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Biography Genre Definition Complete List of Book Genres. Home » Nonfiction » Biography Genre Definition Complete List of Book Genres. Biography Genre Definition What#8217;s the writing essay, best definition for the biography genre? A biography is an account of a person’s life written by someone else. Essay Charles Darwin! Biographies are true stories about real people. They are set within a real historical framework with the unique social and political conditions that existed during the subject’s life.
Biographies can be about people who are alive or dead. Most often they’re about someone who was significant (popular (or unpopular) politicians and/or celebrities). Scroll below now to essay, see 25 biography nonfiction genre examples, Biography Genre Definition Examples. Review this list of popular examples to help you get a better understanding of the biography nonfiction genre. 1. 1776 by David McCullough. 2. Alexander Hamilton by Ron Chernow. 3. Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy by Eric Metaxas.
4. Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman by Robert K. Massie. 5. Destiny of the Republic: A Tale of Madness, Medicine and the Murder of a President by Candice Millard. 6. Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. 7. Problems! Frida: A Biography of 10 steps writing, Frida Kahlo by Hayden Herrera. Problems Essay! 8. Into the Wild by 10 steps writing, Jon Krakauer. 9. Essay Godfather! John Adams by David McCullough. 10. Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, A Man Who Would Cure the World by Tracy Kidder. 11. Nicholas and Alexandra by Robert K. 10 Steps Essay! Massie.
12. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt by essay, Doris Kearns Goodwin. 13. Peter the Great: His Life and World by Robert K. 10 Steps Writing Essay! Massie. 14. Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson. 15. 5 Paragraph Charles Darwin! Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln by Doris Kearns Goodwin. 16.
The Professor and the Madman: A Tale of Murder, Insanity and writing essay, the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary by Simon Winchester. 17. The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt by Edmund Morris. 18. The River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt#8217;s Darkest Journey by Candice Millard. 19. The Six Wives of Henry VIII by Alison Weir. 20.
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As a self-taught, award-winning filmmaker, David is also an authority on darwin screenwriting for short or feature films. David has helped guide a number of manuscripts to publication and looks forward to continuing to apply his critical insight and editorial skills to help bring more projects to fruition. In addition to 10 steps an eagle-eyed ability to spot errors of mechanics and a thorough comprehension of physics a level coursework even the most arcane points of grammar, his best attribute as an editor lies in his proficient knowledge of what makes a piece of writing work (and, importantly, what doesn't). David relishes the process of working with the author to 10 steps get at the heart of the substantive components of a novel, dissertation, or other text and finding ways to allow those parts to 5 paragraph darwin cohere into a functional, unified whole. Being an effective editor often also necessitates being an educator of sorts, especially when working with less experienced authors.
Hence, David strives not only to essay revise and critique an author's work but also to imbue him or her with a deeper understanding of the craft, which also ensures that he or she understands my own editorial changes and suggestions. He has found this approach to be very effective for producing polished works of school essay fiction as well as satisfied clients. Christian - Fantasy - Memoirs. CAROLINE HILEY specializes in editing novels. Writing. She works with independent authors as well as traditional publishers, such as Penguin, HarperCollins, and Little, Brown. She also handles short-form fiction (novellas and short stories) and memoir. From decades of master experience as an editor and compositor, along with her personal experience as a published novelist, Caroline understands the 10 steps writing, entire writing process from first draft to production. She helps novice and seasoned authors prepare their novels for the real world, including help not only with storycraft but also collateral documents, such as queries and synopses, and grooming files for submission to publishers and types of essay topics, self-publishing. Copyediting Substantive editing Manuscript evaluation.
Her focus in all editing is writing essay consistency, accuracy, and clarity, so that authors can successfully connect with their readers. [an error occurred while processing this directive] ANA HOWARD is the author of religion seven well-reviewed and award-winning children’s novels and has helped many others with their manuscripts, including picture books, chapter books, middle grade and young adult novels. After working in public schools for many years, she has now been a part of the publishing industry for fifteen years and provides a creative and supportive environment. She is passionate about children’s literature and 10 steps essay, offers the following services: • Developmental, substantive and content editing. • Formatting and guidance on edexcel physics the submission process. • Query letters and synopses. • Advice for 10 steps writing, self-publishing authors. Water at the Blue Earth , young adult historical fiction (Roberts Rinehart) A Ceiling of different types of essay topics Stars , middle grade contemporary fiction (American Girl) Nowhere, Now Here , middle grade contemporary fiction (American Girl) The Magic of Ordinary Days, adult historical fiction (Viking Penguin) Under a Stand Still Moon, young adult historical fiction (Brown Barn Books) Call Me the Canyon , young adult historical fiction (Brown Barn Books) Nicki, contemporary middle grade fiction (American Girl) Thanks to Nicki, contemporary middle grade fiction (American Girl) She has seen one of her novels made into film (for Hallmark Hall of Fame Productions on CBS) and has won numerous literary awards. She believes that even in today’s tough publishing climate, it is 10 steps writing essay still possible for new writers to enter the business and different types topics, succeed.
Second to writing writing her own novels, she loves to mentor others to problems essay help them achieve their goals. She knows firsthand how writers benefit from the help and support of other writers and/or editors. My novel had lingered in writing essay the offices of editors at the Big Six for years. Doing Master. Ana’s editing was timely and skillful and writing essay, showed an understanding of my work. Doing Master. I used 95% of 10 steps essay her suggestions and cut 200 pages from a 600 page manuscript. End result is a book with a clean, compelling narrative that has been called 'a gripping read'. School Problems Essay. Reader reviews of my book at Amazon and Goodreads have been very gratifying and allowed me to enter the top 100 for science-fiction/fantasy. Kirkus Reviews selected Prophets of the Ghost Ants as one of their Best of 2011. I would recommend Ana Howard's services to any author whose work needs an edit.
Cost of the service was more than fair and the end result was priceless. 10 Steps Writing. Clark T. Carlton. [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] Sue offers a variety of editing and design services to fit your needs. When you publish something that you have written, you want it to be perfect – after all, it’s your masterpiece.
Not only do you want it to be free of errors like misspellings and misplaced punctuation but also you want it to be clear, concise, and accurate. This is where Sue Koffie comes in. Her goal as an problems essay, editor is to ensure that your published masterpiece is perfect without modifying it to the point that your voice is lost in the editing process. As a multi-genre book editor and page layout artist, Sue has worked with both small and large publishing houses and first-time and 10 steps writing essay, experienced authors and has also worked on a number of collaborative books. She has edited more than 50 books and over 100 academic articles in various nonfiction topics. Her experience as both an editor and a designer has given her the opportunity to edexcel coursework work in the various stages of publishing from writing to writing essay editing to designing the final layout for publication. Copyediting Substantive/Structural editing Stylistic editing Layout editing and text formatting Manuscript evaluation Reference/bibliography formatting Interior book design and page layouts Copywriting for front and doing essay, back matter of books and for annual reports, newsletters, brochures, and 10 steps writing, websites. JOHN DAVID KUDRICK (BA in Theology / MA in religion Journalism—Professional Writing: Fiction). You're sitting at 10 steps essay, your computer, smiling, feeling an school essay, incredible sense of 10 steps writing essay satisfaction in your heart. After more hours than you can count, you've finally finished your novel – a story from deep within your soul that you want to vs evolution essay share with the world. But then the questions start hitting your mind: Is it the very best that it can be?
Will anyone even want to read it? What should I do with it now? With nearly twenty years of experience as an editor, John David understands the gamut of feelings that comes with getting your novel from your hard drive and into 10 steps writing print. That's why he'd love to school essay partner with you in getting your novel to the next level … Manuscript Critique – With a detailed evaluation document and annotated comments/suggestions throughout your manuscript, find out how you can make your good book even better. Content Editing – Guidance and hands-on editorial help in reorganizing and revising your story to make it even more powerful and engaging.
Includes two rounds of 10 steps editorial review. Copyediting – Line-by-line editing to take care of grammar, word usage, tone, format, and more. Includes two rounds of different topics editorial review. Writing Essay. Proofreading – A final polish to 5 paragraph charles clean up typos, inconsistencies, misspellings, and punctuation problems. Includes two rounds of editorial review. Ghostwriting – Crafting of a book-length manuscript using existing material from author. Also includes a follow-up copyedit. (NOTE: Ghostwriting available for Christian living/spirituality book projects only.) JO-ANN LANGTREE writes and edits books, stories, and articles in the following fields: business, medical, insurance, health, holistic health, spirituality, religion, psychic phenomena, young-adult fiction, children's books, mystical experience, self-help, New Age, nutrition, diet, exercise, saints masters, gurus, theosophy, Christianity, homeopathy, vitamins minerals, herbs, and food supplements. She was a writer and editor for writing, Aetna Life Casualty.
As editor of doing essay Life NEWS, she had sole responsibility for finding, developing, writing, editing, and proofing all articles. 10 Steps Essay. Topics included new products, sales campaigns, insurance-agent interviews, accolades, seminars, Company acquisitions and 5 paragraph darwin, policies. Jo-Ann also edits personal and business sites. Editing (copyediting and developmental) Spirituality, metaphysics, religion, theosophy, psychology, holistic health, food supplements, homeopathy, nutrition, veganism, psychic phenomena, lucid dreaming, mystical experience, self-help, saints, masters, and writing, gurus. FLOYD LARGENT specializes in history, natural history, anthropology and the sciences on 5 paragraph essay the non-fiction front, and writing essay, speculative fiction (science fiction, fantasy, horror, and allied fields) otherwise. He's published his own e-book on fiction marketing (100 Great Places to Sell Your Short Stories, Both On and edexcel physics coursework, Off the Web), and is intimately familiar with technical writing, having worked as a technical writer and editor for ten years. He's also been published in most of the popular American history magazines, including American History, America's Civil War, Old West , and True West . Mr. Largent can provide publishing assistance (especially with short stories and journal articles), content development, manuscript evaluation, and mentoring services, supplemented with advice concerning manuscript mechanics, query letters, book synopses, and proposals. I handed Floyd my 65,000 word manuscript on June 6th and got it back, polished to within an 10 steps writing essay, inch of its life, on July 25th. Floyd did a fantastic job.
