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Good Starting Sentences For An Essay
A Sample Photography Studio Business Plan Template FREE. Are you about starting a photography business ? If YES, here is a complete sample photography studio business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Essay Starting. Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a photography business. We also took it further by natural calamities essay analyzing and drafting a sample photography marketing plan backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for photography businesses. In this article, we will be providing an in-depth sample photography business plan template. Business plans are synonymous with businesses and starting, you may have heard for the umpteenth time that it is natural calamities essay one sure way to good starting sentences, go especially if you want to start on a very coordinated note. There are an avalanche of businesses that are being registered all over natural calamities, the world on a daily basis. And one strong and compelling point which business experts do not relent tell beginners is sentences this; Ďfirst off, draw up a business plan because it is the right step in the right directioní.
But how easy is it to essay, write a business plan for good starting sentences yourself without getting an expert involved? Sadly, there are a thousand and one people who do not have an inkling about how to customer and market, go about this exercise. It is for that reason that you can begin to research on ways that you can do this. Good news is good essay that if you do not have the necessary resources to hire a business plan writer, you can get a business plan template and work with it to essays on mrs, suit your own business. Good Essay Sentences. So, this means that with another personís business plan, you can say no to the cut throat price that business experts most often than not charge rookies to explain essay, write a business plan. All that you need to good, do is to first undertake some exhaustive research so that you are able to arrive at the business plan that is for the type of business that you want to explain essay, embark on. This is important so that you will be able to essay, take a cue from the technical areas which may apply to the type of business that you have chosen to delve into. Transpersonal Psychosynthesis. With that in mind, you can be sure to get a hang of what writing a business plan is essay all about. You can see a sample below.
A Sample Photography Studio Business Plan Template. Photography business is one of the businesses that can unarguably survive in explain essay, any part of the sentences world as long as the on mrs business is well positioned. The photography industry can boast of creating jobs directly or indirectly for countless numbers of people all over the globe. Good Essay Starting Sentences. One good thing about the developmental the dimension beyond psychosynthesis photography industry is that it has various areas of specialization ranging from wedding or portrait photography to wildlife photography or travel photography, amongst many others. Good Starting Sentences. Over and transpersonal developmental the dimension beyond, above, starting a photography business is what we have chosen to do because having done our due diligence and research, we have realized that it is a business that is good highly profitable if well planned and explain essay, managed. Good Essay Starting Sentences. Without a shadow of doubt, there is a high rate of competition in the industry, but we have been able to explain essay, create a unique business model that will help us gain market acceptance and also work our way to the top of the ladder in the city where our photography business is to essay, be located. Practice Essay Prompts. Some of the things that will help us stand out in good, the industry include that we will ensure we deliver quality photography jobs at on mrs dalloway rock bottom prices in essay sentences, our city at all times. Much more than delivering quality photography jobs to clients at rock bottom prices, we have further gone to invest in a CRM software that will help us effectively win new clients over and also help us effectively manage our existing clients.
We intend exploring referrals from papers, loyal clients as a means of generating leads that we will eventually work hard to convert to loyal customers. Currently, we have chosen a name for our photographing business, we have concluded the name search exercise at the corporate affairs office and it is good a thing that the name we propose to call our business is very much available and good essay starting, so, we have started the process of incorporating the business with the government authorities. After we strike that of, we will apply for Tax Payerís ID and also open a corporate/ current account with any bank of dreams essay, choice for business. Opening a current bank accounts is especially important so that we can start on a professional note, as well as attract corporate clients who will be able to pay a premium for the photographing services rendered. Part of starting sentences, our strategies to effectively position the business; is to rent an office space in a busy business district in New York City. The space we intend renting will be big enough to accommodate our studio, reception, as well as our administrative office. Customer Analysis. And we have also gone ahead to involve a competent realtor whom we think will be able to give us exactly what we want. Needless to say that one of our dreams is to run the sentences best photography studio in the whole of New York district. This is especially why we are leaving no stone unturned in business plan customer analysis, paying attention to details. Starting. We are a topnotch Ė all round Photography Company and have a great vision to become the one Ė stop shop when it comes to photography in New York City.
We are currently a team of passionate photographers who have come together for the sole purpose of creating a brand that will compete with leading photography companies in New York City. We also intend to transpersonal developmental psychosynthesis, go beyond just making memories, but also will build relationships such that will offer all round photography services. This means that we will cover wedding photography, child photography- where we capture the milestone of every baby from infancy to late childhood, capturing of nature and landscapes, beauty coverage- pageants, modelling shows, and what have you, as well as other areas too numerous to mention. Our photography company would also be in essay starting sentences, the business of training rookies as well as budding photographers who want to papers, be closely watched in their photography endeavor by a mentor. There are also plans not to make our photography business limited to just capturing pictures. We will also be involved in the sales of photographing digital cameras, lenses, camera stands, photography software, as well as other consultancy services. Furthermore, in the nearest future (our five years goal to be precise), we shall commence to sell franchises and become one of the best photography business in the world. Essay. Of course, like every other photographer, we shall be into the business of covering events.
However, we shall take our services a notch higher, by paying attention to details- like having pre- shoots and after- shoots. Why after shoots? Well, the after- shoots will basically involve capturing the after event moods in pictures. There will also be the production photo albums, photo books, framed pictures, as well as soft copies of natural calamities essay, edited pictures as requested by our clients. Much more than rendering the good services, we will also like to be known as a one stop shop where competitors can come purchase equipment that will help foster their expertise. As a result, we are to be involved in natural calamities essay, the sale of digital cameras, and other photography hardware and software. We intend to deal in brand new equipment as well as the good essay starting sentences fairly used type. Explain Essay. This is so that we are able to give those who couldnít possibly afford the brand new stuff the opportunity to still be in the trade by selling the fairly used types of products to them.
We believe that the photography trade wouldnít be complete without having to good starting, offer consultancy services. This is why we will be offering photography training and consultancy services. As a result budding photographers, as well as novices can always run to us to garner more knowledge about the trade. Our consultancy services ranges from providing advisory services to essays on mrs dalloway, setting up photography studio for our clients. We have a concise vision and mission in starting sentences, view and that is: To become a world class photography brand and to be amongst the top 5 leaders in the photography trade in New York and The United States of America . The Dimension Psychosynthesis. To make top notch photography services available to a wide range of clients that cuts across different classes of people at affordable price. Our plan is to start the photography business with 4 key employees who are expected to handle more than one role per Ė time.
They include: Chief Operating Officer and Lead Photographer Office Administrator Sales and starting sentences, Marketing Officer Assistant Photographer and Office Assistant. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Operating Officer and Lead Photographer: Responsible for providing direction for essay prompts the business Responsible for leading the team to cover events Responsible for the day to good starting sentences, day running of the business Responsible for handling high profile clients Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for transpersonal beyond signing checks and documents on behalf of the company. Responsible for the day to day administration of the office Responsible for handling correspondence Manages customers Manages vendors Handles all incoming calls and e Ė mails, et al Responsible for handling payment collections and lodgment of essay starting, cash and checks in the banks Any other duty as assigned by the Chief Operating Officer. Sales and Marketing Officer: Responsible for marketing the companyís products and services Responsible for practice prompts promoting the company Responsible for creating marketing and starting sentences, sales strategies, etc.
Source for exhibitions and opportunities for natural calamities the company to leverage on to promote the business Represents the organization in some strategic business meetings Responsible for essay starting hiring and training of freelance sales reps Any other duty as assigned by the Chief Operating Officer. Assistant Photographer and Office Assistant. Assists the Lead photographer at all times Runs errands for the organization (i.e. Papers. job delivery to clients, purchase of supplies and stationeries et al) Responsible for transporting cameras and other equipment to and fro event locations Ensures that the office and environment is kept clean at all times Any other duty as assigned by the Chief Operating officer. Sample Photography Studio Business Plan Ė MARKET ANALYSIS. There is always a readily available market for the photography industry, and whoever is hardworking and can produce decent photography jobs will always make headway in the industry. But in good essay starting sentences, recent times, because of the advancement of technology, it is now a lot easier for non Ė professional photographers to take cool shots or Ď selfiesí that can be processed to transpersonal psychosynthesis, classic portraits from their smart phones or other computer devices like iPADs and even digital cameras. In view of this, it has been observed that people only engage the services of professional photographers on rare occasions. Essay Starting Sentences. We are quite aware of this; which is why we took our time to study the market and we have been able to explain essay, identify marketing and good starting, sales strategies that will help us generate profits from the business. Part of the marketing and business customer and market analysis, sales strategies that we will adopt are; Mouthwatering promos for the first 12 months and then subsequently when the good essay need arises Participate in photography exhibitions and expos Neighborhood, door to door and mouth to ear adverts to introduce our business Engage in roadshows to introduce our business Leverage on social media platforms cum online marketing to plan, source for clients Create a loyalty program that will help us convert leads to good, loyal customers. No doubt the target market for the photography industry is dreams pretty wide, but in order to easily stay focused and pursue our target, we have clearly defined our target market as; Young Executives Intended couples planning to get married Churches and other religious centers Schools Wedding planners Corporate Executives Event Planners Families.
Our Competitive Advantage. We are fully aware that there are several top notch photographers in New York City who already have their own loyal clientele base, but we are have done our due diligence and good, we are ready to give them a run for their money. Despite the fact that we are new in town, we have been able to critically study the existing photography businesses around our location and we were able to identify some lapses on their part and we plan to work towards making their lapses our strong selling points. One of the hoop papers advantages we are bringing to good sentences, the fore is excellent customerís service. It is no doubt every business owner will work hard to keep their customers, but if they are not operating on the same page with their customers, they will find it difficult to practice prompts, meet the need of the customer. In addition, if they canít meet the need of the customer for a period of time, the customer will definitely source for another company that can meet their need.
In view of that, we have designed a CRM Software that will help us effectively engage our customers from good essay starting, time to time. We will be able to know what our clients want and we will work hard to meet their needs per time .Also the fact that we are new and are willing to deliver photography services at a price that is about the lowest in essay, our location is also an advantage to us. Sample Photography Studio Business Plan Ė SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Much more than generating income from covering events like Weddings, Parties, Thanksgiving services, Naming Ceremonies, and all forms of essay starting, events that will require taking pictures; we will also engage in the sale of natural calamities, digital photography cameras and accessories as earlier mentioned. After a period of 5 years, we would have succeeded in selling our brand to the entire populace in New York City and beyond. That should give us a platform to good essay, generate more income via providing photography related consultancy services and developmental the dimension beyond psychosynthesis, trainings to as many aspiring photographers that will need them.
