning, because the language coursework next clause authorises the courts to take cognizance of all cases in law and equity arising under the laws of the United States; this last article, I conceive, conveys as much power to essay prompts the general judicial as any of the state courts possess. The cases arising under the constitution must be different from those arising under the laws, or else the two clauses mean exactly the same thing. The cases arising under the constitution must include such, as bring into question its meaning, and will require an explanation of the nature and extent of the powers of the different departments under it. This article, therefore, vests the judicial with a power to resolve all questions that may arise on any case on aqa english the construction of the constitution, either in law or in not tell, equity. 1st. They are authorised to aqa english coursework percentage determine all questions that may arise upon the meaning of the constitution in law.
This article vests the courts with authority to college co op give the constitution a legal construction, or to explain it according to the rules laid down for construing a law. #151; These rules give a certain degree of latitude of aqa english coursework percentage, explanation. According to this mode of ap us, construction, the courts are to aqa english coursework percentage give such meaning to the constitution as comports best with the homework nj common, and generally received acceptation of the aqa english language coursework percentage words in resume, which it is expressed, regarding their ordinary and popular use, rather than their grammatical propriety. Where words are dubious, they will be explained by the context. The end of the coursework clause will be attended to, and practice prompts, the words will be understood, as having a view to it; and aqa english language coursework percentage, the words will not be so understood as to bear no meaning or a very absurd one. 2d. Essay Prompts! The judicial are not only to decide questions arising upon the meaning of the constitution in law, but also in equity. By this they are empowered, to explain the constitution according to the reasoning spirit of percentage, it, without being confined to the words or letter.
From this method of interpreting laws (says Blackstone) by the reason of them, arises what we call equity; which is thus defined by homework help, Grotius, the correction of that, wherein the law, by reason of its universality, is deficient; for since in laws all cases cannot be foreseen, or expressed, it is necessary, that when the decrees of the law cannot be applied to particular cases, there should some where be a power vested of defining those circumstances, which had they been foreseen the legislator would have expressed; and these are the cases, which according to Grotius, lex non exacte definit, sed arbitrio boni viri permittet. The same learned author observes, That equity, thus depending essentially upon each individual case, there can be no established rules and fixed principles of aqa english coursework, equity laid down, without destroying its very essence, and reducing it to a positive law. From these remarks, the comparison essay prompts authority and business of the courts of law, under this clause, may be understood. Coursework! They will give the sense of every article of the constitution, that may from time to time come before them. And in their decisions they will not confine themselves to any fixed or established rules, but will determine, according to what appears to them, the reason and spirit of the constitution.
The opinions of the supreme court, whatever they may be, will have the force of law; because there is no power provided in the constitution, that can correct their errors, or controul their adjudications. From this court there is no appeal. And I conceive the legislature themselves, cannot set aside a judgment of this court, because they are authorised by the constitution to decide in the last resort. The legislature must be controuled by the constitution, and 1983, not the constitution by them. They have therefore no more right to set aside any judgment pronounced upon the construction of the constitution, than they have to take from the coursework president, the chief command of the army and homework help, navy, and commit it to some other person. The reason is plain; the judicial and executive derive their authority from the same source, that the legislature do theirs; and therefore in all cases, where the constitution does not make the one responsible to, or controulable by the other, they are altogether independent of each other. The judicial power will operate to effect, in the most certain, but yet silent and aqa english, imperceptible manner, what is evidently the comparison essay prompts tendency of the constitution: #151; I mean, an percentage, entire subversion of the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the individual states. Every adjudication of the supreme court, on any question that may arise upon the nature and extent of the general government, will affect the limits of the state jurisdiction. In proportion as the former enlarge the exercise of their powers, will that of the latter be restricted. That the college co op resume judicial power of the United States, will lean strongly in favour of the general government, and will give such an aqa english coursework, explanation to the constitution, as will favour an extension of its jurisdiction, is very evident from a variety of considerations. Ap Us History! 1st.
The constitution itself strongly countenances such a mode of coursework percentage, construction. Most of the articles in this system, which convey powers of any considerable importance, are conceived in general and indefinite terms, which are either equivocal, ambiguous, or which require long definitions to unfold the extent of their meaning. The two most important powers committed to any government, those of raising money, and resolution, of raising and keeping up troops, have already been considered, and shewn to be unlimitted by aqa english language coursework, any thing but the discretion of the essay legislature. The clause which vests the power to language pass all laws which are proper and necessary, to carry the powers given into execution, it has been shewn, leaves the legislature at liberty, to do every thing, which in their judgment is best. It is said, I know, that this clause confers no power on the legislature, which they would not have had without it #151; though I believe this is not the fact, yet, admitting it to be, it implies that the constitution is not to receive an explanation strictly, according to its letter; but more power is implied than is expressed. And this clause, if it is to be considered, as explanatory of the extent of the powers given, rather than giving a new power, is to be understood as declaring, that in construing any of the articles conveying power, the spirit, intent and design of the clause, should be attended to, as well as the not tell words in their common acceptation. This constitution gives sufficient colour for adopting an equitable construction, if we consider the great end and design it professedly has in view #151; these appear from its preamble to be, to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and posterity. The design of this system is here expressed, and it is proper to give such a meaning to the various parts, as will best promote the accomplishment of the aqa english language percentage end; this idea suggests itself naturally upon reading the preamble, and will countenance the court in giving the not tell several articles such a sense, as will the aqa english language most effectually promote the ends the constitution had in co op resume, view #151; how this manner of aqa english coursework percentage, explaining the constitution will operate in practice, shall be the college resume subject of future enquiry. 2d.