I've been going through the story and charles darwin, I'm about essay, halfway through the review. So far, the work is 5 paragraph charles darwin incredible. I really like what you've done with it to say the least. Satisfaction would be an understatement. Floyd Largent did an outstanding job with my manuscript. 10 Steps Writing. [H]is attention to detail, knowledge, and professionalism surpassed my expectations.
I could not have been happier with the final product, or picked a more qualified editor to different types work with. E. M. Writing. Levy, a professional editor for 30+ years, has edited books for Doubleday, Random House, Princeton University Press, Macmillan, Paulist Press, Prentice-Hall, SUNY Press, Scholastic, Scholars Press, Praeger, Solution Tree Press, and many other publishers and 5 paragraph darwin, private individuals. His projects have received publishing and 10 steps, professional awards. For nearly two decades, he worked in-house as a senior editor focusing on developmental and substantive editing. Topic specialties include social sciences and humanities: education, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, literature, philosophy, history, performing and visual arts, law and politics, public affairs, theology, religion, New Age topics, spirituality, Judaism, biography, public affairs, memoirs, biographies, health, medicine. He has been praised for his ability to translate scientific and medical material into master readable prose without losing the acuity of the original text. E.M. Levy often works with writers who need to start from scratch to writing essay restructure their nonfiction manuscripts, but he works with writers at every step of the writing, editing, and darwin, submission process. Association of writing Academic Publishers Distinguished Achievement Award Foreword Magazine's Book of the Year Independent Publishers Book Award Learning Magazine's Teacher's Choice Award V. O. Key Award of the Southern Political Science Association.
Substantive editing Developmental editing Line editing Copy editing Rewriting Ghostwriting Evaluations. Paranormal romance | psychic/supernatural phenomena | science fiction | fantasy | speculative fiction | western romance | young adult. KELLY LYNNE is the proud auntie to essay charles darwin over 50 published novels, novellas and short stories, which have sold to 10 steps writing Kensington Publishing, Carina Press, Cerridwen Press, Awe-Struck Publishing, Samhain Publishing, Wings ePress, Bradley Publishing, and The Wild Rose Press as well as author self-published titles. Religion Vs Evolution Essay. These books have gone on to earn high praise from reviewers and readers, as well as multiple awards and writing, contest wins. As an editor for essay charles, The Wild Rose Press, she edited contemporary western and light paranormal romances, with heat ratings from sweet to spicy. Outside of romance, her fiction fortes include sci-fi, fantasy, speculative fiction, young adult, and stories of psychic or supernatural phenomena.
Empathic about the feel of a story, Kelly provides suggestions so that authors may revise with their own style in mind, preserving the essay, individual voice, while alerting authors to current trends in a level coursework publishable styles. Developmental fiction editing requires an emotional investment in the work - an investment of time and effort that Kelly is happy to make. Kelly has published over 10 steps writing, 100 non-fiction articles, two short stories, and a novel. Topics. She knows the 10 steps writing essay, hoops authors are expected to jump through and helps authors polish their submission packets. Query letters, synopses and professional quality formatting are as important as a well-polished manuscript. Specialties: style-sheet to track continuity, character traits, and plot aspects | critique of essay story plot, character believability and setting | weeding out clichés, redundancies, wordiness, triteness and vague generalizations. HOLLY MONTY, MA MAC ELS. APA format, Chicago Manual of Style. Since operating as a freelance editor and writer, Ms.
Monty, a Microsoft Word and 10 steps writing essay, LaTeX expert, has worked on essay godfather books and articles published by many of the world’s leading publishers, including Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, MIT Press, W. Writing Essay. W. Norton, Sage, John Wiley, Springer, Lawrence Erlbaum, Pearson-Prentice Hall, Praeger, Greenwood, Blackwell, and other top names in academic and nonfiction publishing. To date, she has edited more than 2,000 published journal articles, more than 150 nonfiction books, and a wealth of dissertations and theses. Ms. Monty is proud to have worked with a diversity of students and academics from a level, a broad range of our nation's universities. Given her wealth of experience, she is writing adept at working within the precise terms of your university's thesis/dissertation guidelines or with the publication guidelines of any peer-reviewed journal. Holly was FANTASTIC. She was SO thorough and submitted everything back to me earlier than I needed it! Even after she was done with the essay, edit, I had some questions, and she was very speedy in her responses.
I appreciate that she took time to answer my questions. She really went above and writing, beyond! My paper not only needed to follow APA guidelines, but my university had guidelines as well. Physics A Level Coursework. She did both perfectly. - Nicole Foster, Trinity International University. Novels, short stories, creative nonfiction, mainstream trade, religion, philosophy, adventure, romance, science fiction, erotica, action/military, travel/lifestyle, gay/lesbian, ethnic/culture, literary journalism, memoir/autobiography, New Age, spirituality, poetry. “James Powell examines the 10 steps essay, symbols of religion vs evolution language the way a biologist examines cells.” New York Times Review of Books. “James Powell assures us that the essay, universe is a silent partner in a dialogue that goes on godfather death all the time.” New York Times Review of Books. JAMES N. POWEL is a good literary surgeon, as one of his accomplished clients noted.
As an editor of fiction and non-fiction, he views manuscripts with comprehensive vision and an eye for 10 steps writing essay, detail. He will read your fiction with an 5 paragraph darwin, eye to 10 steps making it believable and your non-fiction with a knack for making it both convincing and engaging. His books and short stories have been translated into many languages and are known throughout the world. His list of publications includes The Tao of Symbols (Morrow 1982), Energy and Eros (Morrow 1985), The Prentice Hall Global Employment Guide (Prentice Hall 1983), Mandalas: The Dynamics of Vedic Symbolism (Sterling 1980), Derrida for Beginners (Writers and Readers 1996), Postmodernism for Beginners ( Writers and Readers 1998), Eastern Philosophy for Beginners (2000), Deconstruction for essay godfather death, Beginners (2005), and Slow Love: A Polynesian Pillow Book (2008). His short story The Silence of the Hummingbird was published in Spanish in Revista Katharsis , in Malaga, Spain, and his journalism has appeared in Spirituality Health , Tahiti Beach Press , the Santa Barbara Independent, and Montecito Journal . With experience in nonfiction, academic, business, and technical editing, Ginny targets word choice, style, tone, organization, flow, and development in addition to essential grammar, spelling, and punctuation. For fiction, she also addresses character motivation and growth, plot development, action, and consistency. One award-winning client noted: If what I need is a skilled pen able to 10 steps writing sharpen plot development while polishing the edges; to cause prose to leap off the page, gripping a reader with anticipation; and to excite imagination with blazing imagery, then I turn to essay charles Ginny Rogers.
A highly talented editor and writer gifted with uncanny insight, Ginny Rogers is at the pinnacle of her craft. Ginny's outside perspective frees you to focus on your ideas and follow your inspiration while she takes care of the 10 steps writing, details. Targeted assistance includes: Honing your individual writing style. School Problems. Examining organization, flow, and progression. Editing for clarity and consistency.
Proofreading for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and style. Writing Essay. With fiction, assessing characters, their motivations, and their actions. Refining descriptive word choices. Clarifying publication goals. Edexcel Coursework. Analyzing how well the document meets those goals.
Designing documents appropriate to both content and purpose. Maintaining style standards across documents. CAROLINE T. has been editing popular fiction for 20 years and has 200+ novels under her belt. Her ability to see the big picture, combined with an in-depth knowledge of today’s publishing market, makes her an writing, invaluable partner in the editing and publishing process. Editor of New York Times Best-Sellers. A former in-house editor at Pocket Books—a division of religion vs evolution Simon Schuster, the premiere New York City publisher of commercial and trade fiction—an outside editor for 10 steps writing, Harper Collins/Avon, and a reader for The Literary Guild and The Rhapsody Book Club, Caroline’s particular expertise is historical and doing master essay, contemporary romance, romantic comedy, and romantic suspense. Carla Neggers, Karen Robards and Andrea Kane—three New York Times, Publishers Weekly, and 10 steps essay, USA Today bestselling authors—had books edited by Caroline. She also specializes in suspense thrillers, crime fiction, amateur sleuths, sagas, inspirational romance, westerns, urban fantasy and African-American popular fiction. She holds workshops on the writer’s conference circuit and speaks at 5 paragraph essay charles darwin, numerous venues to help advance the 10 steps essay, cause of popular fiction for women.
Known for her accessibility, Caroline is a level available to answer any questions a client may have; from a simple inquiry regarding point of view switching, to a larger issue regarding career path. She is a hands-on editor, likes to put her blue pen to work, and enjoys brainstorming with writers. She is a mentor, a guide and a source of vast knowledge on writing the subject of popular fiction. Caroline offers content and developmental editing with commentary; minor line-editing if necessary, submission help, and edexcel a level coursework, career consulting. MARIE VALENTINE's editorial work ranges from conceptual and developmental brainstorming to copy editing and 10 steps, proofreading, as well as the nitty-gritty of 5 paragraph essay charles darwin print and Web production. She has worked in acquisitions and production for the renowned new age book publisher Llewellyn Worldwide.
She has also served as a news editor and writer, business technology editor, poet and small press publisher of experimental works by contemporary writers. Marie will use her knowledge in 10 steps writing literature and different types of essay, nonfiction to clarify your thoughts with minimal alteration, but she is 10 steps essay also open to experiments and will adapt easily and quickly to your perceived vision and goals. A flexible editor and proofreader with a light touch, Marie will help your prose shine while keeping your personal style intact. 10+ years proofreading experience (print, web, digital, books, magazines, news weeklies, chapbooks and more) 6 years business and technology editing experience 5 years book manuscript editing experience, both fiction and nonfiction 4 years publisher acquisitions experience - Ruminator (small press), university press (U of MN), commercial press (Llewellyn). She knows what publishers look for in a book. School Problems. 9 years academic editing and 10 steps essay, formatting. Content organization Structural and substantive editing Proofreading Formatting and style editing (MLA, Chicago, APA, AP, project-specific) Copy editing. DON WHITE is an award-winning editor with more than twenty years' publishing experience. He's worked on three New York Times bestsellers and three Los Angeles Times bestsellers. Among the notable writers he's edited are Gore Vidal, Edward Albee, E. Godfather. Lynn Harris, Edmund White, and Samuel R. Delany.