After a period of starting, 10 to 15 years, we will start selling franchises of our company in the United States of America. These are basically the areas where we will concentrate on to generate income for our photography business. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. We will adopt the aggressive marketing approach because we believe that for us to win over clients in the already saturated market, we must be aggressive. Part of our marketing process is to get the contacts (phone numbers or email addresses) of leads, then send them introductory mails or call them to introduce our businesses to them.After a week or thereabout, we should follow Ė up with another call or email and try as much as possible to book an appointment to see them. We are quite aware that we donít have the financial capacity to hire enough employees that can cover the entire city and beyond; which is dreams essay papers why we will engage freelance marketers to help us market our services. They will be paid commissions based on the number of clients and the amount of the essay tasks done. Essay. In nut a shell, we will explore the good essay sentences following marketing and sales strategies to hoop essay, promote our business; Direct Marketing (Staff) Agents Sales Reps Online Marketing Referral / Network Marketing Revenue Sharing Business Partners (Event Planners and Contractors) Our Product Pricing Strategy.
In as much as we will not compromise quality in any of our jobs, we have decided to enter the market with rock bottom prices in our business location. Our prices will be the prices to beat in essay sentences, the industry. Essay. We will offer discounts to loyal and repeat customers. Good Essay. Part of what will enable customers get discounts, is when they successfully refer clients to us and explain essay, if the cost of the services they want exceeds a certain amount of money. The amount will be determined from time to time by good essay starting sentences the management as the business grows; so there should be no fixed amount for now. Our philosophy when it comes to pricing is that; ĎWe appreciate making smaller profits from many clients, than making huge profits from fewer clients.í From the report gathered from our feasibility studies, we have been able to identify some platforms that will help us effectively create awareness and promote our photography business. Here are the platforms we intend making use of to promote and practice prompts, advertise our business; Place adverts on national newspapers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like Instagram, Facebook et al Attend photography exhibitions and conferences Engage in roadshow from time to essay starting sentences, time Distribute our fliers and handbills to targeted areas from time to time Door to door and word of mouth promotions. The Dimension Beyond. Sample Photography Business Plan Ė Financial Projections and Costing. The Fee for good essay Registering a Business and Obtaining the Necessary Insurance: 725 USD. The Amount Needed to Rent a Facility and explain essay, To Setup a Studio: 5,000 USD. The Cost of 2 or more Standard Cameras (Nikon D7100 and Nikon D610): 3,200 USD.
The Cost of Good Camera Lenses(Nikon 35mm f/2.0, Nikon 50mm f/1.8, and Nikon 85mm f/1.8 lens): 1,500 USD. The Cost of good starting, Computer, Software and Computer Accessories: 1,504 USD. Calamities. The Cost of Launching a Website: 600 USD Additional Expenditure (Adverts and Promotions et al): 1,000 USD. Going by good the report from our research and feasibility studies, we will need an average $10,000 to set up a standard photography business in New York City. Ceteris Paribus, we are likely going to break even within the first 2 years of starting the business. Funding / Start Ė Up Capital Generation. As regard raising the start Ė up capital for the business, we have decided to explain essay, explore the following means; Source for good essay sentences seed capital from angel investors (leverage on any available opportunities to essay prompts, pitch my business idea) Generate part of the start Ė up capital from my savings Apply for loan from the sentences bank Invite Interested business partners. N.B-: I have been able to the dimension, save about $3,000 and I intend to raise the balance by applying and obtaining a loan from the bank and also from seed capitals from angel investors. Starting. Although, I intend raising part of the start Ė up capital by inviting interested business partners, but that will definitely be the business and market last option to explore because I intend owning %100 of the business at least for 5 years.
Sample Photography Business Plan Ė Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Good Starting Sentences. The bigger picture of hoop, this photography business is to grow beyond New York City to other major cities in the United States of America. As such, we intend spending the first 5 years of the business in building and communicating our brand. We know that once our brand has been accepted by the general public, it will be easier for us to successfully sell our franchise to sentences, interested entrepreneurs who intend leveraging on our brand to start their own business. Calamities Essay. In addition, we will ensure that we invest in regular training and development of our work force.We will work hard to stay abreast with the sentences latest technology in the photography industry and the changing trends as well.
Photography Training and Certification (for COO and developmental the dimension beyond, Lead Photographer): Completed Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Account: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payerís ID: In Progress Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of Office Facility (Studio) and good essay starting, Setting Up: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Sourcing for Angel Investors: In Progress Applications for Loan: In Progress Writing of transpersonal the dimension psychosynthesis, Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employeeís Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and sentences, other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Companyís Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of 3 employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed Cameras, lenses and other Accessories: Yet to Commence Purchase of Computer and Software: Completed Negotiation with Freelance Sales Reps: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business but online and in the neighborhood: In Progress.
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Good starting sentences for an essay Ö
Helmet Efficacy to starting sentences, Reduce Head Injury and essays, Mortality in Motorcycle Crashes. MacLeod, Jana B. A. Sentences. MD; DiGiacomo, J. Practice. Christopher MD; Tinkoff, Glen MD, FACS, FCCM. From the Department of good essay, Surgery (J.B.A.M.), Grady Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; The Port Authority Heroes of September 11 Trauma Center (J.C.D.), Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, New Jersey; and Department of Surgery (G.T.), Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Delaware. Submitted for publication March 11, 2010. Accepted for publication August 22, 2010. Presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of practice, Trauma, January 1923, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona. Supported and commissioned by essay, Injury Control and Violence Prevention Committee, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Address for reprints: Jana MacLeod, MD, Glenn Memorial Building, Third Floor, 69 Jesse Hill Jr.
Drive, SE, Atlanta, GA 30303; email: email@example.com. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Association, in 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists died and 96,000 were injured. Motorcycles make up ∼3% of all registered vehicles in the United States and account for explain essay, only 0.4% of starting, all vehicle miles traveled. However, motorcycle crashes accounted for ∼10% of hoop dreams papers, all motor vehicle crash fatalities, and per mile traveled, motor cycle crashes are ∼37 times more lethal than automobile crashes. Head injuries are one of the most common injuries after motorcycle crashes and were estimated to be the cause of essay starting, death in the dimension psychosynthesis 50% of these fatalities.
In close to a third of essay, these victims, the head injury is the sole organ system that is injured. However, in the majority of patients, estimated as high as 90% of some patient cohorts, a head injury is dalloway present along with other injuries. Despite these facts, it is estimated that only 50% of motorcyclists routinely wear helmets. It was intuitive even to our earliest ancestors that a hard shell would protect the head from injury. However, establishing the effectiveness of the motorcycle helmet remains a challenging effort especially in light of the starting sentences, powerful opposition to universal helmet laws. Furthermore, quantifying the protective effect of helmets supports the promotion of calamities essay, helmet programs regardless of the controversial nature of legislative efforts. In the United States, an good essay starting sentences increasing recognition that helmet use is associated with reductions in fatalities without apparent harm increased the implementation of customer analysis, universal helmet laws. In response to the 1966 Federal Highway Act, which withheld federal funds from states that did not enact a helmet law, Georgia became the first state to enact a mandatory universal motorcycle helmet law in 1967.
By 1975, 47 of the essay starting sentences, 50 states had universal helmet laws. Business Plan Customer. However, public and political concerns over individual rights versus public safety opened a new debate. In the following years, political changes reversed and/or limited previous sanctions and good essay starting, grants that encouraged states to enact universal helmet laws, which further eroded support for helmet laws. An increasing number of practice essay, states either repealed their mandatory laws altogether or significantly reduced the laws to apply only to minors. At present, only 20 states have universal helmet laws, another 26 states require only partial coverage, and 4 states have no helmet laws (Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and New Hampshire). A large volume of good starting, literature has quantified the consequences of not wearing a helmet while riding a motorcycle. Although motorcycle riding and registration are increasing and more states with universal helmet laws are introducing bills to repeal their laws, the business plan customer and market, debate continues on the personal advantages of helmet usage. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature and summarize the evidence basis for the use of motorcycle helmets. In particular, we have sought to essay, assess the impact of essays on mrs dalloway, helmet use on overall mortality, head injury-related mortality, nonlethal head injury after a motorcycle crash, and good essay, the impact universal helmet laws on helmet use. Motorcycles are a significant cause of injury-related fatality and disability. Calamities Essay. In particular, head injury is starting a common associated cause of death and long-term disability after a motorcycle crash.
Despite these facts, there remains an ongoing controversy as to the survival and disability advantages for riders who wear motorcycle helmets. In the public and legislative sectors, there remains a significant policy controversy resulting in a push to retain partial coverage helmet laws and to repeal universal helmet laws in many others. A. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders have a higher or lower overall death rate after a motorcycle crash? B. Essays On Mrs Dalloway. Do nonhelmeted riders in essay comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of lethal head injury after a motorcycle crash? C. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of nonlethal head injury or is the nonlethal head injury more or less severe after a motorcycle crash? D. Do geographical areas (i.e., aggregate states) that have universal helmet laws have a higher or lower death rate or head injury rate after motorcycle crashes when compared with areas without a universal helmet law?
A computerized search of the world's literature was undertaken using , of the business plan and market, US National Library of Medicine, extending back to 1990 to the present (2009) using the key words: helmet + (motorcycle OR crash). Sentences. There were 507 citations identified. The abstract for each was reviewed, and 197 candidate articles having possible applicability to the guideline topic were retrieved and reviewed. General reviews, letters to the editor, single case reports, and retrospective reviews of poor quality were excluded. This left 45 articles that were felt to have sufficient merit to form the basis for the guidelines (Table 1). The articles were reviewed in detail by the authors J.M., G.H.T., and explain essay, J.C.D. Over the past decades, the essay starting sentences, volume of literature supporting helmet usage prevents, and on mrs dalloway, ethically so, any randomized control trials or even controlled trials of essay starting sentences, helmet usage. Therefore, the most robust studies published in the past 20 years are predominantly prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies. As there are no class I studies to explain essay, review, the studies we did review do not vary across the classes of evidence in a useful manner. Therefore, we categorized the articles in this review by study design.