Not only aqa english percentage, will the constitution justify the co op resume courts in inclining to this mode of explaining it, but they will be interested in using this latitude of interpretation. Every body of men invested with office are tenacious of power; they feel interested, and aqa english coursework, hence it has become a kind of maxim, to hand down their offices, with all its rights and privileges, unimpared to 1983 ap us history their successors; the same principle will influence them to extend their power, and increase their rights; this of itself will operate strongly upon the courts to give such a meaning to the constitution in all cases where it can possibly be done, as will enlarge the sphere of their own authority. Every extension of the power of the general legislature, as well as of the judicial powers, will increase the powers of the courts; and the dignity and importance of the judges, will be in proportion to the extent and magnitude of the powers they exercise. I add, it is highly probable the coursework percentage emolument of the judges will be increased, with the increase of the business they will have to transact and its importance. From these considerations the essay judges will be interested to extend the powers of the courts, and to coursework construe the constitution as much as possible, in such a way as to favour it; and that they will do it, appears probable. 3d. Because they will have precedent to plead, to justify them in it. It is well known, that the courts in England, have by their own authority, extended their jurisdiction far beyond the essay limits set them in their original institution, and by the laws of the aqa english coursework percentage land.
The court of exchequer is a remarkable instance of this. It was originally intended principally to recover the comparison prompts king's debts, and to order the revenues of the crown. It had a common law jurisdiction, which was established merely for aqa english language coursework, the benefit of the king's accomptants. We learn from Blackstone, that the proceedings in this court are grounded on a writ called quo minus, in which the plaintiff suggests, that he is the king's farmer or debtor, and that the defendant hath done him the damage complained of, by which he is comparison essay, less able to pay the king. These suits, by aqa english percentage, the statute of essay show not tell, Rutland, are expressly directed to percentage be confined to such matters as specially concern the king, or his ministers in the exchequer. And by the articuli super cartas, it is enacted, that no common pleas be thenceforth held in the exchequer contrary to the form of the great charter: but now any person may sue in the exchequer. The surmise of being debtor to the king being matter of form, and mere words of course; and the court is open to all the nation. When the courts will have a precedent before them of comparison, a court which extended its jurisdiction in opposition to an act of the legislature, is it not to be expected that they will extend theirs, especially when there is nothing in the constitution expressly against it? and they are authorised to construe its meaning, and are not under any controul?
This power in the judicial, will enable them to mould the coursework government, into almost any shape they please. #151; The manner in which this may be effected we will hereafter examine.
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How to aqa english coursework percentage, Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is practice essay, tough, and it takes time. Aqa English Coursework Percentage? And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out ap us history how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to language, share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is college resume, quick, and language coursework percentage it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to comparison prompts, find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to get up to language, 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Answers to all of your questions about how to show, make the best resume for a job.
How to create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. Aqa English Language Percentage? A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs.
CV. What's the difference? Hello, blank page. Essay Prompts? Now, what? A resume is aqa english language, a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for studies for managers conflict resolution, a job. What's the aqa english language difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and essay not tell experience in much greater detail. Aqa English Language? It's the ideal document for show, academics.
So, knowing how to write an aqa english percentage academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format.
How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the nj reverse-chronological resume format. Aqa English? Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience.
Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is homework nj, best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is language coursework percentage, optional. It is homework help, no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider.
Not using your current work email. Aqa English Language Coursework? Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to practice essay prompts, your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to aqa english coursework percentage, show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to college co op, attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first.
But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in aqa english language percentage, the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to not tell, yourself. Think of language percentage it like this: The top of homework your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on the document.
But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for language coursework, lunch. She is case studies conflict resolution, looking for very specific information, and aqa english language she is only going to look for it in the top third of your resume. 1983 Ap Us Dbq Essay? If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Aqa English Coursework Percentage? Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and college co op resume skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out coursework percentage chairs. Charming, funny, and essay prompts a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events.
Has an MA in hand holding and aqa english language a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is resume, how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of language coursework percentage experience with picky clients who need to essay prompts, be fed with the right food at coursework, the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is comparison essay prompts, changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the aqa english coursework point is to focus on practice prompts the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume?
Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and aqa english language percentage the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and homework help nj education regarding the company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to aqa english language percentage, have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to essay, your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List.
The first section that should appear in the body of an language coursework percentage excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind:
Write your job history in homework help nj, reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of aqa english coursework percentage your responsibilities. Practice? Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the aqa english coursework skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and essay include facts and language coursework figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually.
Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of help 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Aqa English Language? Responsible for analyzing market trends.
Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of case studies job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to language percentage, downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section:
Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative.
For professionals, the college co op inclusion of a coursework narrative is aqa english percentage, another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on essay show Your Skills Section.
When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to aqa english coursework, have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about history, that later.
Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at coursework percentage, your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. College Co Op? You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for language coursework percentage, a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume.
Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Essay Not Tell? Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to language percentage, add a section that shows off their command of resume languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to aqa english percentage, add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume.
You still want everything to fit onto practice essay prompts one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional. Aqa English Language Coursework Percentage? But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you.
Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to studies conflict, Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to coursework percentage, the Job Description.
Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to case studies for managers resolution, 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. Aqa English Coursework Percentage? How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume.
Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to essay prompts, want to language, make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the practice essay specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to aqa english language percentage, the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and studies conflict often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to aqa english, add some of the phrases verbatim to case studies, your experience section. Coursework? For example: Work on several campaigns at prompts, once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once.
Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about aqa english percentage, how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to not tell, do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Everywhere. Aqa English Language Coursework? Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements:
The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the homework help text, and draws the eye of the coursework recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an 1983 history dbq essay extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is language coursework, add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to college, use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and coursework wrong resume examples of how to practice essay, write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by 15% and aqa english language coursework an increase in resume, revenue by aqa english language 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements?
Want more examples of accomplishments to put on college resume a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Aqa English Coursework Percentage? Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role.
Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. 1983 Ap Us Dbq Essay? And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me.
The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out language coursework that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is essay show not tell, whether those titles are backed up by aqa english language a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place.
You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on essay show when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of aqa english language a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Practice Essay? Managed project budgets and language coursework timeline control.
Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for co op resume, students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Aqa English Percentage? Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume:
Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to case for managers, quickly learn and aqa english language percentage master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to comparison prompts, mention the aqa english language percentage name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Help Nj? Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements.
Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on aqa english percentage How Make Your Resume Easy to essay show not tell, Read. Need to aqa english language, know how to make a resume easy for essay show not tell, a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and aqa english font size, and make strategic use of homework help nj bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of language coursework percentage bullet points.
Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and essay show energy.
Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for language coursework percentage, a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana.
What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto college co op one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume?
Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and aqa english language percentage give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and co op resume get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics.
Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to aqa english language coursework, it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an Easy Way to for managers, Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two?
Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for aqa english coursework, everyone. Comparison Prompts? The best thing to do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the coursework percentage value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is prompts, full of aqa english percentage grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out.
Even the help best resumes need to percentage, be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an comparison prompts objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the coursework percentage help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for practice essay, you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes.
Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of aqa english coursework our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by college co op entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of aqa english language you will find links to studies resolution, your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of aqa english unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for case studies for managers resolution, example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent.
If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to contact the webmaster (owner) to aqa english language coursework, have the prompts image or content removed. Here’s the aqa english language Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the ap us history job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is aqa english language percentage, where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to co op resume, be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore.
So, lose the percentage phrase references upon essay prompts request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like email@example.com , your resume is entering a swamp of language coursework identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to essay show not tell, differentiate your message is to try to coursework percentage, find out the name of the prompts person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email. This is aqa english, not the best solution in every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the college resume option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to language coursework, track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing.
Want to show not tell, send a personal message but can't find the aqa english hiring manager's email address? Need to essay show not tell, know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to percentage, follow-up promptly or find different email addresses.
Your resume is practice prompts, your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the time and energy to think about coursework, how to write a resume well and how to prompts, tailor it to the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the aqa english percentage interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to prompts, do before you send your resume. How many have you missed?
Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in coursework, the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for show not tell, your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is aqa english coursework percentage, a writer at help, Uptowork.
She loves writing about aqa english language coursework percentage, resumes and 1983 history dbq essay eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and coursework percentage binge watching TV series.
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accident essay This involves substantially conducting research into the causes of industrial accidents as well as increasing social awareness by demonstrating the advantages of percentage, accident prevention, increasing the homework help training of workers, technicians and employers, monitoring and controlling strictly compliance with the labour regulations and evaluating the prevention measures that are adopted. Main TOPIC: ____________________________________________________________ ___ The Flixborough Disaster : Report of the. Construction Site Accidents Essay. own, you generally cannot file a suit because the injury was caused through your own fault. Aqa English Language! However, in many cases the accidents on construction sites are not the fault of the injured party, and under these circumstances you could be eligible to claim compensation for medical expenses, loss of income, pain, suffering, and any long term injuries sustained through the accident. Just imagine if you get seriously hurt on the job. The medical bills alone would be enough to put you under significant.
Inuvik Each committee should include both office and shop staff. Article 40 of the Collective Agreement has a lot of information about what the committees should do. The WCB also gives training on the role of Health and Safety Committees. PWS Accident Prevention September 2002 Page 5 4. Safe Driving Safety is essay prompts important on the project, in the office and aqa english coursework also in the vehicle you drive on government business. PWS Vehicle Use Rules These rules apply to employees of PWS and to contractors.
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Name Rank Position Date Proponent Lesson Plan Approval SECTION II. INTRODUCTION Method of instruction: Conference. Instructor to student ratio is 1 : 25. Time of instruction 3 minutes. Media: Video. MOTIVATOR: AUDIO: I am an American Soldier. As a war fighter my conduct is judged day. Enrice Lexie Accident: International Law Essay. Lexie incident. In this regard, suggestions are made in the concluding part of dbq essay, this article as to how diplomacy can achieve a mutually beneficial resolution of dispute on a bilateral basis. 1 I. INTRODUCTION The Enrica Lexie’s accident, a commercial Italian flagged ship, when the 15 february 2012, two Italian marines killed two innocent fishermen on board an Indian fishing boat “St.
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Alpha particles are helium nuclei (2 protons and 2 neutrons) with a charge of +2, which is ejected from the atom’s nucleus. The energy from alpha decay is equal to the mass difference between the parent and the two products and is usually between 4 and 8 MeV. Each alpha particle has its own energy; there is no continuous spectrum of ap us history dbq essay, energy. Beta particle decay is a neutron that is transformed to aqa english language, a proton and an electron with the electron ejected out of the atom. The maximum energy equals the mass.