He's equally at home in fiction (literary novels, commercial fiction, mysteries) and nonfiction (memoir, biography, general nonfiction). As an editor and writing essay, writer he's freelanced for Doubleday, Penguin, Bantam, Basic Books, and Beacon, among others. Don has been singled out for distinction by physics coursework the American Library Association, Publishers Weekly, and Out Magazine. As an independent scholar he's authored three books on writing essay African American history as well as several books for gay and lesbian readers. He's also an emeritus board member of the essay, Lambda Literary Foundation. Don lives in New York City. Thomas Wray has worked as a book editor and writer for four decades.
His work has centered on 10 steps essay Christian books of all kinds and for all audiences. He has also edited numerous business and leadership books, fiction titles, memoirs, and religion, children’s books. The books he has edited have been published by Random House (WaterBrook and Multnomah imprints), Crossway, Zondervan, NavPress, Harvest House, David C. Cook, and other publishers. Thomas has partnered with dozens of respected authors including Randy Alcorn, Henry Blackaby, Richard Blackaby, Carolyn Castleberry, Larry Crabb, Tony Evans, Louie Giglio, Dave Harvey, Bob Kauflin, C. J. Mahaney, Ruth Myers, Larry Osborne, J. I. Packer, Andy Stanley, and Thelma Wells, to name a few. Writing Essay. He also works with novice writers who have yet to be published. Thomas offers all levels of edexcel coursework prepublication book editing services: Comprehensive editing structural and 10 steps, substantive editing to essay death ensure that a book’s content is thorough in scope and writing, strongly organized for maximum impact and progression.
Line editing to ensure integrity, good taste, and audience acceptability, while maximizing the author’s distinctive voice; promoting smooth transitions between all sections and school, parts. Copyeditng further checking for essay, accuracy, consistency, and physics, style conformity; plus proper formatting and essay, style-tagging in preparation for typesetting. Essay. Proofreading for errors at the sentence or word level; checking punctuation, open and close quotes; the minutiae Collaborative writing developing content from various authors sources such as sermon transcripts, message outlines, letters, and journal entries. Writing extra features developing content for such elements as application questions and exercises, discussion guides, and small group helps. Manuscript evaluation and critique bringing to light a manuscript’s true potential. Writing. Author coaching and mentoring working from any starting point in author’s competence level; taking any project through the stages of idea expansion, content development, and manuscript refinement; step-by-step transformation of rough ideas, raw material, and essay, outlines into full content drafts. Thomas understands well an author’s mindset, sensitivities, and typical struggles. He’s an author himself, with twenty published works (mostly children’s books). He’s currently writing the final volume of a three-book trilogy of historical fiction. Thomas is a three-time winner of the writing, Christian Book Award (the “Gold Medallion”) from the different types, ECPA trade publishers association. Note: The network coordinator assures that submissions receive responses.
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essay on primitivism Division of labor, which has had so much to do with bringing us to the present global crisis, works daily to prevent our understanding the origins of this horrendous present. Mary Lecron Foster (1990) surely errs on the side of 10 steps writing understatement in allowing that anthropology is today in danger of physics a level coursework serious and damaging fragmentation. 10 Steps Writing? Shanks and Tilley (1987b) voice a rare, related challenge: The point of archaeology is not merely to 5 paragraph charles interpret the past but to change the manner in 10 steps writing essay which the past is interpreted in religion vs evolution the service of social reconstruction in the present. Of course, the social sciences themselves work against the breadth and depth of vision necessary to such a reconstruction. In terms of human origins and 10 steps, development, the essay godfather, array of splintered fields and 10 steps essay, sub-fields- anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, ethnology, paleobotany, ethnoanthropology, etc., etc. Doing Master? - mirrors the 10 steps, narrowing, crippling effect that civilization has embodied from its very beginning. Nonetheless, the religion vs evolution essay, literature can provide highly useful assistance, if approached with an 10 steps writing, appropriate method and awareness and the desire to proceed past its limitations.
In fact, the weakness of more or less orthodox modes of thinking can and does yield to the demands of an increasingly dissatisfied society. Unhappiness with contemporary life becomes distrust with the official lies that are told to edexcel physics coursework legitimate that life, and a truer picture of human development emerges. Renunciation and subjugation in modern life have long been explained as necessary concomitants of human nature. After all, our pre-civilized existence of deprivation, brutality, and ignorance made authority a benevolent gift that rescued us from 10 steps essay savagery. Cave man and `Neanderthal' are still invoked to remind us where we would be without religion, government, and toil. This ideological view of our past has been radically overturned in recent decades, through the work of academics like Richard Lee and Marshall Sahlins. School Problems? A nearly complete reversal in anthropological orthodoxy has come about, with important implications. Now we can see that life before domestication/agriculture was in fact largely one of essay leisure, intimacy with nature, sensual wisdom, sexual equality, and health. This was our human nature, for a couple of million years, prior to enslavement by priests, kings, and bosses. And lately another stunning revelation has appeared, a related one that deepens the first and may be telling us something equally important about who we were and what we might again become. The main line of attack against new descriptions of gatherer-hunter life has been, though often indirect or not explicitly stated, to characterize that life, condescendingly, as the most an evolving species could achieve at an early stage.
Thus, the essay godfather death, argument allows that there was a long period of apparent grace and pacific existence, but says that humans simply didn't have the mental capacity to leave simple ways behind in favor of complex social and technological achievement. In another fundamental blow to civilization, we now learn that not only was human life once, and for so long, a state that did not know alienation or domination, but as the investigations since the '80s by archaeologists John Fowlett, Thomas Wynn, and others have shown, those humans possessed an intelligence at least equal to our own. At a stroke, as it were, the `ignorance' thesis is disposed of, and 10 steps, we contemplate where we came from in a new light. To put the issue of mental capacity in context, it is useful to review the various (and again, ideologically loaded) interpretations of human origins and development. Different Types Of Essay? Robert Ardrey (1961, 1976) served up a bloodthirsty, macho version of prehistory, as have to slightly lesser degrees, Desmond Morris and Lionel Tiger. Similarly, Freud and Konrad Lorenz wrote of the innate depravity of the species, thereby providing their contributions to hierarchy and 10 steps writing, power in the present. Fortunately, a far more plausible outlook has emerged, one that corresponds to essay death the overall version of writing essay Paleolithic life in essay charles darwin general. Food sharing has for some time been considered an integral part of 10 steps writing essay earliest human society (e.g. Washburn and DeVore, 1961). Jane Goodall (1971) and Richard Leakey (1978), among others, have con- cluded that it was the key element in establishing our uniquely Homo development at least as early as 2 million years ago.
This emphasis, carried forward since the school, early '70s by Linton, Zihlman, Tanner, and Isaac, has become ascendant. One of the telling arguments in favor of the cooperation thesis, as against that of generalized violence and male domination, involves a diminishing, during early evolution, of the difference in 10 steps size and strength between males and females. Sexual dimorphism, as it is called, was originally very pronounced, including such features as prominent canines or fighting teeth in edexcel physics males and much smaller canines for the female. The disappearance of writing essay large male canines strongly suggests that the female of the species exercised a selection for sociable, sharing males. Most apes today have significantly longer and larger canines, male to female, in the absence of this female choice capacity (Zihlman 1981, Tanner 1981).
Division of labor between the sexes is another key area in human beginnings, a condition once simply taken for granted and expressed by the term hunter-gatherer. Now it is widely accepted that gathering of essay godfather death plant foods, once thought to be the exclusive domain of women and of secondary importance to hunting by writing, males, constituted the main food source (Johansen and Shreeve 1989). Since females were not significantly dependent on males for food (Hamilton 1984), it seems likely that rather than division of labor, flexibility and joint activity would have been central (Bender 1989). As Zihlman (1981) points out, an overall behavioral flexibility may have been the primary ingredient in early human existence. Joan Gero (1991) has demonstrated that stone tools were as likely to have been made by different of essay topics, women as by men, and indeed Poirier (1987) reminds us that there is no archaeological evidence supporting the contention that early humans exhibited a sexual division of 10 steps labor.
It is unlikely that food collecting involved much, if any division of labor (Slocum 1975) and types of essay topics, probably that sexual specialization came quite late in writing human evolution (Zihlman 1981, Crader and Isaac 1981). So if the school problems, adaptation that began our species centered on gathering, when did hunting come in? Binford (1984) has argued that there is no indication of use of animal products (i.e. evidence of butchery practices) until the appearance, relatively quite recent, of anatomically modern humans. Electron microscope studies of fossil teeth found in 10 steps East Africa (Walker 1984) suggest a diet composed primarily of fruit, while a similar examination of stone tools from edexcel physics a level a 1.5 million-year-old site at Koobi Fora in Kenya (Keeley and Toth 1981) shows that they were used on writing plant materials. The small amount of meat in the early Paleolithic diet was probably scavenged, rather than hunted (Ehrenberg 1989b). The `natural' condition of the essay, species was evidently a diet made up largely of vegetables rich in fiber, as opposed to the modern high fat and animal protein diet with its attendant chronic disorders (Mendeloff 1977).
Though our early forbears employed their detailed knowledge of the environment and essay, cognitive mapping (Zihlman 1981) in the service of a plant-gathering subsistence, the religion vs evolution essay, archaeological evidence for writing, hunting appears to slowly increase with time (Hodder 1991). Much evidence, however, has overturned assumptions as to essay charles widespread prehistoric hunting. Writing Essay? Collections of bones seen earlier as evidence of large kills of mammals, for example, have turned out to be, upon closer examination, the results of different of essay topics movement by flowing water or caches by animals. Lewis Binford's Were There Elephant Hunters at 10 steps writing, Tooralba? (1989) is a good instance of such a closer look, in which he doubts there was significant hunting until 200,000 years ago or sooner. Adrienne Zihlman (1981) has concluded that hunting arose relatively late in evolution, and may not extend beyond the last one hundred thousand years. Doing? And there are many (e.g. Straus 1986, Trinkhaus 1986) who do not see evidence for serious hunting of large mammals until even later, viz. the essay, later Upper Paleolithic, just before the essay godfather, emergence of writing agriculture. The oldest known surviving artifacts are stone tools from Hadar in eastern Africa. With more refined dating methods, they may prove to be 3.1 million years old (Klein 1989). Perhaps the main reason these may be classified as representing human effort is that they involve the crafting of one tool by using another, a uniquely human attribute so far as we know.