There are prospective cohort and essay starting, cross-sectional studies. Essays On Mrs. However, the majority of the studies are retrospective, either before and after cross-sectional studies of helmet law changes or cross-sectional studies of helmeted in comparison with nonhelmeted riders. Finally, we also identified case-control studies. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to reduce the incidence of head injury and severe head injury after a crash. NB: This statement was made a level recommendation despite a lack of class I data because of the volume of consistent class II data, including robust prospective data, to support this finding without any methodologically similar data to refute it. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to improve overall survival and reduce head injury-related mortality after a crash. Mandatory universal motorcycle helmet laws should be introduced or reenacted to reduce mortality and head injury after a crash. The evidence reviewed here that assesses the effectiveness of helmets for motorcyclists comes from the following 45 study designs: Prospective cohort study of motorcycle riders.  Prospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders for essay, different outcomes.  Retrospective before and after cross-sectional studies in which outcomes of motorcycle crashes are compared before and after either the repeal of or the enactment of essays, a mandatory universal helmet law.  Case-control studies of motorcycle riders.  Retrospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders across different outcomes. Good Essay Starting.  Comparison of mortality between states with helmet laws and states without helmet laws.  The outcomes reported included any one or more of the hoop, following: mortality, head injury-related mortality, prevalence of head injury, and prevalence of severe head injury. Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Have a Higher or Lower Overall Death Rate After a Motorcycle Crash?
Two prospective cross-sectional studies showed a reduction in good essay starting sentences mortality for helmeted riders in comparison with nonhelmeted riders, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.40 and 0.22, respectively.  However, Kelley's sample size was not adequate to reach statistical significance, and therefore, no death reduction can be concluded from this study. Calamities Essay. Nine retrospective cross-sectional studies reported mortality as an starting sentences outcome, but two showed no reduction  while seven showed reductions that varied from hoop dreams essay a maximal OR estimate of good essay, 0.29  to natural, a minimal OR estimate of sentences, 0.84. Practice.  Of the studies that showed a mortality reduction, only three were adjusted for rider and/or environmental factors.  There were five studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law repeal. Two of the studies showed an starting sentences increase in fatality after repeal of the helmet law, 26% and 30% increases, respectively. Dalloway.  However, two further studies had nonsignificant increases in the ORs of essay, death: OR of 1.08  (per 10,000 motorcycle registrations) and OR of 1.01  (per 1,000 crashes). Interestingly, although the study of Bledsoe and dreams essay papers, Li did not show an overall reduction in mortality, there was a significant increase in essay sentences riders who were blood alcohol positive at the time of the crash and business, who were also not wearing a helmet after the repeal when compared with before (14.2% vs.
33.6%, OR: 2.37, p 0.05). There were 12 studies that compared crashes before and essay sentences, after helmet law establishment or reenactment. Essays On Mrs Dalloway. Auman et al. showed close to a halving of the good essay, relative risk (RR) of natural calamities essay, fatality after the law was reenacted (RR: 0.51, 9.3 fatalities per good essay starting sentences 10,000 motorcycle registrations to 4.7 fatalities per 10,000 registrations). Another five studies showed RRs that reflected statistically significant mortality reductions from 0.57 to 0.81.  One study, by Chiu et al., showed no change in mortality during the study period (4.0%). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Lethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash? The RR of head injury-related mortality was reduced by more than half after the enactment of a helmet law in Texas from 6.8 fatalities to 3.1 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations  (RR: 2.19, p 0.05). Practice Essay. In Pennsylvania, after the repeal of the good starting, helmet law, the developmental the dimension psychosynthesis, head injury-related death rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations increased by 36.9%  (1.6 to 2.2 fatalities per 10,000 registrations, p 0.05). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Nonlethal Head Injury or Severity of Nonlethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash?
All 25 of the good starting, studies that had prevalence of a nonfatal head injury as an outcome had a significantly lower incidence for helmeted riders, after reenactment or before repeal of a helmet law. One of the prospective studies that observed motorcycle riders to dreams, determine the incidence of head injury-associated crashes showed that nonhelmeted riders sustained a head injury more than twice the rate of helmeted riders  (4.7% vs. 1.9%). Three studies showed an essay starting sentences ORs of a head injury after a crash to vary from 2.3 times to explain essay, 4.4 times higher for nonhelmeted riders when compared with helmeted riders  ( p 0.05). Good Essay Starting Sentences. Ouellet and Kasantikul showed an ORs of sustaining a serious injury to be 3.5 times higher ( p 0.05) for nonhelmeted riders. Retrospective studies confirm the consistent findings of the prospective studies that head injury is uniformly more frequent and more severe when sustaining a crash without a helmet. The magnitude of the increased prevalence of a head injury after a nonhelmeted crash is as high as 4.3 times to a low of 1.7 times higher than after a helmeted crash in nine retrospective cross-sectional studies. Essays. However, for severe head injuries, most commonly defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2, the magnitude of the estimate is uniformly larger.
For three retrospective studies, the ORs of a severe head injury were 18.1 (12.525.3), 4.4 (2.587.37), and 3.7 (1.97.3), respectively.  Lin et al. showed a 41% increase in trauma-induced brain hemorrhage, including subarachnoid, subdural, and epidural hematomas when a rider was nonhelmeted during a crash. The case-control studies showed an adjusted OR of essay starting, 0.26 (0.140.48) and 0.41 (0.210.81), which represents a significant protective effect of explain essay, wearing a helmet in good essay sentences reducing the incidence of a head injury after a motorcycle crash.  In four retrospective studies in which universal motorcycle helmet laws were enacted, the incidence of nonlethal head injury decreased from 29% to reductions of 63%. In one study in essay which the motorcycle law was repealed, the good essay, incidence of hospitalizations for hoop dreams papers, head injury increased by 42%, from 15.4 to 21.9 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations ( p 0.05).  Do Geographical Areas (i.e., Aggregate States) That Have Universal Helmet Laws Have a Higher or Lower Death Rate or Head Injury Rate After Motorcycle Crashes When Compared With Areas Without a Universal Helmet Law? Two studies compared regions with and good starting, without helmet laws. Houston and Richardson developed a model for motorcycle crash fatality as a function of the state's helmet law while controlling for minimal legal drinking age, partial versus full helmet laws, 0.08 blood alcohol concentration law, roads with maximum speed limit of 65, daily temperature, daily percent precipitation, gender, age, per capita income, per capita alcohol consumption, and population density. Their results showed 1.3 fewer fatalities per transpersonal the dimension psychosynthesis 10,000 motorcycle registrations in good starting sentences helmet law states that can be attributed in their model to the presence of the helmet law. Furthermore, using hospital discharge data from 33 states, Coben et al. Practice Prompts. calculated a RR of 0.65 ( p 0.05) and starting sentences, 0.72 ( p 0.05), respectively, for plan customer and market analysis, severe head injury and fatalities in states with universal helmet laws when compared with states without universal helmet laws. The main limitation of these uncontrolled and good, observational studies involves the collection and developmental the dimension beyond, incorporation in the analysis of potential confounders for good starting, the outcomes studied. The wearing of natural calamities, helmets is associated with multiple factors, many of good essay sentences, which have also been shown to be associated with the incidence and severity of crashes.
Rider factors include alcohol consumption, seat position on the motorcycle (driver vs. passenger), age, and essays dalloway, gender. There are also environmental factors such as weather, time of day; other policy factors such as speed limits and DUI laws; and other intrinsic motorcycle factors such as the size and type of motorcycle itself (the potential kinetic energy of the crash) also contribute to motorcycle crash occurrence and severity and ultimately crash consequences for the rider. Unfortunately, many of these factors are not easy to reliably measure on a crash-to-crash basis, and therefore, only nine studies, in part, adjusted for at least a portion of these factors. Good Essay. There were other studies that stratified the study group by various factors but did not control for them in their analysis. The majority of the studies did not control for any potential confounders. A second methodological concern is selection bias. The subjects in these studies were not selected randomly, except for the one cohort study that chose the students randomly.
There were missing data, and no studies had information on those “not chosen” to confirm that they were the transpersonal developmental psychosynthesis, same as those included in the study. A large number of the studies reported fatalities and prevalence of head injuries as a rate, a function of good essay sentences, either the number of motorcycle registrations or the number of crashes. This eliminates the misinterpretation of changes in absolute fatalities that reflect changes in the number of riders or the number of riders who crash. However, changes in registrations may not be an customer and market accurate denominator to reflect the good starting, active riders who are engaging in motorcycle usage and, therefore, may obscure difference. Explain Essay. Perhaps, vehicle miles driven are a better denominator for good starting, this purpose for the same reason it is used in motor vehicle collision fatality rates. A good example is in dreams essay papers the study by Bledsoe and essay starting, Li, in hoop papers which registrations decreased and thereby crashes decreased, but the good essay starting, fatality rate increased. However, perhaps because of the decreases, the plan customer, absolute increase seems minimal and statistically not significant. The variation in essay helmet usage in these studies was substantial. Internationally, Conrad et al. reported that the helmet usage was as high as 89% in Indonesia, whereas LaTorre et al. reported only a 12% rate of helmet usage in Italy. Nationally, in America, Brandt et al. reported in their study from Michigan a prevalence of 80.5% of riders wearing a helmet during a crash, whereas a study conducted in Illinois by explain essay, Kelly et al. reported a 14.6% prevalence of helmets in riders involved in crashes. Without nonrandom selection of these studies, the variation in helmet usage can also impact the results obtained.
The studies reviewed here discuss only the use of helmets. However, the issue of misuse as noted by Peek-Asa et al. in his 1999 study in Thailand can also be a major factor in postcrash injury. Essay Starting Sentences. Further study is required to better understand and to quantify this problem. Furthermore, in these studies, we did not explore in depth the impact of partial helmet laws, although the studies by Houston and Richardson and Tsai SY attempted to address this issue. Interestingly, Houston and Richardson found that partial helmet laws showed no improvement in outcomes over dalloway states with no helmet laws. A. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the overall death rate of motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. B. The use of essay, motorcycle helmets decreases the incidence of lethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. C. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the explain essay, severity of nonlethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. D. Essay Sentences. Mandatory universal helmet laws reduce mortality and head injury in geographical areas with the law when compared with areas without it. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Kuo NW.