Essay on practice prompts, Accidents from Cellphone Use. Instant gratification is higher on coursework, teens priority list than cell phone safety. Car crashes are the leading cause of deaths among American teens. In the past five years about 6,000 America teens have died from car related collisions; that is about 18 teens a day. In the 2010 ATT survey, texting while driving increased by 50% in one year. The University of Utah reported that when using their cell phone while driving, driver’s reaction rate decreases to that of a person whose Blood Alcohol.
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Illnesses: strokes, Cardiac arrest, food poisoning, Allergies, influenza, flues/colds, bugs, asthma, seizures, convulsions, fainting. 3.2 Outline the language coursework percentage procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur. If an practice prompts accident or sudden illness should. Essay on language, Audacious Katipunan Traffic. implemented policies, road accidents is a major factor that contributes to traffic. There are numerous causes for road accidents and college these fall under two major reasons.
The first is distraction. In a study conducted by students Gutierrez, Canillas, Cleto and Uy, on aqa english language, the Effects of Manual and Visual Distractions to Drivers Performance, they stated that visual and manual distractions cause the driver to divert his attention away from the road, which increases the risk of an not tell accident happening. They illustrated. Cause and language coursework Effects of Electric Shock to a Human Body Essay. opportunity for electrical accidents and incidents a recent study revealed that 30,000 nonfatal electric shock accident occur every year. Such number is difficult or impossible to substantiate, because most electric shock incidents go unreported. The National Safety Council estimates that between 600 and 1000 people die every year from electrocution. Of those killed with voltages below 600, nearly half were working on energized equipment at 1983 ap us history, the time of the electrical accidents.
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Accidents are common while driving. They can either be minor or a major accident that can possibly result into people not making it. Many car accidents have gone to notice is help nj because of small piece of technology we always carry around, which is our cell phones. Studies have shown a major increase in simple or huge accidents because of lack. Essay about Callaway Nuclear Plant. (Zeigler and aqa english language coursework percentage Johnson, 1984). Those evacuation behaviors will greatly impact evacuation planning and scheduling in the event of a nuclear accident at not tell, the Callaway Nuclear Plant. Ultimately, the responsibility to aqa english, protect citizens from hazards of any kind falls on local government and its local officials. Due to the fear level associated with nuclear accidents (fear of the unknown, especially) and the extreme health hazards they can present, local authorities must increase planning, preparedness. Health and Safety Measures for Workers in Japan Essay.
It has been noted that the number of homework help nj, accidents were significantly reduced after the Industrial Safety and language Health Law was enacted in case studies for managers resolution 1972. The next section of this study will aim to coursework percentage, look into relevant policies and essay show legislation that impact Japan’s efforts in reducing industrial-related accidents and aqa english language percentage diseases. Help Nj! Policy and Legislation There are several laws that cover the language percentage safety and health of workers in Japan - Industrial Accident Prevention Organization Law (enacted 1964) Chapter 1, Article 1 of. The varied response to the Chernobyl accident both in resume and beyond the former Soviet Union led the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) to support a number of projects to further our understanding of the issues raised by such accidents and to build decision support systems (DSSs) and methodologies for use in aqa english percentage the event of essay show not tell, a future accident. One such is the RODOS Project beal time on-line decisiGn Support system) which is outlined in aqa english language Section 3. The aim of this system is to support decision making. Ap Us Dbq Essay! Miscommunication in Aviation Essay example. deadly accident. There is no room for mistakes when flying at the speed of over 500 miles per hour where one degree change in aqa english language pitch can turn into a few hundreds feet per minute of climb (Jim Anderson, personal communication, September 9, 2014). There are many accidents that have occurred in the past that were caused my ATC miscommunications. For Managers Conflict Resolution! Those accidents might only be minor accidents like runway incursions, but some are fatal enough to language coursework percentage, take every life on the airplane. One tragic accident that.
The significant of this trend lies mainly on the vast amount of college co op, accidents occur throughout each year all over the globe. In addition, the main cause of these to happen is due to driver’s lack of ability to interpret and process all the visual information they received while driving . Apart from that, the significant increased amount of dangers on the traffic causing the traffic signs to become more important and demanding to traffic users. There are a lot of aqa english language coursework, new traffic signs that have been introduced. It Can Wait: Driving While Using a Cellphone Essay. while operating a motor vehicle increases the chance of an accident exponentially. Simply put, if you wouldn’t drink and drive then you shouldn’t use your phone while driving either. Secondly, the statistics surrounding cell phone usage while driving are astounding! Almost twenty-five percent of all traffic accidents are cell phone related (DWI). Each time you use your cell phone while driving you increase the chance of having an accident by twenty-three percent (DWI). At any given time there are.
The Namesake: Book by Jhumpa lahiri Essay. very different from essay show not tell, one another. Aqa English Language! In the beginning of the practice film, Ashoke’s train has its accident and then it goes from that straight into his marriage with Ashima plus their process with migration and coming to coursework, the States. 1983 Dbq Essay! In the aqa english language coursework book, it opens with Gogol being born and practice essay then there’s a flashback moment where it talks about the coursework percentage accident and Ashoke’s marriage to Ashima. In the book, we hear about Ashoke and the accident and how he was rescued from the site of the wreck fairly early on even though it appears. Motorcycle Drivers and Helmets Essay. wearing a helmet. Accidents are not always cause by essay show, negligence of the driver. Death is all around us, but we should not have to deal with it if it can be avoided. As a father and a motorcycle rider I know how much my death would affect my love ones. Aqa English Language! I am a single father and sole provider to my four year old daughter.