Homo habilis, or handy man, designates what has been thought of as the religion vs evolution, first known human species, its name reflecting association with the earliest stone tools (Coppens 1989). 10 Steps? Basic wooden and bone implements, though more perishable and thus scantily represented in the archaeological record, were also used by Homo habilis as part of a remarkably simple and physics a level coursework, effective adaptation in Africa and Asia (Fagan 1990). 10 Steps Writing Essay? Our ancestors at this stage had smaller brains and bodies than we do, but Poirier (1987) notes that their postcranial anatomy was rather like modern humans, and Holloway (1972, 1974) allows that his studies of cranial endocasts from school this period indicate a bascally modern brain organization. Similarly, tools older than 2 mil- lion years have been found to 10 steps writing exhibit a consistent right-handed orientation in the ways stone has been flaked off in their formation. Right-handedness as a tendency is correlated in moderns with such distinctly human features as pronounced lateralization of the brain and marked functional separation of the cerebral hemispheres (Holloway 1981a). Klein (1989) concludes that basic human cognitive and communicational abilities are almost certainly implied. Homo erectus is the doing essay, other main predecessor to Homo sapiens, according to longstanding usage, appearing about 10 steps, 1.75 million years ago as humans moved out of forests into drier, more open African grasslands.
Although brain size alone does not necessarily correlate with mental capacity, the cranial capacity of Homo erectus overlaps with that of moderns such that this species must have been capable of many of the same behaviors (Ciochon, Olsen and Tames 1990). As Johanson and Edey (1981) put it, If the largest-brained erectus were to be rated against the smallest-brained sapiens - all their other characteristics ignored - their species names would have to be reversed. Religion Vs Evolution? Homo Neanderthalus, which immediately preceded us, possessed brains somewhat larger than our own (Delson 1985, Holloway 1985, Donald 1991). Though of 10 steps writing course the much-maligned Neanderthal has been pictured as a primitive, brutish creature - in keeping with the prevailing Hobbesian ideology - despite manifest intelligence as well as enormous physical strength (Shreeve 1991). Recently, however, the doing essay, whole species framework has become a doubtful proposition (Day 1987, Rightmire 1990). Attention has been drawn to the fact that fossil specimens from various Homo species all show intermediate morphological traits, leading to suspicion of an arbitrary division of humanity into separate taxa (Gingerich 1979, Tobias 1982). Fagan (1989), for example, tells us that it is 10 steps essay very hard to draw a clear taxonomic boundary between Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens on the one hand, and between archaic and anatomically modern Homo sapiens on religion vs evolution essay the other. Writing? Likewise, Foley (1989): the anatomical distinctions between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens are not great. 5 Paragraph Charles? Jelinek (1978) flatly declares that there is 10 steps writing no good reason, anatomical or cultural for separating erectus and sapiens into two species, and has concluded (1980a) that people from at least the essay godfather death, Middle Paleolithic onward may be viewed as Homo sapiens (as does Hublin 1986).
The tremendous upward revision of early intelligence, discussed below, must be seen as connected to the present confusion over species, as the once-prevailing overall evolutionary model gives way. But the writing, controversy over species categorization is essay only interesting in the context of how our earliest forbears lived. Despite the minimal nature of what could be expected to 10 steps writing essay survive so many millennia, we can glimpse some of the texture of that life, with its often elegant, pre-division of labor approaches. Types? The tool kit from the Olduvai Gorge area made famous by the Leakeys contains at least six clearly recognizable tool types dating from about 1.7 million years ago (M. Leakey, 1978). There soon appeared the Acheulian handaxe, with its symmetrical beauty, in use for about a million years. Teardrop-shaped, and possessed of a remarkable balance, it exudes grace and utility from an era much prior to sym- bolization. Isaac (1986) noted that the basic needs for sharp edges that humans have can be met from the varied range of forms generated from `Oldowan' patterns of stone flaking, wondering how it came to be thought that more complex equals better adapted. In this distant early time, according to writing cut-marks found on a level surviving bones, humans were using scavenged animal sinews and skins for writing, such things as cord, bags, and rugs (Gowlett 1984). Further evidence suggests furs for cave wall coverings and seats, and seaweed beds for sleeping (Butzer 1970).
The use of fire goes back almost 2 million years (Kempe 1988) and essay death, might have appeared even earlier but for the tropical conditions of humanity's original African homeland, as Poirier (1987) implies. Perfected fire-making included the firing of caves to eliminate insects and heated pebble floors (Perles 1975, Lumley 1976), amenities that show up very early in the Paleolithic. As John Gowlett (1986) notes, there are still some archaeologists who consider anything earlier than Homo sapiens, a mere 30,000 years ago, as greatly more primitive than we fully human types. But along with the documentation, referred to above, of fundamentally `modern' brain anatomy even in early humans, this minority must now contend with recent work depicting complete human intelligence as present virtually with the birth of the Homo species. Thomas Wynn (1985) judged manufacture of the Acheulian handaxe to essay have required a stage of intelligence that is typical of fully modern adults. Gowlett, like Wynn, examines the required operational thinking involved in edexcel physics a level the right hammer, the 10 steps, right force and the right striking angle, in 5 paragraph darwin an ordered sequence and with flexibility needed for 10 steps writing essay, modifying the procedure. School? He contends that manipulation, concentration, visualization of form in writing three dimensions, and doing master essay, planning were needed, and 10 steps, that these requirements were the common property of early human beings as much as two million years ago, and this, he adds, is hard knowledge, not speculation.
During the vast time-span of the Paleolithic, there were remarkably few changes in school problems technology (Rolland 1990). Innovation, over 2 1/2 million years measured in stone tool development was practically nil, according to essay Gerhard Kraus (1990). Seen in the light of what we now know of prehistoric intelligence, such `stagnation' is especially vexing to many social scientists. It is difficult to comprehend such slow development, in the judgment of Wymer (1989). It strikes me as very plausible that intelligence, informed by the success and satisfaction of a gatherer-hunter existence, is the very reason for the pronounced absence of `progress'. Division of doing essay labor, domestication, symbolic culture--these were evidently refused until very recently.
Contemporary thought, in its postmodern incarnation, would like to rule out the 10 steps essay, reality of a divide between nature and culture; given the abilities present among people before civilization, however, it may be more accurate to say that basically, they long chose nature over culture. It is also popular to see almost every human act or object as symbolic (e.g. Botscharow 1989), a position which is, generally speaking, part of the denial of a nature versus culture distinction. But it is culture as the manipulation of basic symbolic forms that is involved here. Doing Master? It also seems clear that reified time, language (written, certainly, and 10 steps, probably spoken language for all or most of religion this period), number, and art had no place, despite an intelligence fully capable of 10 steps writing essay them. I would like to interject, in passing, my agreement with Goldschmidt (1990) that the hidden dimension in the construction of the symbolic world is time. And as Norman O. Brown put it, life not repressed is essay not in historical time, which I take as a reminder that time as a materiality is essay not inherent in reality, but a cultural imposition, perhaps the first cultural imposition, on problems it. As this elemental dimension of symbolic culture progresses, so does, by equal steps, alienation from the natural. Cohen (1974) has discussed symbols as essential for the development and maintenance of social order. Which implies--as does, more forcefully, a great deal of positive evidence--that before the emergence of 10 steps symbols there was no condition of dis-order requiring them. In a similar vein, Levi-Strauss (1953) pointed out that mythical thought always progresses from the awareness of oppositions toward their resolution.
So whence the 5 paragraph essay charles, absence of order, the essay, conflicts or oppositions? The literature on the Paleolithic contains almost nothing that deals with this essential question, among thousands of monographs on specific features. A reasonable hypothesis, in my opinion, is that division of labor, unnoticed because of its glacially slow pace, and not sufficiently understood because of its newness, began to cause small fissures in the human community and unhealthy practices vis-a-vis nature. In the later Upper Paleolithic, 15,000 years ago, we begin to observe specialized collection of plants in the Middle East, and specialized hunting, observed Gowlett (1984). The sudden appearance of symbolic activities (e.g. ritual and art) in the Upper Paleolithic has definitely seemed to archaeologists one of prehistory's big surprises (Binford 1972b), given the 5 paragraph charles, absence of such behaviors in writing essay the Middle Paleolithic (Foster 1990, Kozlowski 1990). But signs of division of labor and specialization were making their presence felt as a breakdown of wholeness and natural order, a lack that needed redressing. What is surprising is that this transition to civilization can still be seen as benign. Foster (1990) seems to celebrate it by concluding that the symbolic mode. has proved extraordinarily adaptive, else why has Homo sapiens become material master of the world? He is certainly correct, as he is to physics coursework recognize the manipulation of symbols [to be] the very stuff of culture, but he appears oblivious to the fact that this successful adaptation has brought alienation and destruction of nature along to their present horrifying prominence.
It is reasonable to assume that the symbolic world originated in the formulation of language, which somehow appeared from a matrix of extensive nonverbal communication (Tanner and Zihlman 1976) and face-to-face contact. There is no agreement as to when language began, but no evidence exists of speech before the cultural `explosion' of the 10 steps, later Upper Paleolithic (Dibble 1984, 1989). It seems to have acted as an master essay, inhibiting agent, a way of bringing life under greater control (Mumford 1972), stemming the writing essay, flood of images and sensations to which the pre-modern individual was open. In this sense it would have likely marked an early turning away from a life of openness and communion with nature, toward one more oriented to the overlordship and domestication that followed symbolic culture's inauguration. It is probably a mistake, by essay godfather, the way, to assume that thought is advanced (if there were such a thing as `neutral' thought, whose advance could be universally appreciat- ed) because we actually think in language; there is no conclusive evidence that we must do so (Allport 1983). There are many cases (Lecours and Joanette 1980, Levine et al. 10 Steps? 1982), involving stroke and like impairments, of patients who have lost speech, including the ability to 5 paragraph essay talk silently to 10 steps themselves, who were fully capable of coherent thought of all kinds. These data strongly suggest that human intellectual skill is uniquely powerful, even in the absence of language (Donald 1991). In terms of doing master symbolization in action, Goldschmidt (1990) seems correct in judging that the Upper Paleolithic invention of ritual may well have been the keystone in the structure of essay culture that gave it its great impetus for doing master essay, expansion. Ritual has played a number of pivotal roles in what Hodder (1990) termed the relentless unfolding of 10 steps symbolic and social structures accompanying the arrival of cultural mediation. It was as a means of achieving and consolidating social cohesion that ritual was essential (Johnson 1982, Conkey 1985); totemic rituals, for example, reinforce clan unity.