Crash severity, injury patterns, and practice, helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders. J Trauma. 2001;50:2430. Ouellet JV, Kasantikul V. Good Essay. Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:4954. LaTorre G, Bertazzoni G, Zotta D, Van Beeck E, Ricciardi G. Dreams. Epidemiology of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles.
A surveillance study in two Italian cities. Essay Starting Sentences. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:99103. Plan Customer And Market Analysis. Conrad P, Bradshaw YS, Lamsudin R, Kasniyah N, Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. Accid Anal Prev. Good Essay Sentences. 1996;28:193200. Kelly P, Sanson T, Strange G, Orsay E. A prospective study of the essays on mrs, impact of helmet usage on essay starting, motorcycle trauma. Hoop Dreams Papers. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20:852856. Essay Starting. Mertz KJ, Weiss HB.
Changes in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following repeal of business customer and market, Pennsylvania's mandatory motorcycle helmet law. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:14641467. O'Keeffe T, Dearwater SR, Gentilello LM, Cohen TM, Wilkinson JD, McKenney MM. Good Essay. Increased fatalities after motorcycle helmet law repeal: is it all because of lack of helmets? J Trauma. 2007;63:10061009. Kyrychenko SY, McCartt AT.
Florida's weakened motorcycle helmet law: effects of death rates in motorcycle crashes. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:5560. Bledsoe GH, Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal. South Med J. Explain Essay. 2005;98:436440. Ho EL, Haydel MJ. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. J La State Med Soc.
2004;156:151157. Essay. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in essays on mrs Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183189. Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on sentences, traumatic brain injuries. Inj Prev. 2003;9:257260. Christian WJ, Carroll M, Meyer K, Vitaz TW, Franklin GA.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky, 19952000. J Ky Med Assoc. 2003;101:2126. Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities: the effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Essays On Mrs Dalloway. Am J Public Health . 2002;92:13521355. Ferrando J, Plasència A, Orós M, Borrell C, Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. Inj Prev. 2000;6:184188. Chiu WT, Kuo CY, Hung CC, Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.
Am J Public Health. 2000;90:793796. Good Essay Starting. Tsai MC, Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in essay Taiwan. Inj Prev. 1999;5:290291. Peek-Asa C, Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:630636.
Kraus JF, Peek C. Starting Sentences. The impact of two related prevention strategies on beyond psychosynthesis, head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 19911993. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12:873881. Panichaphongse V, Watanakajorn T, Kasantikul V. Effects of law promulgation for compulsory use of protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:521525. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I trauma center. J Trauma. 1995;39:2935.
Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A. The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. JAMA. 1994;272:15061511. Good Essay Starting Sentences. Fleming NS, Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head-related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries. Med Care. 1992;30:832845. Muelleman RL, Mlinek EJ, Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and prompts, costs: effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med.
1992;21:266272. Essay Sentences. Norvell DC, Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: a matched-pair cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:483487. Business Plan Customer And Market. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:974981. Essay Starting. Gabella B, Reiner KL, Hoffman RE, Cook M, Stallones L. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crash victims in El Paso County, Colorado, 19981990. Explain Essay. Accid Anal Prev. 1995;27:363369.
Croce MA, Zarzaur BL, Manotti LJ, Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle helmets and state laws on society's burden: a national study. Ann Surg. 2009;250:390394. Goslar PW, Crawford NR, Petersen SR, Wilson JR, Harrington T. Sentences. Helmet use and associated spinal fractures in motorcycle crash victims. J Trauma. Explain Essay. 2008;64:190196; discussion 196. Sentences. Lin JW, Tsai SH, Tsai WC, et al. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. Surg Neurol . Business Plan Analysis. 2006;66:S20S25. Starting. Eastridge BJ, Shafi S, Minei JP, Culica D, McConnel C, Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge.
J Trauma. 2006;60:978984. Javouhey E, Guérin AC, Chiron M. Explain Essay. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from good essay starting road accidents: a population-based study. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:225233. Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and practice prompts, riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:833842. Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, et al.
Nonhelmeted motorcyclists: a burden to starting sentences, society? A study using the explain essay, National Trauma Data bank. J Trauma. 2004;57:944949. Brandt MM, Ahrns KS, Corpron CA, Franklin GA, Wahl WL. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. Essay Starting. 2002;53:469471. Peek-Asa C, McArthur DL, Kraus JF. The prevalence of non-standard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. Essays. Accid Anal Prev.
1999;31:229233. Petridou E, Skalkidou A, Ioannou N, Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: a nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30:8791. Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T. Good Starting Sentences. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from dreams essay papers crashes in Washington state. Am J Public Health. Essay. 1996;86: 4145. Essay Prompts. Orsay E, Holden JA, Williams J, Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the state of Illinois: analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. Ann Emerg Med.
1995;26:455460. Rutledge R, Stutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of essay sentences, motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. Accid Anal Prev. 1993;25:347353. Braddock M, Schwartz R, Lapidus G, Banco L, Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21:273278.
Offner PJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV. The impact of transpersonal psychosynthesis, motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. 1992;32:636641; discussion 641642. Shankar BS, Ramzy AI, Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Clark CC. Helmet use, patterns of injury, medical outcome, and costs among motorcycle drivers in Maryland. Essay Starting Sentences. Accid Anal Prev. 1992;24:385396. Houston DJ, Richardson LE Jr. Motorcycle safety and the repeal of universal helmet laws. Am J Public Health.
2007;97:20632069. Coben JH, Steiner CA, Miller TR. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: comparing states with different helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:190196. Table 1: References: Citation and Summary for EBR Articles on transpersonal psychosynthesis, the Efficacy of good essay, Motorcycle Helmets 1990-2009. Prospective Cohort Studies: Lin MR Hwang HF Kuo NW. Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders.
2001 Journal of Trauma 50:24-30. 4,721 randomly selected junior college students in Taipei were followed prospectively for 20 months, during which time 1,284 were involved in 1,889 motorcycle crashes. 33% of the crashes the rider was wearing a helmet. Business Customer And Market Analysis. Head injuries occurred in 4.7% of injured riders without a helmet compared to 1.9% of helmeted riders. Prospective Cross-sectional Studies: Ouellet JV Kasantikul V.
Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:49-54. 1,869 motorcycle crashes in good sentences Los Angeles and Thailand were prospectively investigated in detail. Transpersonal Developmental Beyond. Approximately 6%of riders were killed at both locations and 20-25% were hospitalized. Non-helmeted riders were 2.5 times more likely to be killed and essay starting sentences, 3.5 times more likely to sustain a serious brain injury. LaTorre G Bertazzoni G Zotta D Van Beeck E Ricciardi G.
Epidemiology of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles. A surveillance study in two Italian cities. 2002 European Journal of Public Health 12(2):99-103. Crashes for 14-35 yr olds 2-wheeled riders presenting to 2 hospitals in Italy after a crash were surveyed for beyond psychosynthesis, a 6 month period of time. Good Essay Starting. Injury and crash data was collected. 12% of the riders wore a helmet at the time of the essays, crash. The risk of head injury is 4.35 times higher when not wearing a helmet. Conrad P Bradshaw YS Lamsudin R Kasniyah N Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: Motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. 1996 Accident Analysis and Prevention . 28(2): 193-200. Prospective observational study of motorcycle riders in Indonesia.
Data collected from good starting sentences street observations, interviews and riders admitted to 4 hospital EDs.89% of drivers wore helmets but only 55% wore them correctly. Indonesia has a mandatory helmet law. The risk of a head injury was 0.41 for riders in a crash while wearing a helmet. Kelly P Sanson T Strange G Orsay E. A prospective study of the hoop dreams papers, impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. 1991 Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:852-856. Prospectively collected data of motorcycle crash victims presenting to emergency departments in essay starting sentences 8 varying institutions across the explain essay, State of Illinois, over a 7 month period.
Only 14.6% of the 398 patients were wearing helmets at the time of the crash. The incidence of head injuries in the helmeted group was nearly three times that of the helmeted group (12.1% vs. 32.6%). Retrospective Before-After Cross-Sectional Studies: Mertz KJ Weiss HB. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of starting, Pennsylvania’s Mandatory motorcycle Helmet Law. 2008 American Journal of explain essay, Public Health 98(8):1464-14667. Retrospective review of motorcycle-head related mortality and injuries comparing the pre-repeal period (2001-2) to the post repeal period (2004-5). Essay Sentences. There was a 32.8% increase in head injured related mortality and a 42.2% increase in head injury-related hospitalizations per 10,000 motorcycle registrations after repeal of the helmet law. O’Keefe T Dearwater ST Gentilello LM Cohen TM Wilkinson JD McKenney MM. Increased Fatalities After Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: Is it all Because of lack of helmets?
2007 Journal of essays, Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 63:1006-1009. Retrospective review of fatalities pre- and post-motorcycle helmet law repeal (July 1, 2000) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Police crash and medical examiners records were reviewed for fatalities per good sentences registered motorcycle riders from 1997 to practice essay, 2003. Motorcycle helmet usage in fatal crashes dropped from 80% to 33%. Good Sentences. An absolute number of deaths increased: 72 deaths pre- and essays, 125 post-repeal. But there was no difference in the fatality rate per registered rider (11.6 pre- to 12.5 deaths post-repeal per 10,000 motorcycle registrations, p=0.61). Kyrychenko SY McCartt AT. Florida’s weakened motorcycle helmet law: Effects of death rates in motorcycle crashes. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:55-60. Retrospective review of police reported crashed 1998-2002 from the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
The helmet law was changed from universal to exclude riders 21 years and older with at least $10,000 of Medical Benefit Insurance in mid 2000. Death rates were compared for the two years before to the two years after the law was changed. The death rate rose from 30.8 deaths per 1000 crashes to 38.8. Bledsoe GH Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.
2005 Southern Medical Journal 98:436-440. Retrospective review of data from the Arkansas Department of Finance and good, Administration for motorcycle registrations, motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office, and motorcycle fatality data for Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). The Arkansas helmet law was repealed in explain essay 1997. The study compares the 4 years before to good, the 4 years after the repeal. Fatalities per crash increased non- significantly from 41.9 to 42.2 per 1000 crashes but in the same period of time, crashes and fatalities per plan customer 1000 registered motorcycles decreased. The percentage of essay starting, motorcycle fatalities not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% to 78.2% after the repeal. Ho EL Haydel MJ.
Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. 2004 Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society 156:151-157. In 1999 Louisiana repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law to exempt riders 18 and older with $10,000 Health Insurance Policies. This is a retrospective review of natural calamities, 8,916 motorcycle crashes and 300 fatalities for 1994-2002, except 1999, combining data from NHTSA, Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, and a level I Trauma Registry. The fatality rate increased from 3.0% per collision to 3.7% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from 71.4% to 35% after repeal. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand.
2003 Accident Analysis and Prevention 35:183-189. Retrospective analysis of good starting sentences, Trauma Registry data comparing 2 years before to 2 years after enactment of a motorcycle helmet law in Thailand. Practice. 12,002 patients were reviewed, including 129 deaths. As compared to the pre-Law period, head injuries decreased 41.4% and motorcycle related deaths decreased 20.8%. Servadei F Begliomini C Gardini E Giustini M Taggi F Kraus J. Effect of Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries.
2003 Injury Prevention 9: 257-260. Retrospective review of traumatic brain injuries at a regional neurosurgery referral center for one year before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law. There was a reduction from 63 to 43 per 100,000 registrations in head injury related admissions. There was also a 76% decrease in good essay starting the diagnoses of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and epidural hematoma after the enactment of the law. Christian WJ Carroll M Meyer K Vitaz T.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky 1995-2000. 2003 Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. Retrospective review of head injury and head injury severity after a motorcycle crash from a single level I trauma center from 1995-2000. Of note, Kentucky repealed their helmet law in 1998. A non-helmeted rider was 4.33 more likely to sustain a head injury than a helmeted rider and they were also 4.36 more likely to sustain a severe head injury than non-helmeted riders. Auman KM Kufera JA Ballesteros MF Smialek JE Dischinger PC.
Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities : The effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. 2002 American Journal of dreams, Public Health 92:1352-1355. Retrospective comparison of motorcycle fatalities in Maryland for good essay starting sentences, the 33 months before and after implementation of a universal helmet law. 61.3% of fatalities occurred before the hoop dreams essay, law was enacted and starting sentences, 38.7% after. The fatality rate per 10,000 registrations decreased from hoop 9.3 2 to 4.7 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in the 3 year period before and after the enactment.
Ferrando J Plasencia A Oros M Borrell C Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in essay starting a southern European urban area. 2000 Injury Prevention 6:184-188. Retrospective study comparing the 2 year period before and after implementation of dalloway, a universal motorcycle helmet law in sentences Spain. Data was compiled from the Medical Examiner, police records, and the Traffic Authority of Barcelona.
Annual fatalities decreased from 60 in the first year of the business plan customer analysis, review to 32 in the last year, with the crash mortality rate decreasing from 6.9 to 5.2 per 1000 crashes. The authors estimated 35 lives were saved in good starting sentences Barcelona during the first 2 years of the motorcycle helmet law. Chiu WT Kuo CY Hung CC Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan Motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries. 2000 American Journal of transpersonal developmental, Public Health 90:793-796. Retrospective study comparing motorcycle related head injuries seen at 56 major hospitals across Taiwan for one year before and after implementation of good essay starting, a universal helmet law, based on hoop dreams, the Head Injury Registry of Taiwan. Good Essay Starting Sentences. Total number of essays on mrs, motorcycle related head injuries decreased 33%. Essay Sentences. In hospital death rates remained unchanged at 4.0%. Tsai MC Hemenway D. Effect of the essay prompts, mandatory helmet law in Taiwan.
1999 Injury Prevention 5:290-291. Retrospective review in 3 cities comparing 6 months before to 6 months after enactment of good, a mandatory motorcycle law in Taiwan. Essays On Mrs Dalloway. Fatalities after a crash decreased by 14% and head-related fatalities reduced by essay, 22%. Peek-Asa C Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in papers motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law.
1997 Annals of Emergency Medicine 29:630-636. Retrospective review comparing 4790 non-fatally injured motorcycle riders for one year before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle law, linking medical records to essay starting, police reports. The risk of a head injury related impairment after a crash doubled when not wearing a helmet in both adjusted and unadjusted models. The models adjusted for alcohol, speeding, gender and being thrown from the motorcycle. Kraus JF Peek C.
The impact of dreams essay, two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 1991-1993. 1995 Journal of Neurotrauma 12:873-881. Retrospective review of non-fatally injured motorcycle riders before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle helmet law of 1992. The law resulted in 85.6% of injured riders wearing a helmet. Head injuries decreased from good essay starting sentences 38.2% of the injuries seen before the essay prompts, enactment to starting sentences, 24.1% of the head injuries after the law was enacted. Panichaphongse V Watanakajorn T Kasantikul V. Effects of law promulgation for compulsory use of protective helmets on practice essay, death following motorcycle accidents. 1995 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 78:521-525. Retrospective review comparing the 2 years before and after implementation of a motorcycle helmet law. Despite a 24% increase in motorcycle crash injuries, deaths decreased from 2% to 1.4%.
The percentage of patients who died due to brain injury remained constant over the 4 year period, ranging from 81-86%. Mock CN Maier RV Boyle E Pilcher S Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to essay sentences, promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I Trauma Center. 1995 Journal of Trauma 39:29-35. Retrospective review of the Trauma Registry of a level I Trauma Center over 8 years comparing helmeted to essays on mrs, non-helmeted motorcycle riders. A universal motorcycle helmet law was enacted during the review period. The mortality rate decreased from 10% before enactment of the helmet law to 6% after, and severe head injury decreased from sentences 20% of crash admissions to 9%. Kraus JF Peek C McArthur DL Williams A.
The effect of the 1992 California Motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. 1994 Journal of the plan customer and market, American Medical Association 272:1506-1511. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities for the year before and after implementation of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law, based on death certificates and police reports. There was a 37.5% decrease in absolute number of fatalities statewide during the first year after enactment, and with a decrease in the fatality ratio from 70.1 to 51.5 fatalities per 100,000 registrations in California. Fleming NS Becker ER. The impact of the essay, Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries.
1992 Medical Care 30:832-845. Retrospective review of essay, all motorcycle fatalities in Texas from 1984 through 1990, with a helmet law being enacted in 1989. Overall mortality reduced from 12.1 to 9.8 per 10,000 registrations As a percentage of the total annual deaths, head related fatalities decreased from 56% to 31.5%. Muelleman RL Mlinek EJ Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and costs : Effect of good starting, a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:266-272. Retrospective review of one year before and after the re-enactment of the motorcycle helmet law in Nebraska. Both registrations and crashes reduced in this same time period of 19871989.
The overall death rate dropped from 13 to 8 per essay 10,000 registrations. The frequency and severity of good essay sentences, brain injury were similar for the two time periods. Case Control Studies: Norvell DC Cummings P. Association of explain essay, helmet use with death in essay motorcycle crashes: A matched-pair cohort study. 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology 156:483-487. Matched Pair Cohort Study using the NHTSA-FARS database for fatalities within 30 days of the plan customer analysis, crash that occurred from 1980-1998. 60.8% of the essay starting sentences, fatalities involved non-helmeted riders.
The relative risk of death for a helmeted rider was estimated to be 0.61 compared to a non-helmeted rider, controlling for motorcycle and natural calamities, crash related variables, age, gender, and seat position. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of starting, helmets for essay prompts, the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. 1995 American Journal Of Epidemiology 42(9):97481. Motorcycle riders crash admissions in 15 hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from for 3 months in 1990. Good Starting Sentences. Cases were head injured motorcycle crash victims. Controls were motorcycle crash victims with injuries other than head. Street controls were non-injured motorcycle riders photographed contemporaneously to injured controls. Head Injury was involved in 41.5% of the 1,351 injuries during the study period.
Gabella B Reiner KL. Hoffman RECook MStallones L. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crashvictims in El Pasocounty, Colorado, 1998-1990. 1995 Accident analysis and Prevention 27:363-369. A county based study of natural calamities essay, head injury after motorcycle crashes determined by traffic accident reports and the Injury Epidemiology Program of Colorado. Good Starting. A case was a motorcycle rider with a head injury after a crash in a 2 year period of calamities, time from 1989-1990. A control was a controlwas a motorcycle crash in the same county and essay, time period but without a head injury. Notwearing a helmet increased the likelihood of a head injury from a crash by an odds ratio of 3.34 relative to those riders wearing a helmet. Retrospective Cross-sectional Studies:
Croce MA Zarzaur BL Manotti LJ Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle Helmets and State Laws on Society’s Burden: A National Study. 2009 Annals of Surgery 250:390-394. Retrospective review from practice prompts 2002-2007 of National Trauma Data Bank. Helmeted trauma patients had lower odds of death as compared to non-helmeted: Adjusted odds ratio of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.93). N=75,644 Helmeted patients had better GCS scores.
Goslar PW Crawford NR Petersen SR Wilson JR Harrington T. Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. 2008 Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 53:469-471. Retrospective review of trauma registry of good sentences, one Level I trauma center from July 1st, 2002-June 30th, 2005. Natural. Non-helmeted rider was 2X more likely to good essay, sustain a brain injury and natural, 3X more likely to starting sentences, die from the crash than a helmeted rider. Houston DJ Richardson LE. Motorcycle Safety and the Repeal of developmental the dimension beyond psychosynthesis, Universal Helmet Laws. 2007 American Journal of Public Health 97(11): 2063-2069. Retrospective review of all 51 states from the NHTSA Fatal Accident Reporting System from 1975 -2004. Mortality was analyzed controlling for starting sentences, other rider and transpersonal the dimension psychosynthesis, state factors that affect motorcycle-related mortality: demographic, social, traffic safety and population density across states.
There was a 13.7% mortality reduction in states attributable to universal helmet law. Coben JH Steiner CA Miller TR. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: Comparing states with different helmet laws. 2007 Accident Analysis and Prevention 39:190-196. A one year retrospective review of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) registry. The HCUP State Inpatient Database (SID) contains data from good essay starting 33 states and captures. 80% of all hospital discharges in the US.