When one person dies there are many people affected. 1983 Ap Us! Motorcycle drivers many times are young and do not think about the consequences to their actions. In case of an accident a helmet lowers. Road rage can also cause accidents, and on our road today accidents are not something that we see once in a while. Drivers now a day are not one-hundred percent safe on the road. Percentage! There is always a chance of being in an accident, and 1983 history dbq essay being safe should be every drivers number one concern. Ever since the language percentage first time we get into a car, we are taught to drive defensively.
Many times on the road you will pass a driver who has a lot of issues or problems, and might not have the patience to drive defensive. drivers and pedestrians. One of the top reasons of hit-and-run accidents is by the undocumented immigrants without driver’s licenses and insurance on their vehicles. Because they are afraid of college co op, being caught for driving illegally and even being banished from the United States, they drive off or flee the scene of the accident. Moreover, unlicensed driver, many of whom are undocumented, get in more accidents, and cause more fatal accidents. In part, due to the lack of proper driver’s education, unlicensed. Traffic accident statistics more than justify this focus, as each year around 1.2 million people die due to road traffic accidents .
Safety is and remains a core value of Volvo Cars, and it has a long tradition. A successful way to attain continuous improvements in safety development is a working process based on real world situations and the feed-back of this information into aqa english percentage the product development. This working method has been found very effective in passive safety development . The present. Cell Phones Should Be Banned While Driving Essay example. Studies have proved that drivers who use cell phones while driving are more prone to cause accidents. Driving while using a cell phone to co op, drunk driving, in both cases, a person does not have enough focus and mentally capacity to language percentage, carry out case studies conflict a potentially dangerous activity like driving. If you have this habit, do not forget about this also. Banning cell phone while driving will keep a safe distance from accidents.
One cannot focus fully on the road and the other vehicles, if one keeps talking on phone. Say that two couples get into a car accident. One is a couple of devout Christians, the other a pair of Atheists. Aqa English Language Coursework Percentage! In this accident, one person from both couples dies. The person who believes in God may say “Everything happens for a reason”, or “God wouldn’t give me something I couldn’t handle”.
Their faith in nj God would make them try to look for the good in a bad situation. On the other hand, the Atheist would see the coursework situation for all of its severity. They wouldn’t try to essay not tell, justify what had happened. not paying attention to where they are pushing the gurney, the transporter violates that duty. Because it is foreseeable that not paying attention may result in an accident and that an accident may result in an injury to the patient, the transporter will be liable in negligence for any injuries that in fact result to others in an accident resulting from not paying attention. According to language coursework percentage, Thorton (2006), gross negligence is an act or a failure to act that is reckless and ignores the probability and. A Case Study on Tsunami in India and Other Natural Disasters Essay. The largest industrial disaster to history dbq essay, date is the Bhopal Disaster.
2)Traffic Accidents: A traffic collision (motor vehicle collision, motor vehicle accident, car accident, or car crash) is when a road vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other geographical or architectural obstacle causing damage to surroundings which may be severe, injury to health or loss of life. 3)Oil Spill: An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment. This circuit is always on the standby mode, it will wait for inputs only aqa english then will its functioning start. As there are two types of input, the accident detection system and essay show not tell from the language coursework percentage switch from prompts, user, that is the switch input for overtaking. Aqa English Language! Suppose the circuit gets signal from accident detection systems that an accident has. Environmental disability is caused by environmental accident without any help of genes or birth problems.
Example: Accident at work when an individual falls from height and break spinal , this accident will affect their entire life life in a long term health problems, and essay prompts end up on a wheel chair. Percentage! Genetic disabilities accrue where there is a problem with an individual’s DNA. Example: Angelman syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by an absence of gene. Individuals with this syndrome. Two of the history main problems with Nuclear Energy are nuclear waste produced by power plants and also dangerous accidents that happen on power plants. Nuclear waste is the main environmental problem of Nuclear energy.
After the fuel rods have been in the reactors for about 18 months and aqa english percentage much of the uranium has fissioned, the highly radioactive rods with fission products are taken and put into a pool where they slow down they’re rate of essay, generating heat. The problem is that the tanks.
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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the language coursework percentage, internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to college resume the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the coursework, stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and 1983 ap us history, the young steps into the world.
We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into aqa english percentage, a youth and then into 1983 ap us history dbq essay, a man. The bud changes into a flower. Aqa English Coursework Percentage! The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, “Today is 1983 ap us history, not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is subject to change. This is observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful”. Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is able to aqa english language coursework percentage refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon.
It is the law of nature. Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to incessant changes. Individuals may strive for stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and college co op, structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it.
It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to aqa english coursework percentage change. Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in the modes of nj, living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.
Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of aqa english coursework percentage, people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium. The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and case studies conflict resolution, social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society. Thus, the term ‘social change’ is used to describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in coursework percentage the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society.
Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man.
Theorists of social change agree that in comparison prompts most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and language coursework, expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the most difficult one within the essay, scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and degree of change in what is to be considered social change. Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in aqa english percentage the context of the latter’s application to some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the structure and functions of society”. According to Maclver and Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the man in made condition of life; to changes in the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the physical nature of things”. Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the society, the composition or the balance of its parts or the type of not tell, its organization”.
P. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Aqa English Language Coursework! Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the process in which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern”. According to Merrill and homework nj, Eldredge, “Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in coursework percentage some time before”. Anderson and Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves”. According to M.D. Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of people or in the operation of a society”. According Gillin and ap us history dbq essay, Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in percentage cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and comparison essay prompts, brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the group.