The start of an appreciation of domestication, or taming of nature, is seen in 5 paragraph charles a cultural ordering of the wild, through ritual. Evidently, the female as a cultural category, viz. seen as wild or dangerous, dates from this period. The ritual Venus figurines appear as of 25,000 years ago, and seem to be an example of earliest symbolic likeness of women for the purpose of representation and control (Hodder 1990). Even more concretely, subjugation of the wild occurs at this time in writing essay the first systematic hunting of large mammals; ritual was an integral part of this activity (Hammond 1974, Frison 1986). Ritual, as shamanic practice, may also be considered as a regression from that state in which all shared a consciousness we would now classify as extrasensory (Leonard 1972). When specialists alone claim access to such perceptual heights as may have once been communal, further backward moves in division of labor are facilitated or enhanced. The way back to bliss through ritual is a virtually universal mythic theme, promising the dissolution of measurable time, among other joys. This theme of ritual points to an absence that it falsely claims to fill, as does symbolic culture in general. Ritual as a means of organizing emotions, a method of cultural direction and restraint, introduces art, a facet of ritual expressiveness (Bender 1989). Problems Essay? There can be little doubt, to Gans (1985), that the various forms of secular art derive originally from ritual. We can detect the 10 steps essay, beginning of an unease, a feeling that an earlier, direct authenticity is departing.
La Barre (1972), I believe, is correct in judging that art and religion alike arise from edexcel physics coursework unsatisfied desire. At first, more abstractly as language, then more purposively as ritual and 10 steps writing, art, culture steps in to deal artificially with spiritual and social anxiety. Ritual and magic must have dominated early (Upper Paleolithic) art and were probably essential, along with an increasing division of labor, for the coordination and direction of community (Wymer 1981). Edexcel Physics A Level Coursework? Similarly, Pfeiffer (1982) has depicted the famous Upper Paleolithic European cave paintings as the original form of 10 steps writing essay initiating youth into now complex social systems; as necessary for order and discipline (see also Gamble 1982, Jochim 1983). And art may have contributed to the control of charles nature, as part of development of the earliest territorialism, for example (Straus 1990). The emergence of 10 steps symbolic culture, with its inherent will to manipulate and control, soon opened the 5 paragraph essay, door to domestication of nature. After two million years of human life within the bounds of nature, in balance with other wild species, agriculture changed our lifestyle, our way of adapting, in 10 steps essay an unprecedented way. Never before has such a radical change occurred in of essay topics a species so utterly and so swiftly (Pfeiffer 1977). Essay? Self-domestication through language, ritual, and art inspired the taming of different types of essay plants and animals that followed. Appearing only 10,000 years ago, farming quickly triumphed; for control, by writing, its very nature, invites intensification.
Once the will to production broke through, it became more productive the more efficiently it was exercised, and hence more ascendant and adaptive. Agriculture enables greatly increased division of labor, establishes the material foundations of social hierarchy, and initiates environmental destruction. Priests, kings, drudgery, sexual inequality, warfare are a few of its fairly immediate specific consequences (Ehrenberg 1986b, Wymer 1981, Festinger 1983). Whereas Paleolithic peoples enjoyed a highly varied diet, using several thousand species of plants for food, with farming these sources were vastly reduced (White 1959, Gouldie 1986). Given the intelligence and the very great practical knowledge of edexcel physics a level Stone Age humanity, the 10 steps writing, question has often been asked, Why didn't agriculture begin, at edexcel physics a level, say, 1,000,000 B.C. 10 Steps? rather than about 8,000 B.C.?
I have provided a brief answer in terms of slowly accelerating alienation in the form of division of labor and doing, symbolization, but given how negative the results were, it is still a bewildering phenomenon. Writing? Thus, as Binford (1968) put it, The question to be asked is not why agriculture. was not developed everywhere, but why it was developed at all. The end of gatherer-hunter life brought a decline in size, stature, and different types of essay, skeletal robusticity (Cohen and Armelagos 1981, Harris and Ross 1981), and introduced tooth decay, nutritional deficiencies, and most infectious diseases (Larsen 1982, Buikstra 1976a, Cohen 1981). Taken as a whole. an overall decline in the quality--and probably the length--of human life, concluded Cohen and Armelagos (1981). Another outcome was the invention of number, unnecessary before the ownership of 10 steps crops, animals, and land that is master one of agriculture's hallmarks. The development of writing number further impelled the urge to treat nature as something to be dominated. Writing was also required by domestication, for school, the earliest business transactions and political administration (Larsen 1988). 10 Steps Essay? Levi-Strauss has argued persuasively that the primary function of written communication was to religion vs evolution facilitate exploitation and subjugation (1955); cities and empires, for example, would be impossible without it. Here we see clearly the joining of the 10 steps essay, logic of school problems symbolization and the growth of capital. Conformity, repetition, and regularity were the keys to civilization upon 10 steps writing essay its triumph, replacing the spontaneity, enchantment, and physics coursework, discovery of the pre-agricultural human state that survived so very long.
Clark (1979) cites a gatherer-hunter amplitude of leisure, deciding it was this and the pleasurable way of life that went with it, rather than penury and a day-long grind, that explains why social life remained so static. One of the most enduring and widespread myths is that there was once a Golden Age, characterized by peace and 10 steps essay, innocence, and doing, that something happened to destroy this idyll and consign us to misery and suffering. Eden, or whatever name it goes by, was the 10 steps, home of edexcel a level our primeval forager ancestors, and expresses the yearning of disillusioned tillers of the soil for a lost life of freedom and relative ease. The once rich environs people inhabited prior to 10 steps essay domestication and agriculture are now virtually nonexistent. For the few remaining foragers there exist only the most marginal lands, those isolated places as yet unwanted by agriculture. And surviving gatherer-hunters, who have somehow managed to evade civilization's tremendous pressures to edexcel a level turn them into slaves (i.e. farmers, political subjects, wage laborers), have all been influenced by contact with outside peoples (Lee 1976, Mithen 1990). Duffy (1984) points out that the present day gatherer-hunters he studied, the Mbuti Pygmies of central Africa, have been acculturated by surrounding villager-agriculturalists for hundreds of years, and to some extent, by essay, generations of 5 paragraph essay darwin contact with government authorities and missionaries.
And yet it seems that an impulse toward authentic life can survive down through the ages: Try to imagine, he counsels, a way of life where land, shelter, and food are free, and essay, where there are no leaders, bosses, politics, organized crime, taxes, or laws. Add to this the benefits of being part of a society where everything is doing essay shared, where there are no rich people and no poor people, and where happiness does not mean the accumulation of writing material possessions. Essay Godfather? The Mbuti have never domesticated animals or planted crops. Among the members of non-agriculturalist bands resides a highly sane combination of little work and material abundance. Bodley (1976) discovered that the 10 steps, San (aka Bushmen) of the harsh Kalahari Desert of 5 paragraph southern Africa work fewer hours, and 10 steps essay, fewer of their number work, than do the doing master, neighboring cultivators. In times of drought, moreover, it has been the writing, San to whom the farmers have turned for school problems, their survival (Lee 1968). They spend strikingly little time laboring and essay, much time at types of essay, rest and leisure, according to Tanaka (1980), while others (e.g.
Marshall 1976, Guenther 1976) have commented on San vitality and freedom compared with sedentary farmers, their relatively secure and 10 steps essay, easygoing life. Flood (1983) noted that to types of essay Australian aborigines the labour involved in tilling and writing, planting outweighed the possible advantages. Speaking more generally, Tanaka (1976) has pointed to godfather the abundant and stable plant foods in the society of early humanity, just as they exist in 10 steps essay every modern gatherer society. Doing Essay? Likewise, Festinger (1983) referred to Paleolithic access to considerable food without a great deal of effort, adding that contemporary groups that still live on hunting and gathering do very well, even though they have been pushed into very marginal habitats. As Hole and Flannery (1963) summarized: No group on earth has more leisure time than hunters and gatherers, who spend it primarily on games, conversation and 10 steps writing essay, relaxing. They have much more free time, adds Binford (1968), than do modern industrial or farm workers, or even professors of archaeology.
The non-domesticated know that, as Vaneigem (1975) put it, only the present can be total. This by itself means that they live life with incomparably greater immediacy, density and passion than we do. It has been said that some revolutionary days are worth centuries; until then We look before and after, as Shelley wrote, And sigh for what is religion essay not. Essay? The Mbuti believe (Turnbull 1976) that by a correct fulfillment of the present, the past and the future will take care of themselves. Primitive peoples do not live through memories, and generally have no interest in essay birthdays or measuring their ages (Cipriani 1966). Writing Essay? As for essay godfather death, the future, they have little desire to control what does not yet exist, just as they have little desire to control nature. Their moment-by-moment joining with the flux and flow of the natural world does not preclude an awareness of the seasons, but this does not constitute an alienated time consciousness that robs them of the present. Though contemporary gatherer-hunters eat more meat than their pre-historic forbears, vegetable foods still constitute the mainstay of their diet in tropical and subtropical regions (Lee 1968a, Yellen and Lee 1976). Both the Kalahari San and the Hazda of East Africa, where game is more abundant than in the Kalahari, rely on gathering for 80 percent of their sustenance (Tanaka 1980). The !Kung branch of the San search for more than a hundred different kinds of plants (Thomas 1968) and exhibit no nutritional deficiency (Truswell and Hansen 1976). This is similar to the healthful, varied diet of Australian foragers (Fisher 1982, Flood 1983).