25,794 cases were identified; 16,105 from states with universal helmet laws, 7,924 from states with partial laws and explain essay, 1765 from states with no helmet laws. Cases from states without universal helmet laws were 52% more likely to sustain the most severe forms of traumatic brain injury (RR: 1.52) and good essay, had a mortality rate 39% higher than those states with universal helmet. Lin JW Tsai SH Tsai WC Chiu WT Chu SF Lin CM Yang CM Hung CC. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in developmental Taiwan. 2006 Surgical Neurology S2:20-25. Retrospective review of 90,250 head trauma case admitted to the hospital in Taiwan, excluding dead on arrivals and outpatients over an 8 year period. 47% of all injuries were motorcycle related. Those not wearing a helmet had a 32.9% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, compared to 25.2% for essay starting sentences, those who were. The chance of transpersonal the dimension beyond psychosynthesis, having an intracranial hemorrhage was 1.4 times higher for essay starting sentences, those not wearing a helmet compared to those who did (odds ratio of 1.40).
Eastridge BJ Shafi S Minei JP Culica D McConnel C Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge. 2006 Journal of essays, Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 60:978-984. Motorcyclists who crashed and found in NHTSA GES database for pre-hospital data and essay starting, NTDB for hospital data from customer and market analysis 1994 to 2002. Sentences. There was less than half the risk of death or admission with a head injury for helmeted riders in comparison to non-helmeted riders. Javouhey E Guerin AC Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from plan analysis road accidents: A population-based study. 2006 Accident Analysis and Prevention 38:225-33. Motorcycle crashes were identified in a population based road trauma registry in France from 1996-2001 to determine risks for essay sentences, severe head injury. A non-helmeted rider had an 18 fold higher risk of having a severe head injury as defined by AIS of 2 or higher as compared to helmeted riders.
Nakahara S Chadbunchachai W Ichikawa M Tipsuntornsak N Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. 2005 Accident Analysis and essay, Prevention 37:833-842. Retrospective review of 9,552 patients injured in motorcycle crashes in starting sentences Thailand and psychosynthesis, transferred to sentences, the regional Medical Center over 5 years. The case fatality rate was 0.25 for on mrs dalloway, helmeted riders and 0.94 for non-helmeted riders. The fatality was also stratified by alcohol intoxication and time of day of crash. Hundley JK Kilgo PD Miller P R Chang MC Hensberry RA Meredith JW Hoth JJ. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the National Trauma Data bank. 2004 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 57:944-9. Retrospective review of motorcyclist crashes identified in good starting the NTDB from 1994-2002.
The risk of death was 44% lower for helmeted riders than non-helmeted riders. 69.2% of all riders were listed as wearing a helmet. Brandt MM Ahrns KS Corpron CA Franklin GA Wahl Wl. Hospital cost is reduced by hoop papers, motorcycle helmet use. 2002 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 53(3):469-71. Retrospective review of motorcycle crashes in the trauma registry at good essay starting sentences, a Level I trauma centre from 1996 to 2000. The risk of death was 16% lower in helmeted riders as compared to non-helmeted riders. Peek-Asa C McArthur DL Kraus JF. The prevalence of nonstandard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. 1999 Accident Analysis and Prevention 31:229-233. Retrospective review comparing helmets which met the 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law requirements to those which did not.
One third of riders whose crash report indicated a non-standard helmet were killed, compared to 15.5% on non-helmeted riders and dreams essay, 13.6% of good, helmeted riders. Dalloway. Among all riders wearing non-standard helmets, 75% sustained a head injury of good, any severity and 62.5% sustained a head injury ³ 3. This was also significantly higher than those riders not wearing a helmet (51.9% and 37.4%) and those wearing a standard helmet (30.7% and 21.8%). The authors conclude that non-standard helmets do not provide protection. Petridou E Skalkidou A Ioannou N Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: A nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. 1998 Accident Analysis and Prevention 30:87-91.
Retrospective analysis of all motorcycle crashes in Greece for 1985 and 1994. No motorcycle laws were in effect during either period, and helmet use rates were similar for on mrs dalloway, two periods. In 1985, 3.5% of essay, helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to hoop essay papers, 4.3% of unhelmeted riders. In 1994, 2.9% of good essay starting sentences, helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to explain essay, 5.1% for unhelmeted riders. The authors estimate that 38% of all motorcycle deaths could potentially be avoided if all motorcycle riders wore helmets. Rivara F Salzberg P Soderberg R Maier R Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State. 1996 American Journal of Public Health 86:41-45.
Retrospective review combining State crash information, hospital records, and death records for 1989 in Washington State. There were 2,090 crashes with 59 fatalities (2.8%). Motorcycle riders who were hospitalized after a crash were 2.9 times more likely to be hospitalized with a head injury and 3.7 times more likely to have suffered a severe of critical head injury if they were not wearing a helmet. Non-helmeted riders had 1.62 times the sentences, risk of a fatal crash compared to helmeted riders. Orsay E Holden JA Williams J Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in dreams papers the State of Illinois: Analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. 1995 Annals of Emergency Medicine 28:455-460. Retrospective review of the Illinois Trauma Registry for 18 months comparing helmeted to unhelmeted motorcycle riders. Good. Of the 1231, 18% were helmeted and 56% were not. Developmental Beyond. 30% of the helmeted riders sustained head injuries compared to 51% for unhelmeted riders.
The unhelmeted riders also had more severe head injuries. Rutledge RStutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of good essay, motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. 1993 Accident Analysis and Prevention 25:347-353. Retrospective analysis of the North Carolina State Trauma Registry over 3.5 years, comparing 892 patients.
Helmet information was available for 460 (51.6%). Head injuries with AIS 2-5 occurred in 53% of unhelmeted riders, compared to 28% of and market, helmeted riders. Braddock M Schwartz R Lapidus G Banco L Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:273-278.
Retrospective review of 112 motorcycle deaths in Connecticut over a two year period. The fatality rate for unhelmeted riders was 26.7 per 1000 crashes, compared to 7.9 for helmeted riders. Offner PF Rivara FP Maier RV. The Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Use. 1992 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 32(5):636-42. Retrospective review of essay sentences, admitted riders after motorcycle crash at practice essay prompts, one Level I trauma center. The trauma registry identified the starting, cases from 1985 to 1990. Head injury was reduced by 68% when wearing a helmet while there was no impact on death. Ramzy AI Soderstrom CA Dischinger PC Clark CC. Helmet Use, Patterns of Injury, Medical Outcome and plan customer analysis, Costs among Motorcycle Drivers in Maryland. 1992 Accident, Analysis and Prevention 24(4): 385-96.
Retrospective review of all motorcycle crashes in the State of Maryland for one year, 1987 to 1988. Riders wore a helmet in 35% of the crashes.
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Transcript: Barack Obama's Speech on good, Race. Click to view mentions of key words in Obama's speech. Transpersonal The Dimension. hide caption. The number of times Obama used these key words in his March 18 speech on good essay sentences, race in Philadelphia. The following is transpersonal the dimension psychosynthesis a transcript of the good essay starting sentences, remarks of Democratic Illinois Sen. Explain Essay. Barack Obama, delivered March 18, 2008, in Philadelphia at good essay sentences, the Constitution Center. In it, Obama addresses the role race has played in the presidential campaign. He also responds to prompts criticism of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, an unpaid campaign adviser and pastor at Obama's Chicago church. Wright has made inflammatory remarks about the United States and has accused the country of bringing on good essay, the Sept. 11 attacks by spreading terrorism. We the people, in order to form a more perfect union . Business Plan Customer Analysis. ó 221 years ago, in a hall that still stands across the street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in democracy.
Farmers and scholars, statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787. The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. Essay. It was stained by this nation's original sin of slavery, a question that divided the colonies and practice brought the convention to a stalemate until the founders chose to allow the slave trade to continue for at least 20 more years, and to leave any final resolution to starting sentences future generations. Of course, the answer to the slavery question was already embedded within our Constitution ó a Constitution that had at its very core the calamities, ideal of equal citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty and starting justice and a union that could be and dreams essay papers should be perfected over time. And yet words on good essay, a parchment would not be enough to prompts deliver slaves from essay starting, bondage, or provide men and essay prompts women of every color and creed their full rights and essay starting sentences obligations as citizens of the the dimension, United States. What would be needed were Americans in good essay sentences successive generations who were willing to do their part ó through protests and struggles, on essay, the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and civil disobedience, and always at great risk ó to narrow that gap between the promise of our ideals and the reality of their time. This was one of the tasks we set forth at the beginning of this presidential campaign ó to continue the long march of those who came before us, a march for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and starting sentences more prosperous America. I chose to run for president at this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together, unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and on mrs dalloway we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in good starting sentences the same direction ó toward a better future for our children and our grandchildren. This belief comes from my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people.
But it also comes from my own story. I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. Essays Dalloway. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in sentences Patton's Army during World War II and transpersonal developmental the dimension beyond psychosynthesis a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I've gone to some of the best schools in starting America and lived in one of the world's poorest nations. I am married to natural calamities a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners ó an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is starting my story even possible. It's a story that hasn't made me the most conventional of candidates. But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is hoop dreams essay more than the sum of its parts ó that out of many, we are truly one. Throughout the first year of good, this campaign, against all predictions to the contrary, we saw how hungry the American people were for this message of essay, unity. Despite the temptation to good sentences view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won commanding victories in states with some of the on mrs dalloway, whitest populations in the country. In South Carolina, where the good essay sentences, Confederate flag still flies, we built a powerful coalition of African-Americans and white Americans.
This is not to say that race has not been an issue in papers this campaign. Starting Sentences. At various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either too black or not black enough. We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the transpersonal developmental beyond, week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every single exit poll for essay starting, the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in terms of white and black, but black and brown as well. And yet, it has only been in the last couple of weeks that the discussion of race in this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn. On one end of the spectrum, we've heard the implication that my candidacy is somehow an exercise in essay affirmative action; that it's based solely on the desire of good essay starting, wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on the cheap. Essays. On the other end, we've heard my former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, use incendiary language to starting express views that have the essays on mrs dalloway, potential not only to widen the racial divide, but views that denigrate both the greatness and the goodness of our nation, and that rightly offend white and black alike.
I have already condemned, in unequivocal terms, the statements of sentences, Reverend Wright that have caused such controversy and, in some cases, pain. For some, nagging questions remain. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of American domestic and foreign policy? Of course. Papers. Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in the church?
Yes. Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely ó just as I'm sure many of you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with which you strongly disagreed. But the remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren't simply controversial. Essay Sentences. They weren't simply a religious leader's efforts to speak out against perceived injustice. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of this country ó a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is wrong with America above all that we know is transpersonal developmental the dimension psychosynthesis right with America; a view that sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart allies like Israel, instead of emanating from the perverse and hateful ideologies of radical Islam.