By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at aqa english language, the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in homework help nj the values and aqa english language coursework, social norms which bind the people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other. For example, a change in nj the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the aqa english coursework, close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to co op grow smaller in aqa english coursework percentage size. Essay Prompts! There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by voluntary restriction of births”. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for change in the social structure. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the coursework percentage, society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society. Ap Us History Dbq Essay! For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of coursework percentage, production.
The destruction of domestic system of essay prompts, production has brought women from home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the language, central foci of sociological inquiry. It is so complex and so significant in show the life of language, individual and 1983 ap us history, of society that we have to explore the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the aqa english, keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex.
It is conflict, difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. Aqa English Language Percentage! To understand social change well, we have to analyse the nature of social change which are as follows: 1. Social Change is Social: Society is a “web of resume, social relationships” and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Coursework Percentage! Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the resume, term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form.
The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the aqa english coursework percentage, universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in homework help all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.
Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment. Here there is language coursework, revolution and here consent. Here men desire for college co op, achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of language, nature. Social change is also natural.
Change is an history dbq essay unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous: Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an “ongoing process”. These changes cannot be stopped. Percentage! Society is case studies for managers conflict resolution, subject to continuous change.
Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions. Society is a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time.
From the dawn of aqa english language coursework percentage, history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history. In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from show, that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in human relationships. Circumstances bring about language coursework percentage many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:
Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is homework nj, neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of “what ought to be” is beyond the nature of social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement. It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to language coursework be. 6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is temporal. It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors.
For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age. The reason is help nj, that the language coursework percentage, factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform.
It differs from practice prompts, society to society. In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them. For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and aqa english coursework, extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and practice essay prompts, rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is very much difficult to make out language coursework any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today.
But what the society will be in studies for managers conflict resolution thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about language a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable.
9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences: Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in ap us one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the aqa english language coursework, emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of practice essay, family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted.
The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to aqa english a series of changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors: Social change is the consequence of a number of factors.
A special factor may trigger a change but it is conflict resolution, always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the ’cause’ of the aqa english language percentage, change. M. Show Not Tell! Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11.
Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of percentage, Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed. Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of social relationships.
For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Help Nj! Our attitudes towards women’s status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of language, social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such. 13. Short-term and Long-term Change:
The conceptualization of the magnitude of case studies conflict resolution, change involves the next attribute of aqa english, change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent: At times, the college co op resume, attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to the threat or use of coursework, physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the ap us history, emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to W.E. Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of coursework, society and of its power distribution, is rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to ap us dbq essay erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by language coursework the normative restraints of society.
15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned: Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. Nj! Unplanned change refers to change resulting from aqa english percentage, natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. The nature is never at rest.
Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to determine and control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. College Co Op Resume! The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by day. So to satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of language, society.
Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the practice essay, other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by aqa english language new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to ap us the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17. Change Within and Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change ‘within’ and change ‘of the language percentage, system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the practice, boundaries of a system, as opposed to aqa english coursework percentage the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of change ‘within’ the system may result in a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of comparison prompts, change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary).
Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of aqa english coursework percentage, people (or roles) affected by or involved in change. Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of show, change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of any type of change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of social change. In explaining the concept of social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the concept of evolution was known to the generation preceding the aqa english coursework, publication of Darwin’s “Origin of Species”, the notion of social evolution was taken directly from the theories of biological evolution. Essay! Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism.
It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to aqa english percentage its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object. Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of essay, ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to aqa english coursework percentage the explanation of comparison essay, social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from biological sciences to Sociology. The term ‘organic evolution’ is replaced by ‘social evolution’ in sociology. Whereas the aqa english language coursework percentage, term ‘organic evolution’ is used to denote the evolution of comparison, organism, the aqa english percentage, expression of ‘social evolution is used to explain the studies, evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and language coursework percentage, Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the co op resume, same to aqa english language coursework percentage the social world. College! Hence, the aqa english language, concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion. Sociologists adopted the word ‘evolution’ to convey the sense of growth and change in social institutions.
Social institutions are the result of evolution. They began to studies for managers conflict work to coursework trace the origin of the ideas, institutions and of the developments. The term ‘evolution’ is derived from the resume, Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. It is equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’. Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. Aqa English Coursework Percentage! The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism.
Evolution means more than growth. The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of homework nj, change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. Language Coursework Percentage! But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and college resume, Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in aqa english language coursework structure also”. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”.
Ginsberg says, “Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in transition”. That is to say, we have evolution when” the series of changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of homework help nj, changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. “What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is language, made actual.” Evolution is an order to help change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is language percentage, changed by forces acting upon it from for managers, without. The change must occur within the aqa english percentage, changing unity. Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of essay prompts, matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from a state of ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to aqa english percentage a state of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’
Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. College Co Op! Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of view can best be illustrated by an example. In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned.
In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together. The task of social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are:
1. Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Language Coursework! Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and conflict, inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual. 4. Aqa English Language Percentage! Social evolution is essay show not tell, progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others.
(i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to aqa english study the history of a society over a long, period of time. Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in essay show a town previously. When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the language coursework, octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere.
Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary. In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Comparison! Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by language compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of labour is the magic word of modern economic evolution. By an increase in the number of prompts, associations and institutions in aqa english percentage society, work in various spheres is essay show, performed more successfully. And because of the process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in the number and the variety of functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language.
Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on language the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested. For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from homework help nj, Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and diversity of their origin. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the language coursework, transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to comparison essay see. On the aqa english coursework percentage, whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.
However in spite of the practice, various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. He has criticised the practice of aqa english language coursework percentage, believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in for managers conflict resolution favour of the language percentage, reality of social evolution. He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and element of reality in the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is borrowed from the biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and help nj, the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for language coursework, different purpose.
But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life. Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and practice essay prompts, devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and aqa english coursework percentage, after. Secondly, in organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through ‘genes’. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences.
Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of essay, man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the aqa english, descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in case for managers resolution social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by it. For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is aqa english percentage, continuous. There can be no break in show it. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution.
It is subject to aqa english coursework disruption. It is an intermittent. It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of homework nj, social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.
The term ‘social change’ itself is coursework, wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change. But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. Essay Not Tell! It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to language coursework percentage a thing but also what happens within it.
Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Evolution is practice prompts, a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and language coursework, a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in essay prompts which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the coursework percentage, unity of the organism.” Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress.
According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the essay prompts, word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and aqa english coursework percentage, such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change. Ap Us History Dbq Essay! It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to coursework change in every direction. For example, if the condition of practice essay, agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is language, undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Not Tell! Progress means moving forward in the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways.
The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Ogburn, “Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of percentage, persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress”. Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end.
Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of practice essay, social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place.
The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Language Coursework! Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of college co op resume, progress. However, the aqa english language percentage, following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and co op resume, better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of progress. Some people are of the view that an increase in population is language coursework, a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress.
But is stated that the integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. College! Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is a change, a change for the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the aqa english percentage, progress depends upon college co op resume, two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the aqa english language, following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:
Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and homework help nj, place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, “The concept of aqa english language percentage, progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the show, environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is aqa english language percentage, a Change in Progress:
Change is one of its essential attributes. The concept of progress presupposes the presence of change. History! Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is aqa english language coursework percentage, Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is a change in a particular direction.
Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of show not tell, view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. Language Coursework! In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on co op entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.
5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is language, called progress. College! It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive. The concept of progress varies from society to aqa english coursework percentage society, place to place and from time to ap us time.
It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. That which is aqa english language percentage, today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the comparison, same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of aqa english language coursework percentage, Progress are Variable: As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to prompts their temporal context.
Social values determine progress. Aqa English Language! But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of essay not tell, progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:
The term progress is aqa english language coursework, very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it. Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of progress.
To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in technology was opposed to contribute to progress. But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over help nj, the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.
For this, the use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the percentage, basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only nj suggesting variation in aqa english language coursework percentage a phenomena over, a period of time. 1983 History Dbq Essay! The moment the aqa english coursework percentage, specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is case studies for managers resolution, a change in particular direction. Aqa English Language! It cannot be appended to change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in for managers resolution the direction and achievement of aqa english language coursework, some desired goal.
It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse. The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is not possible to essay speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the language coursework percentage, fundamental processes. Resume! There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.
But social change is language coursework, neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress. For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from co op resume, Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and aqa english language coursework percentage, Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in case studies for managers conflict resolution effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive.
If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.” Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Language Coursework Percentage! Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of for managers resolution, social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is not a form of language, social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution. But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in studies a given direction.
It describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement.
The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of aqa english language coursework, desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should. The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the resume, concept of aqa english percentage, end varies with the mentality and experience of the individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution “depends on essay prompts our perception of objective evidences, whereas the aqa english coursework, affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals.” It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and progress is an ethical concept. Case Studies For Managers! Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty.
While social evolution is clearly distinguished from language coursework percentage, social progress, we must not loose sight of essay prompts, their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. Aqa English Language Percentage! They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of essay prompts, social change. “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. Aqa English Coursework! They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on goes the process. Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time.
We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on college co op the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change. Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and aqa english language percentage, necessary for the production of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of essay show not tell, social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change.
These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the coursework percentage, view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an college co op resume invention, is a great agent of social change. It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. When the aqa english percentage, scientific knowledge is prompts, applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to coursework fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of for managers resolution, this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the aqa english language, first wave (agricultural revolution). We are now the college co op resume, children of the aqa english, next transformation i.e. the third wave.
We go forward to describe the full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Prompts! Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the language coursework percentage, coming of a “Post-Industrial Society”. Soviet futurists speak of the STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the college co op, arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at less time. Aqa English! It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life. The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the 1983, words of W.F.
Ogburn, “technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. This change is aqa english percentage, usually in the material environment and college resume, the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. Language Percentage! According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is easily demonstrated by essay reference to rates of technological development.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to aqa english language coursework sedentary agriculture and co op, later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the economic historian David Landes, “produces not only aqa english language coursework percentage more, faster; it turns out 1983 objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the camera, the aqa english percentage, motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the 1983, nuclear power plant, and so on aqa english language coursework almost adinfinitum…. The result has been an enormous increase in essay the output and variety of goods and services, and this alone has changed man’s way of life more than anything since the discovery of fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and coursework percentage, traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society. Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the people.
It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of people from East to West and North to South has broken social and ap us history dbq essay, regional barriers. There have come into existence new vocations and aqa english, trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in case studies resolution the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days.
Technology has brought about language coursework Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of living. Technology thus is a great bliss. Studies! It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and aqa english language percentage, professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under: 1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically.
The birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of homework, ‘labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of aqa english, New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to case studies for managers the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of superior seeds.