The overall diet of gatherers is better than that of 10 steps writing cultivators, starvation is very rare, and their health status generally superior, with much less chronic disease (Lee and Devore 1968a, Ackerman 1990). Lauren van der Post (1958) expressed wonder at the exuberant San laugh, which rises sheer from the stomach, a laugh you never hear among civilized people. He found this emblematic of a great vigor and clarity of senses that yet manages to withstand and elude the onslaught of civilization. School Problems Essay? Truswell and Hansen (1976) may have encountered it in the person of a San who had survived an writing essay, unarmed fight with a leopard; although injured, he had killed the animal with his bare hands. The Andaman Islanders, west of master essay Thailand, have no leaders, no idea of symbolic representation, and 10 steps essay, no domesticated animals. There is school essay also an essay, absence of religion aggression, violence, and disease; wounds heal surprisingly quickly, and writing essay, their sight and hearing are particularly acute. They are said to have declined since European intrusion in the mid-19th century, but exhibit other such remarkable physical traits as a natural immunity to doing malaria, skin with sufficient elasticity to rule out post-childbirth stretch marks and the wrinkling we associate with ageing, and essay, an `unbelievable' strength of teeth: Cipriani (1966) reported seeing children of 10 to 15 years crush nails with them. 5 Paragraph Essay? He also testified to the Andamese practice of collecting honey with no protective clothing at all; yet they are never stung, and watching them one felt in the presence of some age-old mystery, lost by the civilized world. DeVries (1952) has cited a wide range of contrasts by writing, which the superior health of gatherer-hunters can be established, including an absence of degenerative diseases and mental disabilities, and coursework, childbirth without difficulty or pain.
He also points out that this begins to erode from the moment of contact with civilization. Relatedly, there is a great deal of evidence not only for physical and essay, emotional vigor among primitives but also concerning their heightened sensory abilities. Darwin described people at 5 paragraph essay, the southernmost tip of South America who went about almost naked in frigid conditions, while Peasley (1983) observed Aborigines who were renowned for their ability to live through bitterly cold desert nights without any form of clothing. Levi-Strauss (1979) was astounded to learn of a particular [South American] tribe which was able to see the planet Venus in 10 steps full daylight, a feat comparable to that of the North African Dogon who consider Sirius B the most important star; somehow aware, without instruments, of a star that can only 5 paragraph essay darwin be found with the writing, most powerful of telescopes (Temple 1976). In this vein, Boyden (1970) recounted the Bushman ability to see four of the moons of Jupiter with the naked eye. In The Harmless People (1959), Marshall told how one Bushman walked unerringly to a spot in a vast plain, with no bush or tree to mark place, and pointed out a blade of grass with an almost invisible filament of vine around it. He had encountered it months before in the rainy season when it was green.
Now, in parched weather, he dug there to doing master essay expose a succulent root and quenched his thirst. Also in the Kalahari Desert, van der Post (1958) meditated upon San/Bushman communion with nature, a level of essay experience that could almost be called mystical. For instance, they seemed to know what it actually felt like to be an elephant, a lion, an problems, antelope, a steenbuck, a lizard, a striped mouse, mantis, baobab tree, yellow-crested cobra or starry-eyed amaryllis, to mention only writing a few of the brilliant multitudes through which they moved. It seems almost pedestrian to add that gatherer-hunters have often been remarked to possess tracking skills that virtually defy rational explanation (e.g. Lee 1979). Rohrlich-Leavitt (1976) noted, The data show that gatherer-hunters are generally nonterritorial and bilocal; reject group aggression and competition; share their resources freely; value egalitarianism and personal autonomy in different of essay topics the context of essay group cooperation; and are indulgent and loving with children. Dozens of 5 paragraph charles studies stress communal sharing and egalitarianism as perhaps the defining traits of such groups (e.g. 10 Steps Writing Essay? Marshall 1961 and 1976, Sahlins 1968, Pilbeam 1972, Damas 1972, Diamond 1974, Lafitau 1974, Tanaka 1976 and 1980, Wiessner 1977, Morris 1982, Riches 1982, Smith 1988, Mithen 1990). Lee (1982) referred to the universality among foragers of sharing, while Marshall's classic 1961 work spoke of the ethic of edexcel physics a level coursework generosity and humility informing a strongly egalitarian gatherer-hunter orientation. Tanaka provides a typical example: The most admired character trait is generosity, and the most despised and disliked are stinginess and selfishness.
Baer (1986) listed egalitarianism, democracy, personalism, individuation, nurturance as key virtues of the non-civilized, and Lee (1988) cited an absolute aversion to rank distinctions among simple foraging peoples around the 10 steps, world. Leacock and Lee (1982) specified that any assumption of authority within the darwin, group leads to ridicule or anger among the !Kung, as has been recorded for the Mbuti (Turnbull 1962), the Hazda (Woodburn 1980) and the Montagnais-Naskapi (Thwaites 1906), among others. Not even the father of an extended family can tell his sons and daughters what to do. 10 Steps Essay? Most people appear to operate on of essay topics their own internal schedules, reported Lee (1972) of the !Kung of Botswana. Ingold (1987) judged that in essay most hunting and gathering societies, a supreme value is placed upon the principle of individual autono- my, similar to Wilson's finding (1988) of an ethic of independence that is common to the focused open societies. The esteemed field anthropologist Radin (1953) went so far as to religion essay say: Free scope is allowed for 10 steps writing, every conceivable kind of 5 paragraph personality outlet or expression in primitive society.
No moral judgment is passed on any aspect of human personality as such. Turnbull (1976) looked on 10 steps essay the structure of Mbuti social life as an apparent vacuum, a lack of internal system that is almost anarchical. According to Duffy (1984), the school, Mbuti are naturally acephalous - they do not have leaders or rulers, and decisions concerning the band are made by consensus. There is an enormous qualitative difference between foragers and farmers in this regard, as in so many others. For instance, agricultural Bantu tribes (e.g. the Saga) surround the San, and are organized by kingship, hierarchy and work; the San exhibit egalitarianism, autonomy, and sharing. Domestication is the principle which accounts for this drastic distinction. Domination within a society is not unrelated to domination of nature.
In gatherer-hunter societies, on the other hand, no strict hierarchy exists between the human and writing, the non-human species (Noske 1989), and relations among foragers are likewise non-hierarchical. Different Topics? The non-domesticated typically view the writing, animals they hunt as equals; this essentially egalitarian relationship is ended by essay darwin, the advent of 10 steps domestication. When progressive estrangement from nature became outright social control (agriculture), more than just social attitudes changed. Essay Death? Descriptions by sailors and explorers who arrived in newly discovered regions tell how wild mammals and birds originally showed no fear at all of the human invaders (Brock 1981). A few contemporary gatherers practiced no hunting before outside contact, but while the majority certainly do hunt, it is 10 steps not normally an edexcel coursework, aggressive act (Rohrlich- Leavitt 1976). Turnbull (1965) observed Mbuti hunting as quite without any aggressive spirit, even carried out 10 steps, with a sort of regret. Hewitt (1986) reported a sympathy bond between hunter and hunted among the Xan Bushmen he encountered in the 19th century. As regards violence among gatherer-hunters, Lee (1988) found that the doing, !Kung hate fighting, and essay, think anybody who fought would be stupid. The Mbuti, by Duffy's account (1984), look on any form of violence between one person and another with great abhorrence and distaste, and never represent it in their dancing or playacting. School? Homicide and suicide, concluded Bodley (1976), are both decidedly uncommon among undisturbed gatherer-hunters. The `warlike' nature of Native American peoples was often fabricated to essay add legitimacy to European aims of conquest (Kroeber 1961); the foraging Comanche maintained their non-violent ways for centuries before the European invasion, becoming violent only upon physics a level contact with marauding civilization (Fried 1973).
The development of symbolic culture, which rapidly led to agriculture, is 10 steps writing linked through ritual to alienated social life among extant foraging groups. Bloch (1977) found a correlation between levels of ritual and doing master, hierarchy. Put negatively, Woodburn (1968) could see the connection between an 10 steps essay, absence of ritual and the absence of specialized roles and hierarchy among the edexcel physics, Hazda of Tanzania. Turner's study of the writing, west African Ndembu (1957) revealed a profusion of ritual structures and ceremonies intended to redress the conflicts arising from the breakdown of an earlier, more seamless society. These ceremonies and structures function in a politically integrative way. Ritual is a repetitive activity for which outcomes and essay godfather death, responses are essentially assured by social contract; it conveys the message that symbolic practice, via group membership and writing essay, social rules, provides control (Cohen 1985). Ritual fosters the concept of control or domination, and has been seen to tend toward leadership roles (Hitchcock 1982) and centralized political structures (Lourandos 1985). A monopoly of ceremonial institutions clearly extends the concept of authority (Bender 1978), and may itself be the original formal authority. Among agricultural tribes of New Guinea, leadership and the inequality it implies are based upon participation in 5 paragraph essay charles hierarchies of ritual initiation or upon shamanistic spirit-mediumship (Kelly 1977, Modjeska 1982).
In the role of shamans we see a concrete practice of ritual as it contributes to domination in human society. Radin (1937) discussed the same marked tendency among Asian and North American tribal peoples for shamans or medicine men to organize and develop the theory that they alone are in communication with the supernatural. 10 Steps? This exclusive access seems to empower them at the expense of the religion essay, rest; Lommel (1967) saw an writing, increase in the shaman's psychic potency. counterbalanced by a weakening of potency in other members of the group. This practice has fairly obvious implications for problems, power relationships in other areas of life, and 10 steps essay, contrasts with earlier periods devoid of religious lead- ership. The Batuque of Brazil are host to shamans who each claim control over certain spirits and attempt to sell supernatural services to clients, rather like priests of competing sects (S. Leacock 1988). Specialists of this type in magically controlling nature. would naturally come to control men, too, in the opinion of Muller (1961). In fact, the shaman is often the vs evolution essay, most powerful individual in pre-agricultural societies (e.g. Sheehan 1985); he is in a position to institute change.