As such, Reverend Wright's comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive at a time when we need unity; racially charged at a time when we need to starting come together to solve a set of monumental problems ó two wars, a terrorist threat, a falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and potentially devastating climate change ó problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather problems that confront us all. Given my background, my politics, and my professed values and ideals, there will no doubt be those for whom my statements of condemnation are not enough. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place, they may ask? Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend Wright were the snippets of those sermons that have run in an endless loop on the television sets and YouTube, or if Trinity United Church of Christ conformed to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is no doubt that I would react in much the same way. But the truth is, that isn't all that I know of the man. The man I met more than 20 years ago is natural a man who helped introduce me to my Christian faith, a man who spoke to me about our obligations to love one another, to care for the sick and lift up the essay starting sentences, poor. He is natural calamities essay a man who served his country as a United States Marine; who has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in good essay starting sentences the country, and who for over 30 years has led a church that serves the community by doing God's work here on Earth ó by housing the homeless, ministering to the needy, providing day care services and scholarships and prison ministries, and reaching out to those suffering from essays on mrs dalloway, HIV/AIDS. In my first book, Dreams From My Father , I describe the experience of my first service at Trinity: People began to shout, to rise from their seats and clap and cry out, a forceful wind carrying the reverend's voice up into the rafters.
And in that single note ó hope! ó I heard something else: At the foot of that cross, inside the starting, thousands of churches across the city, I imagined the stories of ordinary black people merging with the stories of David and Goliath, Moses and Pharaoh, the Christians in the lion's den, Ezekiel's field of dry bones. Natural Calamities Essay. Those stories ó of survival and freedom and hope ó became our stories, my story. The blood that spilled was our blood, the essay sentences, tears our tears, until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of a people into transpersonal the dimension psychosynthesis, future generations and into a larger world. Our trials and triumphs became at once unique and universal, black and more than black. In chronicling our journey, the stories and essay sentences songs gave us a meaning to reclaim memories that we didn't need to on mrs feel shame about sentences, ó memories that all people might study and cherish, and with which we could start to rebuild. That has been my experience at Trinity. Explain Essay. Like other predominantly black churches across the essay starting sentences, country, Trinity embodies the explain essay, black community in its entirety ó the doctor and good starting sentences the welfare mom, the model student and the former gang-banger.
Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of raucous laughter and sometimes bawdy humor. They are full of dancing and clapping and screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to essay prompts the untrained ear. The church contains in full the good sentences, kindness and cruelty, the fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the struggles and successes, the love and, yes, the bitterness and biases that make up the black experience in America. And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to me. Essays. He strengthened my faith, officiated my wedding, and baptized my children. Good. Not once in plan customer and market analysis my conversations with him have I heard him talk about any ethnic group in derogatory terms, or treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and respect. He contains within him the contradictions ó the essay starting sentences, good and the bad ó of the community that he has served diligently for so many years. I can no more disown him than I can disown the natural, black community.
I can no more disown him than I can disown my white grandmother ó a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed her by on the street, and good essay who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe. These people are a part of me. And they are part of calamities essay, America, this country that I love. Some will see this as an attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply inexcusable. I can assure you it is not. I suppose the politically safe thing to do would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the woodwork. We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in the aftermath of her recent statements, as harboring some deep-seated bias. But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now. We would be making the same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his offending sermons about America ó to simplify and stereotype and amplify the good essay starting, negative to the point that it distorts reality.
The fact is that the comments that have been made and the issues that have surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country that we've never really worked through ó a part of natural calamities essay, our union that we have not yet made perfect. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective corners, we will never be able to come together and solve challenges like health care or education or the need to find good jobs for good starting, every American. Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at this point. As William Faulkner once wrote, The past isn't dead and explain essay buried. In fact, it isn't even past. We do not need to essay recite here the history of racial injustice in this country. But we do need to dalloway remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist between the African-American community and the larger American community today can be traced directly to inequalities passed on from an earlier generation that suffered under the brutal legacy of slavery and good Jim Crow. Segregated schools were and are inferior schools; we still haven't fixed them, 50 years after Brown v. Board of Education. Essays Dalloway. And the inferior education they provided, then and good essay starting sentences now, helps explain the pervasive achievement gap between today's black and white students. Legalized discrimination ó where blacks were prevented, often through violence, from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions or the police force or the fire department ó meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to practice essay bequeath to future generations.
That history helps explain the essay starting sentences, wealth and income gap between blacks and whites, and the concentrated pockets of poverty that persist in so many of today's urban and rural communities. A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and hoop dreams essay papers frustration that came from not being able to provide for one's family contributed to the erosion of black families ó a problem that welfare policies for many years may have worsened. And the good essay starting, lack of basic services in so many urban black neighborhoods ó parks for kids to play in, police walking the beat, regular garbage pickup, building code enforcement ó all helped create a cycle of violence, blight and neglect that continues to haunt us. This is the reality in which Reverend Wright and other African-Americans of his generation grew up. They came of age in explain essay the late '50s and early '60s, a time when segregation was still the law of the land and opportunity was systematically constricted. What's remarkable is not how many failed in the face of discrimination, but how many men and women overcame the good essay sentences, odds; how many were able to business analysis make a way out of no way, for those like me who would come after them. For all those who scratched and clawed their way to essay get a piece of the plan and market, American Dream, there were many who didn't make it ó those who were ultimately defeated, in one way or another, by discrimination. That legacy of defeat was passed on to future generations ó those young men and, increasingly, young women who we see standing on street corners or languishing in our prisons, without hope or prospects for the future.
Even for those blacks who did make it, questions of good essay, race and racism continue to define their worldview in fundamental ways. Plan Customer And Market. For the men and women of Reverend Wright's generation, the memories of humiliation and doubt and good essay sentences fear have not gone away; nor has the anger and the bitterness of natural calamities essay, those years. That anger may not get expressed in public, in good essay front of white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or the beauty shop or around the kitchen table. At times, that anger is exploited by politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to on mrs make up for a politician's own failings. And occasionally it finds voice in the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and in starting sentences the pews. The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in some of Reverend Wright's sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the most segregated hour of American life occurs on Sunday morning.
That anger is not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from solving real problems; it keeps us from squarely facing our own complicity within the African-American community in our condition, and prevents the African-American community from forging the alliances it needs to bring about real change. But the anger is real; it is powerful. And to simply wish it away, to condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to widen the explain essay, chasm of essay, misunderstanding that exists between the races. In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the psychosynthesis, white community. Most working- and middle-class white Americans don't feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race. Essay Starting. Their experience is the immigrant experience ó as far as they're concerned, no one handed them anything. They built it from scratch. They've worked hard all their lives, many times only to dalloway see their jobs shipped overseas or their pensions dumped after a lifetime of labor. They are anxious about their futures, and they feel their dreams slipping away. And in good essay sentences an era of hoop dreams, stagnant wages and global competition, opportunity comes to be seen as a zero sum game, in sentences which your dreams come at my expense.
So when they are told to bus their children to a school across town; when they hear an African-American is getting an advantage in essays on mrs dalloway landing a good job or a spot in a good college because of an good essay, injustice that they themselves never committed; when they're told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over time. Like the anger within the black community, these resentments aren't always expressed in polite company. But they have helped shape the political landscape for at least a generation. Anger over essay, welfare and affirmative action helped forge the Reagan Coalition. Essay Sentences. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own electoral ends. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of calamities essay, racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism. Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white resentments distracted attention from the real culprits of the middle class squeeze ó a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting practices and short-term greed; a Washington dominated by lobbyists and special interests; economic policies that favor the few over the many.
And yet, to wish away the essay sentences, resentments of white Americans, to label them as misguided or even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns ó this too widens the racial divide and blocks the path to understanding. This is where we are right now. It's a racial stalemate we've been stuck in for hoop dreams essay papers, years. Contrary to essay starting sentences the claims of essay, some of my critics, black and white, I have never been so naive as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy ó particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own. But I have asserted a firm conviction ó a conviction rooted in my faith in God and good starting my faith in the American people ó that, working together, we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and explain essay that in fact we have no choice if we are to good sentences continue on the path of a more perfect union. For the hoop dreams essay, African-American community, that path means embracing the burdens of good starting sentences, our past without becoming victims of our past. Essay. It means continuing to essay insist on essays on mrs, a full measure of essay sentences, justice in every aspect of American life. Plan And Market Analysis. But it also means binding our particular grievances ó for essay starting sentences, better health care and better schools and better jobs ó to business plan customer the larger aspirations of all Americans: the white woman struggling to break the glass ceiling, the white man who has been laid off, the good sentences, immigrant trying to feed his family. And it means taking full responsibility for our own lives ó by demanding more from the dimension beyond, our fathers, and good spending more time with our children, and plan and market reading to them, and teaching them that while they may face challenges and discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to despair or cynicism; they must always believe that they can write their own destiny. Ironically, this quintessentially American ó and yes, conservative ó notion of self-help found frequent expression in Reverend Wright's sermons.
But what my former pastor too often failed to good essay understand is that embarking on a program of self-help also requires a belief that society can change. The profound mistake of Reverend Wright's sermons is not that he spoke about racism in our society. It's that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress had been made; as if this country ó a country that has made it possible for one of his own members to run for the highest office in the land and natural calamities essay build a coalition of white and black, Latino and Asian, rich and starting sentences poor, young and old ó is still irrevocably bound to a tragic past. But what we know ó what we have seen ó is that America can change. That is the true genius of this nation. What we have already achieved gives us hope ó the audacity to transpersonal the dimension beyond psychosynthesis hope ó for essay starting sentences, what we can and must achieve tomorrow. In the white community, the natural essay, path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the good essay starting, African-American community does not just exist in the minds of black people; that the legacy of discrimination ó and current incidents of discrimination, while less overt than in the past ó are real and must be addressed, not just with words, but with deeds, by investing in our schools and our communities; by enforcing our civil rights laws and ensuring fairness in our criminal justice system; by providing this generation with ladders of opportunity that were unavailable for previous generations.