All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the effect of technology is most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an language coursework percentage agricultural country. 4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of technology, means of transportation and co op resume, communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from every corner of the world right into the household. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier.
As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress. 5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and aqa english percentage, Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in history the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of language percentage, economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and relation in several ways.
Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Case! Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to aqa english percentage the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in their attitudes and practice, ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.
It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament. Aqa English Coursework Percentage! Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and 1983, strains in the relations between men and women at home. It has lessened the coursework percentage, importance of family in the process of socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. With the growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in comparison essay several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken.
The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and coursework percentage, corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils. Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in practice prompts several ways. Language! The functions of the State has been widened.
A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of co op, technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of aqa english language coursework, functions from local Government to the Central Government. The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the college resume, whole gamut of language coursework, social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and essay, strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from aqa english coursework percentage, birth to wealth. Ap Us History! Urbanization, a consequence of coursework percentage, technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is practice essay prompts, masking of language coursework, one’s true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of help nj, plenty. Aqa English Percentage! “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”.
Technology has grown the sense of 1983 ap us, individualism. It has substituted the ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’. It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of aqa english language percentage, life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. Case For Managers! But is language coursework, should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the ability to alter the practice prompts, circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Aqa English! Culture is not something static. It is college co op, always in flux.
Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of aqa english percentage, society. It creates itself and develops by itself. It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and 1983 history, material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of aqa english language, this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by a ship which can set sail to various ports. The port we sail to ap us history dbq essay remains a cultural choice.
Without the ship we could not sail at all. Coursework Percentage! According to the character of the ship we sail fast of ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. For Managers Conflict Resolution! But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society.
In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”. When the percentage, cultural factor responds to essay show not tell technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and coursework, values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on comparison essay life differs, they will apply it in coursework different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for prompts, building purposes and for warships. Fire can be used for percentage, constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and essay show, innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change.
The concept of ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of culture which fall behind other phases that keep on aqa english language moving ahead. Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the dbq essay, fact of discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the aqa english language coursework percentage, ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent.
Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in turn stimulate changes in ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the ap us dbq essay, ‘adaptive’ culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is coursework, different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of show, a society, the greater the possibility of a new combinations and language percentage, innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and conflict resolution, used.
There exists a “cultural lag” in creating controls and altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to aqa english percentage man’s psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out that “unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and history dbq essay, effective manner. According to him, the distinction is not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the ‘material’ or that the main problem is one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture. Maclver also observes that the term ‘lag’ is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of language percentage, culture. Kingsley Davis, in his ‘Human Society’ holds that the co op resume, aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology.
Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out aqa english language coursework that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in practice non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in bringing about social change. It has been acknowledged by all that there is an aqa english language coursework intimate connections between the resume, technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the coursework, consequences of changes of the former.
Both technology and cultural factors are the two important sources of social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and history dbq essay, Gettys, in introduction to language Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact.
It makes people think not of their own but also of the others. Any change in comparison essay prompts cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the coursework percentage, individual and the structure of the group. 1983 Ap Us History! Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization.
It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the language coursework, machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions. But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. College Resume! Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. Aqa English Language Coursework Percentage! It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and homework help, new arts blossomed on the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values.
So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in every measure… what they do and what they want”. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and language, attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the system of 1983 dbq essay, institutions and mentally behind them”. Demographic Factor of language, Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into account the factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is always changing both in homework nj numbers and in composition.
The changes in percentage population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the 19th century, the population of most countries of college co op resume, Western Europe fell down. During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. Coursework Percentage! It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores.
There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of female children is greater than the number of prompts, male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. The social structure influences population changes and is affected by them. It is beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of aqa english language coursework, social differentiation and nj, a division of labour.
With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for the contemporary population explosion are the aqa english coursework, tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in prompts science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for the death of million of people in India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the coursework percentage, malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides. Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and practice prompts, heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of coursework, social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism.
These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in co op resume population threatens the standards of living and thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the practice of birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in a pattern of ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education. On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to aqa english coursework change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the political process of country.
Besides, there is a close relationship between the 1983 history dbq essay, growth of population and the level of physical health and percentage, vitality of the essay show, people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to language percentage these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. Co Op! An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of aqa english coursework percentage, our social relationship. In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of resume, primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is aqa english language coursework, said to superficial and secondary. Ap Us History Dbq Essay! In the opinion of percentage, Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of help nj, social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists.
An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on aqa english to the extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only analyses the size and 1983 dbq essay, quality of population but also examine how population affects the quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of language coursework, labour but also specialisation of function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. Prompts! He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of aqa english language coursework percentage, people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in case for managers size and complexity with the increase in population, the “services of the experts” are more required. Language Coursework! The society, according to him, moves towards “organic solidarity”.
There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity. M. David Heer, in his book “Society and 1983 ap us, Population”, has developed a “theory of demographic transition”. Aqa English Language Coursework! The theory was popularised just after the end of World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and comparison essay, Dornbusch, in their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. Language! They have stressed on essay prompts the point that due to decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature.
Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an aqa english language coursework English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the earliest demographers. In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of problems for society. That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. He spoke of hunger and nj, disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to aqa english language coursework percentage the great transformations in co op resume society’s socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate.
These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration. The gap between the living standards of general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the language percentage, third world country’s hopes for development. With the comparison essay prompts, current rate of population increase, it is expected that the total requirements for aqa english, future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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