Johannessen (1987) offers the thesis that resistance to the innovation of planting was overcome by the influence of shamans, among the Indians of the American Southwest, for instance. Similarly, Marquardt (1985) has suggested that ritual authority structures have played an important role in the initiation and organization of production in North America. 10 Steps Writing Essay? Another student of American groups (Ingold 1987) saw an important connection between shamans' role in mastering wildness in nature and an emerging subordination of women. Berndt (1974a) has discussed the importance among Aborigines of ritual sexual division of labor in the development of negative sex roles, while Randolph (1988) comes straight to the point: Ritual activity is needed to a level create `proper' men and women. There is no reason in 10 steps writing essay nature for gender divisions, argues Bender (1989). They have to be created by school essay, proscription and taboo, they have to be `naturalized' through ideology and essay, ritual. But gatherer-hunter societies, by their very nature, deny ritual its potential to domesticate women. The structure (non-structure?) of egalitarian bands, even those most oriented toward hunting, includes a guarantee of autonomy to both sexes. This guarantee is the fact that the materials of subsistence are equally available to women and men and that, further, the success of the band is dependent on essay cooperation based on that autonomy (Leacock 1978, Friedl 1975). The spheres of the sexes are often somewhat separate, but inasmuch as the contribution of writing women is generally at school problems essay, least equal to that of men, social equality of the sexes is a key feature of forager societies (Ehrenberg 1989b).
Many anthropologists, in fact, have found the status of women in forager groups to be higher than in any other type of society (e.g. Fluer- Lobban 1979, Rohrlich-Leavitt, Sykes and Weatherford 1975, Leacock 1978). In all major decisions, observed Turnbull (1970) of the Mbuti, men and essay, women have equal say, hunting and essay, gathering being equally important. He made it clear (1981) that there is sexual differentiation - probably a good deal more than was the case with their distant forbears - but without any sense of superordination or subordination. 10 Steps Writing? Men actually work more hours than women among the !Kung, according to problems essay Post and Taylor (1984). It should be added, in terms of the division of labor common among contemporary gatherer-hunters, that this differentiation of roles is by no means universal. Nor was it when the Roman historian Tacitus wrote, of the Fenni of the Baltic region, that the women support themselves by 10 steps, hunting, exactly like the men. and count their lot happier than that of others who groan over field labor.
Or when Procopius found, in the 6th century A.D., that the Serithifinni of what is now Finland neither till the land themselves, nor do their women work it for them, but the women regularly join the different, men in hunting. The Tiwi women of Melville Island regularly hunt (Martin and Voorhies 1975) as do the Agta women in the Philippines (Estioko-- Griffen and 10 steps writing, Griffen 1981). In Mbuti society, there is little specialization according to sex. Even the hunt is a joint effort, reports Turnbull (1962), and Cotlow (1971) testifies that among the doing essay, traditional Eskimos it is (or was) a cooperative enterprise for the whole family group. Darwin (1871) found another aspect of sexual equality: . in writing utterly barbarous tribes the women have more power in choosing, rejecting, and physics coursework, tempting their lovers, or of afterwards changing their husbands, than might have been expected.
The !Kung Bushmen and Mbuti exemplify this female autonomy, as reported by Marshall (1959) and 10 steps writing, Thomas (1965); Women apparently leave a man whenever they are unhappy with their marriage, concluded Begler (1978). Marshall (1970) also found that rape was extremely rare or absent among the !Kung. An intriguing phenomenon concerning gatherer-hunter women is types of essay topics their ability to essay prevent pregnancy in the absence of any contraception (Silberbauer 1981). Many hypotheses have been put forth and debunked, e.g. conception somehow related to levels of body fat (Frisch 1974, Leibowitz 1986). Charles? What seems a very plausible explanation is based on the fact that undomesticated people are very much more in 10 steps tune with their physical selves. Foraging women's senses and processes are not alienated from themselves or dulled; control over doing master childbearing is probably less than mysterious to those whose bodies are not foreign objects to be acted upon. The Pygmies of Zaire celebrate the writing, first menstrual period of 5 paragraph darwin every girl with a great festival of gratitude and writing essay, rejoicing (Turnbull 1962). The young woman feels pride and pleasure, and the entire band expresses its happiness. Among agricultural villagers, however, a menstruating woman is regarded as unclean and dangerous, to be quarantined by taboo (Duffy 1984). School Problems? The relaxed, egalitarian relationship between San men and women, with its flexibility of roles and mutual respect impressed Draper (1971, 1972, 1975); a relationship, she made clear, that endures as long as they remain gatherer-hunters and no longer. Duffy (1984) found that each child in an Mbuti camp calls every man father and every woman mother.
Forager children receive far more care, time, and attention than do those in civilization's isolated nuclear families. Post and Taylor (1984) described the almost permanent contact with their mothers and 10 steps writing essay, other adults that Bushman children enjoy. !Kung infants studied by Ainsworth (1967) showed marked precocity of school early cognitive and motor skills development. This was attributed both to the exercise and stimulation produced by unrestricted freedom of movement, and to the high degree of physical warmth and closeness between !Kung parents and 10 steps writing essay, children (see also Konner 1976). Draper (1976) could see that competitiveness in essay games is almost entirely lacking among the !Kung, as Shostack (1976) observed !Kung boys and girls playing together and sharing most games. She also found that children are not prevented from experimental sex play, consonant with the freedom of older Mbuti youth to indulge in premarital sex with enthusiasm and 10 steps writing essay, delight (Turnbull 1981). The Zuni have no sense of sin, Ruth Benedict (1946) wrote in a related vein. Chastity as a way of life is regarded with great disfavor. Pleasant relations between the sexes are merely one aspect of pleasant relations with human beings. Sex is an incident in a happy life. Coontz and Henderson (1986) point to a growing body of evidence in support of the charles, proposition that relations between the sexes are most egalitarian in the simplest foraging societies. Women play an 10 steps essay, essential role in traditional agriculture, but receive no corresponding status for different types of essay topics, their contribution, unlike the case of gatherer-hunter society (Chevillard and Leconte 1986, Whyte 1978).
As with plants and animals, so are women subject to domestication with the coming of 10 steps writing essay agriculture. Culture, securing its foundations with the new order, requires the 5 paragraph charles darwin, firm subjugation of instinct, freedom, and sexuality. All disorder must be banished, the elemen- tal and spontaneous taken firmly in hand. Women's creativity and their very being as sexual persons are pressured to give way to the role, expressed in all peasant religions, of Great Mother, that is, fecund breeder of men and food. The men of the South American Munduruc, a farming tribe, refer to plants and sex in the same phrase about writing essay, subduing women: We tame them with the banana (Murphy and edexcel physics a level, Murphy 1985).
Simone de Beauvoir (1949) recognized in the equation of the 10 steps essay, plow and the phallus a symbol of male authority over women. Among the Amazonian Jivaro, another agricultural group, women are beasts of burden and the personal property of men (Harner 1972); the abduction of adult women is a prominent part of much warfare by these lowland South American tribes (Ferguson 1988). Brutalization and isolation of women seem to be functions of agricultural societies (Gregor 1988), and the female continues to perform most or even all of the work in such groups (Morgan 1985). Head-hunting is practiced by the above-mentioned groups, as part of endemic warfare over coveted agricultural land (Lathrap 1970); head-hunting and near-constant warring is also witnessed among the farming tribes of Highlands New Guinea (Watson 1970). Lenski and Lenski's 1974 researches concluded that warfare is rare among foragers but becomes extremely common with agrarian societies. As Wilson (1988) put it succinctly, Revenge, feuds, rioting, warfare and school problems, battle seem to emerge among, and to be typical of, domesticated peoples. Tribal conflicts, Godelier (1977) argues, are explainable primarily by reference to colonial domination and should not be seen as having an essay, origin in the functioning of pre-colonial structures. Certainly contact with civilization can have an 5 paragraph darwin, unsettling, degenerative effect, but Godelier's marxism (viz. unwillingness to question domestication/production), is, one suspects, relevant to such a judgment. 10 Steps Writing? Thus it could be said that the Copper Eskimos, who have a significant incidence of essay homicide within their group (Damas 1972), owe this violence to the impact of outside influences, but their reliance on domesticated dogs should also be noted. Arens (1979) has asserted, paralleling Godelier to some extent, that cannibalism as a cultural phenomenon is 10 steps writing essay a fiction, invented and promoted by edexcel a level, agencies of writing essay outside conquest. But there is documentation of this practice (e.g.
Poole 1983, Tuzin 1976) among, once again, peoples involved in domestication. The studies by Hogg (1966), for example, reveal its presence among certain African tribes, steeped in ritual and grounded in agriculture. Cannibalism is generally a form of problems essay cultural control of 10 steps essay chaos, in which the victim represents animality, or all that should be tamed (Sanday 1986). Significantly, one of the important myths of godfather death Fiji Islanders, How the Fijians first became cannibals, is literally a tale of planting (Sahlins 1983). Similarly, the highly domesticated and writing, time-conscious Aztecs practiced human sacrifice as a gesture to tame unruly forces and essay charles darwin, uphold the social equilibrium of a very alienated society.
As Norbeck (1961) pointed out, non-domesticated, culturally impoverished societies are devoid of cannibalism and human sacrifice. As for 10 steps writing essay, one of the basic underpinnings of 5 paragraph darwin violence in more complex societies, Barnes (1970) found that reports in the ethnographic literature of territorial struggles between gatherer-hunters are extremely rare. !Kung boundaries are vague and undefended (Lee 1979); Pandaram territories overlap, and individuals go where they please (Morris 1982); Hazda move freely from region to 10 steps writing region (Woodburn 1968); boundaries and essay charles darwin, trespass have little or no meaning to the Mbuti (Turnbull 1966); and Australian Aborigines reject territorial or social demarcations (Gumpert 1981, Hamilton 1982). An ethic of generosity and hospitality takes the place of 10 steps writing exclusivity (Steward 1968, Hiatt 1968). Gatherer-hunter peoples have developed no conception of private property, in edexcel coursework the estimation of Kitwood (1984). As noted above in reference to sharing, and with Sansom's (1980) characterization of Aborigines as people without property, foragers do not share civilization's obsession with externals.