It requires all Americans to essays realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of my dreams; that investing in the health, welfare and education of black and brown and white children will ultimately help all of America prosper. In the end, then, what is called for good, is nothing more and nothing less than what all the world's great religions demand ó that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Let us be our brother's keeper, scripture tells us. Dreams Papers. Let us be our sister's keeper. Good Starting. Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and let our politics reflect that spirit as well. For we have a choice in explain essay this country. We can accept a politics that breeds division and conflict and cynicism. We can tackle race only as spectacle ó as we did in the O.J. trial ó or in the wake of tragedy ó as we did in essay the aftermath of Katrina ó or as fodder for explain essay, the nightly news.
We can play Reverend Wright's sermons on every channel, every day and talk about good sentences, them from now until the election, and make the practice essay prompts, only question in essay starting sentences this campaign whether or not the American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by a Hillary supporter as evidence that she's playing the race card, or we can speculate on whether white men will all flock to John McCain in the general election regardless of his policies. But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we'll be talking about some other distraction. And then another one. And then another one. And nothing will change.
That is one option. Or, at this moment, in this election, we can come together and say, Not this time. This time, we want to talk about the crumbling schools that are stealing the future of black children and white children and Asian children and Hispanic children and Native American children. This time, we want to reject the calamities, cynicism that tells us that these kids can't learn; that those kids who don't look like us are somebody else's problem. The children of America are not those kids, they are our kids, and good starting we will not let them fall behind in a 21st century economy. Transpersonal The Dimension Beyond Psychosynthesis. Not this time. This time we want to talk about how the lines in the emergency room are filled with whites and good starting sentences blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care, who don't have the power on their own to overcome the special interests in Washington, but who can take them on if we do it together. This time, we want to talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent life for men and women of every race, and the homes for sale that once belonged to Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of life. This time, we want to talk about the practice prompts, fact that the real problem is good starting sentences not that someone who doesn't look like you might take your job; it's that the corporation you work for will ship it overseas for nothing more than a profit.
This time, we want to talk about the men and women of every color and creed who serve together and fight together and bleed together under the same proud flag. We want to talk about natural, how to bring them home from good essay sentences, a war that should have never been authorized and should have never been waged. And we want to talk about how we'll show our patriotism by caring for them and their families, and giving them the benefits that they have earned. I would not be running for President if I didn't believe with all my heart that this is what the vast majority of Americans want for natural calamities, this country. This union may never be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be perfected. Good Essay Starting. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about this possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation ó the young people whose attitudes and beliefs and openness to change have already made history in this election. There is one story in particularly that I'd like to leave you with today ó a story I told when I had the great honor of essays, speaking on Dr. Good. King's birthday at his home church, Ebenezer Baptist, in Atlanta.
There is essay prompts a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized for our campaign in Florence, S.C. She had been working to starting organize a mostly African-American community since the beginning of this campaign, and one day she was at a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their story and why they were there. And Ashley said that when she was 9 years old, her mother got cancer. Essay Prompts. And because she had to miss days of starting sentences, work, she was let go and lost her health care. They had to file for bankruptcy, and that's when Ashley decided that she had to do something to help her mom. She knew that food was one of their most expensive costs, and so Ashley convinced her mother that what she really liked and really wanted to dalloway eat more than anything else was mustard and relish sandwiches ó because that was the good essay, cheapest way to eat. That's the developmental psychosynthesis, mind of a 9-year-old. She did this for a year until her mom got better. So she told everyone at the roundtable that the reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help the millions of other children in the country who want and need to help their parents, too.
Now, Ashley might have made a different choice. Essay Starting. Perhaps somebody told her along the way that the source of her mother's problems were blacks who were on welfare and business and market analysis too lazy to work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country illegally. But she didn't. Essay Starting Sentences. She sought out allies in her fight against injustice. Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and then goes around the room and asks everyone else why they're supporting the campaign. They all have different stories and different reasons.
Many bring up a specific issue. Essays. And finally they come to this elderly black man who's been sitting there quietly the entire time. And Ashley asks him why he's there. And he does not bring up a specific issue. He does not say health care or the economy.
He does not say education or the war. He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. He simply says to everyone in the room, I am here because of Ashley. I'm here because of good essay starting sentences, Ashley. By itself, that single moment of recognition between that young white girl and that old black man is not enough. It is not enough to transpersonal developmental beyond give health care to the sick, or jobs to the jobless, or education to our children.
But it is where we start. It is where our union grows stronger. And as so many generations have come to realize over good starting, the course of the business plan and market, 221 years since a band of starting sentences, patriots signed that document right here in Philadelphia, that is where the perfection begins.
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4 essay taks Home Ľ IELTS Writing Task 2. The key to IELTS Writing Task 2 success is to give the essay sentences, examiner exactly what they want and nothing else. Explain Essay! Below you will find everything you need to achieve a high score in IELTS Writing Task 2. IELTS Writing Task 2: 5 Step Approach. IELTS Writing Task 2 requires you to write an academic-style essay on a common topic. You have 40 minutes to write at least 250 words. Task 2 can be broken down and thought about more easily in 5 steps: You must first understand the question to know exactly what the examiner is starting, looking for. One of the biggest mistakes students make is developmental psychosynthesis, not answering the good sentences, question properly. If you do not answer the question fully, you can#8217;t score higher than a Band 5. On Mrs! In order to do this, you must first identify the question type, then identify the keywords in starting the question and finally identify the instructions words in order to transpersonal beyond psychosynthesis find out what the examiner wants you to do with the question. We will look at sentences these skills in more detail below. The students who get the highest marks plan before they write and they often plan for essay up to 10 minutes.
Planning helps you organise your ideas and structure before you write, saving you time and helping you write a clear essay. The introduction should tell the examiner what the good essay starting, rest of the hoop, essay is about and also answer the question directly. This tells the examiner that you know what you are doing straight away and helps you write your main body paragraphs. This is where you give the good starting, examiner more detail. You do this by stating your main points and supporting these with explanations and relevant examples. Here you provide a summary of what you have already said in the rest of the essay. See below for articles on the specific skills you need to do this and full lessons on each different question type. Essential Writing Task 2 Skills. No matter how good your English is you still need to developmental beyond learn some IELTS writing skills before you do Writing Task 2. Below are helpful guides that will take you through each of these skills step-by-step.
Making a good plan actually saves you time when you write your essay. If you don#8217;t plan you are more likely to good essay starting sentences get lost half way through your essay and dreams essay the result is normally a very confused piece of writing that is difficult to read. This guide will show you how to write a clear essay every time. Thinking of good good ideas is one of the most challenging parts of the test for some people. This guide provides 5 different methods to help you quickly think of prompts relevant ideas that are directly linked to the question. Complex sentences help you boost your score for grammar. Good Essay Starting! Complex sentences are actually very simple to write and are not complex at all- in this article we show you how. Paraphrasing is dreams, one of the most essential IELTS skills, not just in Writing Task 2, but in all parts of the IELTS test. You should paraphrase the question in good essay every essay and I recommend doing this in the very first sentence to help boost your vocabulary score. Supporting paragraphs are the main body paragraphs and are the meat in the sandwich.
This is where you provide the essay prompts, detail the essay starting, examiner is looking for in the form of explanations and examples. A thesis statement tell the examiner your opinion. Essay Prompts! Many IELTS Writing Task 2 questions specifically ask for your opinion and if you don#8217;t write it clearly you have not answered the question properly. This article shows you how, where and when to give your opinion. Around 250 words? Exactly 250 words or over 250 words? How many words over? How do I know how many words I have? This article answers all those questions. A critical part of answering any question. This article shows you how to break down any Task 2 question and identify the keywords, micro-keywords and instruction words to help you answer the question effectively.
The introduction is the first thing the good, examiner reads and it is plan customer analysis, therefore essential that we give them a good first impression. I have a very specific sentence by essay starting sentence structure that I share in this article to help you write introductions quickly and effectively. Hoop Dreams Essay! Do you know how Task 2 is marked? What is the difference between a Band 5 and a Band 8 answer? This article breaks the marking criteria down for you and good starting sentences explains it in simple language so you can give the transpersonal the dimension, IELTS examiners exactly what they want. A good conclusion should be a summary of your main points.
The conclusion is the last thing the essay starting sentences, examiner reads and if you can write a good one you will leave them with a very good impression. Each of your supporting paragraphs should have a specific example that supports and dreams essay illustrates your main point. This is an essential skill to learn if you want to get one of the higher band scores. Cohesive devices, sometimes called linking words, are one of the most misunderstood and misused elements of writing. Learn how to use them and when to essay sentences use them here. Natural Calamities Essay! Synonyms are very important, but they can also really reduce you mark if used incorrectly. Learn how Tina went from a Band 6 to and Band 8 in good sentences IELTS Writing in just 6 weeks. I recorded a video of me answering a Task 2 question live and thought out dreams essay loud as I recorded my computer screen.
This will give you an insight into how someone with lots of IELTS experience thinks about these questions. This article will show you how to make your writing as clear and as easy to read as possible. It will also give you advice on essay starting sentences whether to use a pen or pencil. I have compiled these tips after years of teaching IELTS and all of them have been approved by IELTS examiners. These structures give you a sentence-by-sentence structure for all the practice prompts, main Task 2 question types, making your job much easier on exam day. Knowing the common topics can help you prepare for the test more efficiently. Here are the good starting sentences, 10 most common topics over the last few years.
Studying hard is great, but don#8217;t forget to study smart. The article below will show you the top 10 most common IELTS topics. The article below will show you how you can use the most common Task 2 topics to your advantage. Posted by IELTS Advantage on Tuesday, January 10, 2017. Here are some lessons that I have used when teaching students about practice essay Task 2. I have changed them so that you can easily learn at home.
They are very long but combined with the skills above, they contain all the information you need. Grammar is one of the four things you will be marked on in the Writing test. Finding out what your common grammar mistakes are and then fixing them is a very powerful way to boost your score in essay this area. Here are some common grammar mistakes I have found after making hundreds of tests. Itís very important that you have some good examples so that you can compare your writing and see if you are on plan the right track. Click the link below for lots of sample answers and over 100 questions. We are constantly adding to our collection of IELTS Writing Task 2 resources, so if you have a suggestion please let us know.
In the meantime, thanks for good essay starting sentences your patience #128578; Click here to return to the homepage, or click one of the links below to check out more great IELTS stuff. Home Ľ IELTS Writing Task 2. Check your email for the link. Business Customer And Market! Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only. IELTS is starting sentences, a registered trademark of the dimension beyond University of good sentences Cambridge, the natural calamities, British Council, and IDP Education Australia.
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