Mine and thine, the seeds of all mischief, have no place with them, wrote Pietro (1511) of the native North Americans encountered on the second voyage of Columbus. The Bushmen have no sense of possession, according to Post (1958), and Lee (1972) saw them making no sharp dichotomy between the writing, resources of the natural environment and the social wealth. There is a line between nature and culture, again, and the non-civilized choose the former. There are many gatherer-hunters who could carry all that they make use of in one hand, who die with pretty much what they had as they came into the world. Once humans shared everything; with agriculture, ownership becomes paramount and a species presumes to own the world. School Essay? A deformation the imagination could scarcely equal. Sahlins (1972) spoke of this eloquently: The world's most primitive people have few possessions, but they are not poor. Poverty is not a certain small amount of goods, nor is writing it just a relation between means and ends; above all, it is a relation between people.
Poverty is a social status. As such it is the invention of civilization. The common tendency of vs evolution gatherer-hunters to reject farming until it was absolutely thrust upon them (Bodley 1976) bespeaks a nature/culture divide also present in the Mbuti recognition that if one of them becomes a villager he is no longer an Mbuti (Turnbull 1976). They know that forager band and essay, agriculturalist village are opposed societies with opposed values. At times, however, the crucial factor of domestication can be lost sight of. The historic foraging populations of the essay, Western Coast of writing essay North America have long been considered anomalous among foragers, declared Cohen (1981); as Kelly (1991) also put it, tribes of the Northwest Coast break all the stereotypes of hunter- gatherers. These foragers, whose main sustenance is fishing, have exhibited such alienated features as chiefs, hierarchy, warfare and slavery. But almost always overlooked are their domesticated tobacco and essay, domesticated dogs. Even this celebrated `anomaly' contains features of domestication. Its practice, from ritual to production, with various accompanying forms of domination, seems to anchor and promote the 10 steps essay, facets of decline from an earlier state of grace. Thomas (1981) provides another North American example, that of the Great Basin Shoshones and three of their component societies, the Kawich Mountain Shoshones, Reese River Shoshones, and Owens Valley Paiutes.
The three groups showed distinctly different levels of agriculture, with increasing territoriality or ownership and hierarchy closely corresponding to higher degrees of domestication. To `define' a disalienated world would be impossible and even undesirable, but I think we can and should try to reveal the essay godfather death, unworld of today and 10 steps essay, how it got this way. Master Essay? We have taken a monstrously wrong turn with symbolic culture and division of labor, from a place of enchantment, understanding and wholeness to the absence we find at the heart of the doctrine of progress. Empty and essay, emptying, the religion, logic of domestication with its demand to control everything now shows us the ruin of the civilization that ruins the rest. Assuming the inferiority of nature enables the domination of cultural systems that soon will make the very earth uninhabitable. Postmodernism says to us that a society without power relations can only be an abstraction (Foucault, 1982). This is a lie unless we accept the death of nature and renounce what once was and what we can find again.
Turnbull spoke of the intimacy between Mbuti people and the forest, dancing almost as if making love to 10 steps the forest. In the of essay, bosom of a life of equals that is no abstraction, that struggles to endure, they were dancing with the forest, dancing with the moon.
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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to command the salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for writing the best and essay the brightest to take on leadership roles within their organizations. Writing Essay. A lot of people assume that companies recruit MBAs for their intelligence combined with two years of edexcel coursework, practical training.
While that’s partly true, the reality is that MBAs aren’t the ‘smartest’ people out 10 steps writing, there in essay death absolute (there are a myriad of grad and 10 steps writing PhD students out there that far surpass the average MBA in raw intelligence). Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of a level, business textbooks online and acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in the MBA classroom. Writing Essay. I said that employers are looking for the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of edexcel physics a level coursework, best and 10 steps writing brightest. The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to the individual herself. In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an vs evolution essay MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the writing essay soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA.
Kellogg (like every other school) cares about personality, communication style, and the likability of applicants. I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for this during their interview process. But if you think about it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of edexcel, what percentage of the writing essay candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door. By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the incoming class from the pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only school problems essay, 30% will. Essay. Kellogg wants to interview a cohort of applicants in which 100% present well.
That’s why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay. Chicago Booth and MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for the best orators – students will have time to hone their communication and presentation skills in Kellogg’s courses and clubs. 5 Paragraph Charles. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to see what you, the 10 steps writing unpolished candidate, look like in a spontaneous situation. As such, the your main job is to be yourself – to relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to 5 paragraph essay a friend. The flip side of that is that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. 10 Steps Essay. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and then memorized answers to every question the Adcom could possibly put to death him during an interview. He sent me a video of himself ‘interviewing’ and I was shocked by writing essay, how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the natural pauses in edexcel physics his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question.
He spoke rapidly and 10 steps writing essay incessantly in a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to punctuate what he was saying. Different Types. That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. No amount of coaching from me was able to ‘undo’ the damage and it resulted in some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools. He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about their video essay:
The Video Essays provide applicants with an additional opportunity to demonstrate what they will bring to 10 steps essay our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way. Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. The questions are designed to bring to life the person we have learned about on paper. After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to different complete two Video Essay Questions. One will be about the candidate’s interest in Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to know you” type of question. Here’s what you need to know about Kellogg’s video essay: After you submit your application to 10 steps writing Kellogg, the video essay will become available to vs evolution you in writing essay your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the application deadline to different of essay topics complete the video essay. If you submit in Round 1 you need to writing complete the essay by October 2nd, if you submit in Round 2 you need to submit by January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in Kellogg while the other will be more axed around you. Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the different of essay topics video interface.
When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to 10 steps writing think about the question and then one minute to respond to it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to school share the first question with applicants ahead of 10 steps writing, time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for you? This is the typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the school problems essay time to prepare the question prior to 10 steps their video interview. 5 Paragraph Essay Charles. Here is how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals.
Give an writing example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about of essay, Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you?
This is where you really want to bring the 10 steps essay charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you. Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an opinion-based question. 5 Paragraph Essay Darwin. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and 10 steps writing essay 30 questions from previous years. III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback. The problem with video (and watching yourself on 5 paragraph video) is that it is essay almost always a traumatic process.
People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the essay charles process to undermine your self-confidence. Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to just naturally be yourself. The goal of practicing should be to improve your ability to think and 10 steps writing speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry. Please install Adobe Flash plugin. School. Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of them at first glance.
There are 2 questions in every section. Take some time to actually practice looking at 10 steps essay, a question for the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to prepare an answer, and then another 60 seconds to different types answer. Then go back and writing watch the video of yourself. What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and types of essay why is this program right for you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an essay example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in master essay with your short-term goal.
Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the 10 steps writing answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at edexcel physics a level coursework, business school to 10 steps work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you?
This is where you really want to bring the physics charm and your excitement at 10 steps essay, the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. 2. Tell us about how you overcame an religion obstacle. 4. If you could keep one of your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the others, which would you choose? 6. What kind of a team player are you? 8. When you leave your job for b-school, what will your teammates miss most about you? 10. Tell us about someone you admire, and why. 2. Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and writing essay how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about a time when your idea was challenged.
6. Tell us about a time when you were on a team and there was disagreement among team members. What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by different topics, a work situation. 10. Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem. 2. If you were going to donate $1M to 10 steps writing the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for business due to globalization. 6. Discuss your thoughts about the following statement: “Business leaders are the world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection.
You can use a couple of floor lights and essay godfather death perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. You’ll need two key lights and one fill light. The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from your nose. 10 Steps Writing. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in your face from both the left and physics a level coursework the right). The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of your head.
The fill light helps to writing essay differentiate the essay top of your head and writing essay shoulders from the background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on film. I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at vs evolution, BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is more for shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam). Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to writing essay stay away from different of essay, windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and other lighting problems. Writing. Notice how the right side of this person’s face is lit up and vs evolution the left side is in 10 steps writing essay shadow? That’s because of the window behind him.
If you decide to film at home or in master essay the office, look for a small space without a lot going on in the background. 10 Steps Essay. The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the school essay entire office. Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in view. I recently saw this video which was created by a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the video. The living room is too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of pictures and writing stenciling on the wall. The shot is from too far away – ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible. Finally the candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and had to undo a few buttons :/ I’d highly suggest buying a roll of edexcel physics, Savage Seamless Background Paper for $10 here . Writing Essay. You’re going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and no less). Personally I use Thunder Gray for my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Keep in mind that red, yellow and orange might cause you to look sort of physics, red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to play it safe go for any shade of gray, blue, purple or beige.
Below you’ll find examples of some of the writing colors Savage offers. School Essay. If you want to achieve the effect on 10 steps the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the shadow your head casts on doing the paper. So you’ll have to 10 steps writing essay add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to your ring light set-up. The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at the subject and creates a much flatter background effect. Either is fine. In general you want to avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene.
If you’re using a color background then you want to wear neutral colors (gray, beige). If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. The idea is to have one focal color in different the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and women are going to want to choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the 10 steps writing essay way up to your neck or collar bone. The video essay is death supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to essay look like Donald Trump in your video – you want to master look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on everyone). While a t-shirt might seem too casual to wear to writing an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop.
I’d ditch the suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of edexcel coursework, it in writing the shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on my own trials and errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to give viewers the impression that something is missing (i.e. you’ll look strangely naked) when the 5 paragraph essay shot is only of your head and shoulders. Thin and flimsy materials don’t look great on essay camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of it in a head and shoulders shot and it’s just going to different of essay add yet another color to the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck. You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt.
While that might seem too casual to wear to writing essay an interview, on camera it will look clean and essay godfather the solid material will make you pop. 10 Steps. Cashmere is death another material that always looks good on video because it’s a thick and has a matte finish. A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt.
She truly helped me in 10 steps writing essay ways I could not imagine, and I am so excited to of essay be going to 10 steps business school this fall. Leah's creativity is unmatched which is exemplified with the a level coursework stupendous work she did on my Chicago Booth Essays. Her work ethic and willingness to spend as much as time it takes to get the right answer is incredible. I finally had multiple offers from essay, top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at HBS.